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Thûtsc

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Information Edit

Thûtsc (IPA: [ðuːtʃ]) is a constructed language that could be used as an auxiliary language. Its main goal is to show how Limburgish would have looked like if Limburg had been an independ country. Largely based on Old (South) East Lower Franconian, though there are many loanwords from Modern Limburgish that are not found in older texts and Old English.

Alphabet Edit

It has less letters than modern Limburgish, but more than old.

A Â AE B C D E Ê ÊA EI ÊI ÊO F G H I Î L M N O Ô ÔE ÔU P QU R S T TH U Û ÛA W Y Z

Other letters like AA ÂA AEA EA EIA ÊIA ÊOA IA ÎA OA ÔA ÔEA ÔUA UA YA can also occur, due to inflections.

Phonology Edit

Sound and letter often agree. There are several diphtongs like [oːu̯] (ôu), [eːo̯] (êo) and [uːa̯] (ûa). There are long closed front vowels, [i] (î), and both long and short closed back vowelsân ga aftarcanta, [u] and [uː] (u and û) There also is a central front vowel, [ɪ] (i). The mid vowels are [e] (e), [eː] (ê), [ə] (a ~ e), [o] (o) and [oː] (ô). There are also open vowels like [æː] (ae), [ɐ] (a ~ e), [ɑ] (a) and [a] (â). A very rare vowel is [ʊ] (mostly written as u)

For consonants see this table.

Place of articulation → Bilabial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular
Manner of articulation ↓
Nasal m - n ɲ ŋ - -
Plosive p b - t d - k g - ʔ
Fricative - f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç x ʁ h
Approximant - - - j w
Trill - - r - - - -
Lateral Approximant - - l - - - -

[v] is an allophone of [f], [z] of [s], [ʒ] of [ʃ], [ç] and [x] of [h], [ɲ] and [ŋ] of [n], [ð] of [θ] and [ʁ] of [r]. Sometimes even [j] is an allophone of [g]. [ʔ] occurs when two words are placed together, like tha âfant or falla ongar nâma ût.

/h/ is pronounced as [h] or [ç] and [x]. /sc/ as [sk] or [ʃ].

Grammar Edit

Nouns Edit

Nouns can have three genders, namely masculine, feminine and neuter. There are two grammatical numbers, singular and plural, though sometimes dual occurs too. There are six cases, grouped in two. Group one is the "daily" group, nominative, genitive, and accusative. Group two is the "occasional" group, dative, locative and vocative. Cases are marked with case endings and articles are (sometimes) used.

  • gast meaning person or guest is a masculine word.
  • sprâca meaning language is a feminine word.
  • cind meaning child is a neuter word.
Case Masc. Fem. Neuter
Sing. Plural Sing. Plural Sing. Plural
Nominative gast gastar sprâca sprâcar cind cindar
Genitive gastas gastar sprâca(r/n) sprâcar cindas cindar
Dative gastan gastar sprâcan sprâcar cindan cindar
Accusative gasta(n) gastar sprâca(n) sprâcar cinda(n) cindar
Vocative gast! gastar! sprâc! sprâcar! cind! cindar!
Locative gastas gastar sprâcas sprâcar cindas cindar

A diminutive could be made using (-a) ca(-), placed behind the root. Other possible suffixes should be placed behind ca-.

gast -> gasta ca
sprâcan -> sprâca can
cindar -> cinda car

Pronouns Edit

There are different pronouns.

Personal and reflexive Edit

First for the first person (I, me, we, us, myself, ourselves)

Case Sing. Dual Plural
Nominative ih wêt wêr
Genitive mîns wêts ôsas
Dative wêtam ôs
Accusative wêtan ôs
Locative mihhas wêttas ôsas
Reflexive mih(silf) wêth(silf) ôs(silf)

Now for the second person (thou, thee, ye, you, theeself, yourselves)

Case Sing. Dual Plural
Nominative thû û gêr
Genitive thîns ûs gêrs
Dative thê ûm uha
Accusative thî uh uh
Vocative tha a ga
Locative thihhas uhhas uhhas
Reflexive thih(silf) û(silf) uh(silf)

Last for the third person, masculine (he, they, him, them, himself, theirselves), feminine (she, they, her, them, herself, theirselves) and neuter (it, they, it, them, itself, theirselves).

Case Sing. m Sing. f Sing. n Dual Plural
Nominative hê, î it thê thî
Genitive hins hirs gits thêns thîns
Dative him hir gim thêm thîm
Accusative hin hir gin thên thîn
Locative hîmas sîmas gittas thênas thînas
Reflexive sih(silf) hir(silf) sih(silf) thêm(silf) thîm(silf)

Interrogative Edit

Case Who (s) Who (p) Which What (s) What (p)
Nominative wêar wilc* wet wât
Genitive wês wêars wilcas wets wâts
Dative wêm wêam wilcam wet wât
Accusative wên wêarn wilcan wet wât
Locative wênas wêarnas wilcas wets wâts

* = Inflected like an adjective.

  • wen = when
  • wêtha = why
  • wî = how
  • wîfil = how much
  • wîspât = what time

Demonstrative Edit

Case This These That Those
Masc. Fem. Neu. Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nominative thêsa thês thit thêsar thê thî thet thî
Genitive thêsas thêsar thêsas thêsar thettas thettar thettas thettar
Dative thêsam thêsar thêsam thêsar thettam thettar thettam thettar
Accusative thêsan thês thit thêsar thên thî thet thî
Locative thêsas thêsas thêsas thêsas thettas thettas thettas thettas

Possessive Edit

Singular
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Case Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu. Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu. Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu.
Nominative mîna mîn mîn mînar thîna thîn thîn thînar sîna sîn sîn sînar
Genitive mînas mînar mînas mînar thînas thînar thînas thînar sînas sînar sînas sînar
Dative mînam mînar mînam mînar thînam thînar thînam thînar sînam sînar sînam sînar
Accusative mînan mîn mîn mînar thînan thîn thîn thînar sînan sîn sîn sînar
Vocative mîn mîne thîn thî thî thîne sîn sîne
Locative mînas mînas mînas mînas thînas thînas thînas thînas sînas sînas sînas sînas
Dual
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Case Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu. Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu. Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu.
Nominative wîna wîn wîn wînar û û wâr hîna hîn hîn hînar
Genitive wînas wînar wînas wînar wâs wâr wâs wâr hînas hînar hînas hînar
Dative wînam wînar wînam wînar wâm wâr wâm wâr hînam hînar hînam hînar
Accusative wînan wîn wîn wînar wân û û wâr hînan hîn hîn hînar
Vocative wîn wîne û i i we hîn hîne
Locative wînas wînas wînas wînas wâs wâs wâs wâs hînas hînas hînas hînas
Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd
Case Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu. Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu. Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu.
Nominative ôsa ôs ôs ôsar ûha ûh ûh ûhar hîna hîn hîn hînar
Genitive ôsas ôsar ôsas ôsar ûhas ûhar ûhas ûhar hînas hînar hînas hînar
Dative ôsam ôsar ôsam ôsar ûham ûhar ûham ûhar hînam hînar hînam hînar
Accusative ôsan ôs ôs ôsar ûhan ûh ûh ûhar hînan hîn hîn hînar
Vocative ôs ô ô ôse ûh û û ûhe hîn hîne
Locative ôsas ôsas ôsas ôsas ûhas ûhas ûhas ûhas hînas hînas hînas hînas

Adjectives Edit

  1. gôd means good
Case Masc Fem Neu Plural Indef
Nominative gôda gôd gôd gôdar gôd
Genitive gôdas gôdar gôdas gôdar gôdas
Dative gôdam gôdar gôdam gôdar gôdam
Accusative gôdan gôd gôd gôdar gôd
Locative gôdas gôdas gôdas gôdas gôdas

Comparison is made using -ar and -ast

  1. âld - âldar - âldast (old, elder, eldest)
  2. hôh - hôhar - hôhast (high, higher, highest)
  3. beingibrôcan - beingibrôcanar - beingibrôcanast (with a broken leg - with an even more broken leg - with the most broken leg)

Some adejctives are irregular.

  1. gôd - better - betst (good, better, best)
  2. fôl/fîl/mêda - mêdar - mêdast (much/many - more - most)

Articles Edit

There's no plural for 'ein'. git etc is used when preceded by a preposition.

Case The A
Masc. Fem. Neu. Plu. Masc. Fem. Neu.
Nominative tha tha it thar eina ein ein
Genitive thas thar thas thar einas einar einas
Dative tham thar it, git, tham thar einam einar einam
Accusative than tha it, git thar einam ein ein
Locative thas thas thas thas einas einas einas

Verbs Edit

There are two types of verbs.

Côrtclanca Edit

Côrtclancawircwordar (short vowel verbs) have, as the name states, a short vowel (a, ae, e, ei, i, o, u, y)

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih wirca wircada wirce wircede wirca
thû wircast wircadast wircest wircedest wirca
î, hê, it, sê wircat wircada wircet wircede wirca
Dual wêt wircat wircada wircet wircede wirca
û wircat wircada wircet wircede wirca
thê wircat wircada wircet wircede wirca
Plural wêr wircan wircadan wircen wirceden wirca
gêr wircat wircada wircet wircede wirca
thî wircant wircadant wircent wircedent wirca
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) wircan wircah! wircat! wircan! wircanda giwirct wircan

Lancclanca Edit

Lancclancawircwordar (long vowel verbs) have, as the name states, a long vowel (â, ê, êi, êo, î, ô, ôu, û, ûa)

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih brûca brûcada brûce brûcede bruca
thû brûcast brûcadast brûcest brûcedest bruca
î, hê, it, sê brûcat brûcada brûcet brûcede bruca
Dual wêt brûcat brûcada brûcet brûcede bruca
û brûcat brûcada brûcet brûcede bruca
thê brûcat brûcada brûcet brûcede bruca
Singular wêr brûcan brûcadan brûcen brûceden bruca
gêr brûcat brûcada brûcet brûcede bruca
thî brûcant brûcadant brûcent brûcedent bruca
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) brûcan brûcah! brûcat! brûcan! brûcanda gibruct brucan, brûcan

Strong verbs Edit

There are several strong verbs. The most important ones are noted here:

class one

  • biswîcan - biswêc - biswêcan (to collapse)
  • bîtan - bêt - gibêtan (to bite)
  • blîcan - blêc - giblêcan (to seem)
  • blîfan - blêf - giblêfan (to stay)
  • cnîpan - cnêp - gicnêpan (to pinch)
  • drîfan - drêf - gidrêfan (to float)
  • frîgan - frêg - gifrêgan (to make love to)
  • glîdan - glêd - giglêdan (to glide)
  • grîpan - grêp - gigrêpan (to grasp)
  • lîdan - lêd - gilêdan (to suffer)
  • lîcan - lêc - gilêcan (to resemble)
  • rîdan - rêd - girêdan (to drive, to ride)
  • rîsan - rês - girêsan (to raise)
  • scînan - scên - giscênan (to shine)
  • scîtan - scêt - gescêtan (to shit)
  • scrîfan - scrêf - giscrêfan (to write)
  • slîpan - slêp - gislêpan (to sharpen)
  • slîtan - slêt - gislêtan (to tear, to wear down)
  • smîtan - smêt - gismêtan (to throw)
  • snîdan - snêd - gisnêdan (to cut)
  • splîtan - splêt - gisplêtan (to split)
  • strîdan - strêd - gistrêdan (to fight)
  • swîgan - swêg - giswêgan (to be silent)
  • wîcan - wêc - giwêcan (to yield, to recede, to disappear)
  • wîtan - wêt - giwêtan (to blame)
  • wîsan - wês - giwêsan (to point)

class two

  • bêdan - bâd - gibôdan (to offer)
  • bêran - bâr - gibôran (to bear, to carry)
  • bifêlan - befâl - bifôlan (to order)
  • brêcan - brâc - gibrôcan (to break)
  • bûgan - bâg - gibôgan (to bend)
  • bwêgan - bwâg - bwôgan (to move)
  • cêsan - câs - gicôsan (to chose)
  • drûpan - drâp - gidrôpan (to drip)
  • dûcan - dâc - gidôcan (to dive)
  • firlêran - firlâr - firlôran (to lose)
  • flêgan - flâg - giflôgan (to fly)
  • frêran - frâr - gifrôran (to freeze)
  • gêtan - gât - gigôtan (to pour)
  • ginêtan - ginât - ginôtan (to enjoy)
  • lêgan - lâg - gilôgan (to lie)
  • scêtan - scât - giscôtan (to shoot)
  • sêdan - sâd - gisôdan (to sow)
  • slûtan - slât - gislôtan (to close)
  • sprêcan - sprâc- gisprôcan (to speak)
  • stêcan - stâc - gistôcan (to prick, to sting)
  • stêlan - stâl - gistôlan (to steal)
  • sûpan - sâp - gisôpan (to swig)
  • sûgan - sâg - gisôgan (to suck)
  • swêran - swâr - giswôran (to swear)
  • tûnan - tân - gitônan (to show)
  • wêgan - wâg - giwôgan (to weigh)
  • weggan - wâg - giwôgan (to blow, to flutter, to fan)

class three

  • biginnan - bigan - bigôs (to begin)
  • bindan - band - gibôndan (to bind)
  • cinnan
    • côn: côs - gicôs (to know)
    • can: can - gicôs (to be able to)
  • clincan - clanc - giclôncan (to sound)
  • climman - clam - giclômman (to climb)
  • crimpan - cramp - gicrômpan (to shrink)
  • dirfan - darf - gidôrs (to dare)
  • drincan - dranc - gidrôncan (to drink)
  • dwingan - dwang - gidwôngan (to force)
  • hilpan - halp - gihôlpan (to help)
  • milcan - malc - gimôlcan (to milk)
  • môgan - mah - gimôgan (to may)
  • môtan - mat - gimôs (to have to)
  • nimman - nam - ginômman (to take)
  • sincan - sanc - gisôncan (to sink)
  • sindan - sand - gisôndan (to send)
  • singan - sang - gisôngan (to sing)
  • smiltan - smalt - gismôltan (to melt)
  • spinnan - span - gispônnan (to spin)
  • springan - sprang - gisprôngan (to jump)
  • stincan - stanc - gistôncan (to smell bad)
  • stirfan - starf - gistôrfan (to die)
  • swillan - swal - giswôllan (to swell)
  • swimman - swam - giswômman (to swim)
  • tincan - tanc - gitôncan (to appear)
  • fihtan - faht - gifôhtan (to fight)
  • findan - fand - gifôndan (to find)
  • flihtan - flaht - giflôhtan (to fleed)
  • willan - wal - giwôllan (to want)
  • windan - wand - giwôndan (to wind)
  • winnan - wan - giwônnan (to win)
  • wirpan - warp - giwôrpan (to throw)

class four

  • êtan - ât - ginêtan (to eat)
  • bêdan - bâd - gibêdan (to pray)
  • firgêtan - firgât - firgêtan (to forget)
  • firêtan - firât - firêtan (to fret, to grub)
  • gêfan - gâf - gigêfan (to give, to donate)
  • ginêsan - ginâs - ginêsan (to heal)
  • lêsan - lâs - gilêsan (to read)
  • mêtan - mât - gimêtan (to measure)

class five

  • bikôman - bikôm/biquam - bikôman (to get, to receive)
  • drâgan - drôg - gidrâgan (to carry)
  • fâran - fôr - gifâran (to sail, to fare)
  • frâgan - frôg - gifrâgan (to ask)
  • gâgan - gôg - gigâgan (to hunt)
  • grâfan - grôf - gigrâfan (to dig)
  • kôman - kôm/quam - gikôman (to come)
  • lâdan - lôd - gilâdan (to load)
  • râdan - rôd - girâdan (to guess)

class six

  • baccan - bêc - gibaccan (to bake)
  • blâsan - blês - giblâsan (to blow)
  • briwwan - brêw - gibriwwan (to brew)
  • dôn - dêd - gidôn (to do)
  • fallan - fêl - gifallan (to fall)
  • fangan - fêng - gifangan (to catch)
  • hâldan - hêld - gihâldan (to make it, to keep)
  • hangan - hêng - gihangan (to hang)
  • heitan - hêt - giheitan (to be named)
  • lâtan - lêt - gilâtan (to let)
  • lôupan - lêp - gilôupan (to walk)
  • mâlan - mêl - gimâlan (to grind)
  • rôpan - rêp - girôpan (to scream, to yell)
  • slâpan - slêp - gislâpan (to sleep)
  • spîdan - spêd - gispîdan (to vomit)
  • stôtan - stêt - gistôtan (to push)
  • wascan - wêsc - giwascan (to wash)

class seven

  • bringan - braht - gibrôht (to bring)
  • côupan - caht - gicôht (to buy)
  • plêgan - plaht - giplôht (to commit)
  • sûcan - saht - gisôht (to search)
  • thincan - thaht - githôht (to think)
  • triccan - traht - gitrôht (to pull)

irregular

  • gân - gông - gigangan (to go)
  • hâban - hat - gihâban (to have)
  • liggan - lâg - gilêngan (to lay, to put)
  • rûcan - rôc - girôucan (to smell)
  • scillan - scôw - giscillat (shall, will)
  • sên - wôr - giwêst (to be)
  • siggan - sâg - gisêgan (to say)
  • sittan - sât - gisêtan (to sit, to set, to put)
  • slân - slôh - gislâgan (to hit, to beat)
  • stân - stông - gistân (to stand)
  • weitan - wis - giweitan (to know)

Irregular Edit

There are several irregular verbs, sên (to be), hâban (to have), gân - stân - slân (to go, hit, stand), liggan - siggan - sittan (to lay, put, set, place, sit, say) cinnan (to be able to, to know) dôn (to do) and gêfan (to give)

sên = to be

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih bin wôr wâr sênada aer
thû bist wôrst wâst sênadast aerst
î, hê, it, sê is wôr wâs sênada aer
Dual wêt ôm wôrt wârt sênada aert
û ôm wôrt wârt sênada aert
thê ôm wôrt wârt sênada aert
Plural wêr sên wôran wâran wêsan bênan
gêr sênt, sêt wôrt wârt wêst bênt
thî sênt wôran wâran wêsan bênan
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) sên bêh! bîth! bînan! sênda giwêst sên

hâban = to have, to possess

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih hâba hat hêba het hâba
thû hast hatst hest hetst hâba
î, hê, it, sê hât hat hêt het hâba
Dual wêt hâbat hat hêbat het hâba
û hâbat hat hêbat het hâba
thê hâbat hat hêbat het hâba
Plural wêr hâban haddan hêban heddan hâba
gêr hâbat hat hêbat het hâba
thî hâban haddan hêban heddan hâba
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) hâban hâbah! hâbat! hâban! hâbanda gihâban, gihat hâban

gân = to go, to leave

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih gônga gae gunga gâna
thû gist gôngast geist gungast gâna
î, hê, it, sê git gônga geit gunga gâna
Dual wêt gânat gônga gaet gunga gâna
û gânat gônga gaet gunga gâna
thê gânat gônga gaet gunga gâna
Plural wêr gân gôngan êdan êdadan gânan
gêr gât gônga êdat êdada gân
thî gittant gôngant êdan êdadan gânan
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) gân geih! gât! gân! gânda gigangan gân
  • for stân (to stand) replace 'g' by 'st'. The past is stông (1st and 3nd singular, dual and 2nd plural) stôngast (2nd singular) and stôngan (1st and 2nd plural) Past particle is gistân.
  • for slân (to hit, to beat) replace 'g' by 'sl'. The past is slôh (1st and 3nd singular, dual and 2nd plural) slôhst (2nd singular) and slôgan (1st and 2nd plural) Past particle is gislâgan.

liggan = to lay, to lay down, to set, to put, to place

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih ligga lâg ligge lâgda ligga
thû liggast lâgst liggest lâgdast ligga
î, hê, it, sê liggat lâg ligget lâgdat ligga
Dual wêt liggat lâg ligget lâgdat ligga
û liggat lâg ligget lâgdat ligga
thê liggat lâg ligget lâgdat ligga
Plural wêr liggan lâgan liggen lâgdan ligga
gêr liggat lâg ligget lâgdat ligga
thî liggan lâgan liggen lâgdan ligga
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) liggan liggah! liggat! liggan! ligganda gilêngan liggan
  • For sittan (to sit, to set, to put, to place) replace 'l' and 'g' by 's' and 't'. Past particle is gisêtan.
  • For siggan (to say, to talk) replace 'l' by 's'. Past particle is gisêgan.

cinnan = to be able to

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih can can cen cenne cinna
thû canst canst censt cennest cinna
î, hê, it, sê can can cen cenne cinna
Dual wêt can can cen cenne cinna
û can can cen cenne cinna
thê can can cen cenne cinna
Plural wêr cinnan cannan cinnen cennen cinna
gêr can can cen cenne cinna
thî cinnan cannan cinnen cennen cinna
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) cinnan cin! cint! cint! cinnanda gicôs cinnan

cinnan = to know

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih cin côs cinne côsse cinna
thû cinst côst cinnest côssest cinna
î, hê, it, sê cint côs cinnet côsse cinna
Dual wêt cint côs cinnet côsse cinna
û cint côs cinnet côsse cinna
thê cint côs cinnet côsse cinna
Plural wêr cinnan côssan cinnen côssen cinna
gêr cint côs cinnet côsse cinna
thî cinnan côssan cinnen côssen cinna
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) cinnan cin! cint! cint! cinnanda gicôs cinnan

dôn = to do, to make, to create

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih dân dêd dên dêde
thû dist dêdst daest dêdest
î, hê, it, sê dit dêd daet dêde
Dual wêt dit dêd daet dêde
û dit dêd daet dêde
thê dit dêd daet dêde
Plural wêr dôn dêdan dên dêden
gêr dit dêd daet dêde
thî dôn dêdan dên dêden
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) dôn deih! dôt! dôn! dônda gidôn dôn

gêfan = to give, to donate

Number Person Present Past Future Conditional Subjunctive
Singular ih gêfa gâf gaefa gaefada gêfa
thû gifst gâfst gaefast gaefadast gêfa
î, hê, it, sê gift gâf gaefat gaefadat gêfa
Dual wêt gêfat gâfat gaefat gaefadat gêfa
û gêfat gâfat gaefat gaefadat gêfa
thê gêfat gâfat gaefat gaefadat gêfa
Singular wêr gêfan gâfan gaefan gaefadan gêfan
gêr gêfat gâfat gaefat gaefadat gêfa
thî gêfant gâfant gaefan gaefadan gêfan
Infinitive Imperative Particle Subjective
Singular Dual Plural Present Past
(to) gêfan gêfah! gêfat! gêfan! gêfanda gigêfan gêfan

Numbers Edit

Number Cardinal Ordinal Comments
1 ein êirst Inflected like an adjective.
2 twê twêda -
3 drê drêda -
4 fêr fêrda -
5 fîf fîfda -
6 sics sicsda -
7 sinnif sinnifda -
8 aht ahtsda Suffix -sda
9 nûgan nûganda -
10 tên tênda -
11 illaf illafda -
12 twillaf twillafda -
13 drêtên drêtênda -
14 fêrtên fêrtênda -
20 twintih twintihsda Suffix -sda
21 ein-ant-twintih ein-and-twintihsda Suffix -sda
30 drêtih drêtihsda Suffix -sda
40 fêrtih fêrtihsda Suffix -sda
50 fîftih fîftihsda Suffix -sda
60 sicstih sicstihsda Suffix -sda
70 sinniftih sinniftihsda Suffix -sda
80 ahtih ahtihsda Suffix -sda
90 nûgantih nûgantihsda Suffix -sda
100 hôngarath hôngaratha Suffix -a
134 hôngarath-fêr-ant-drêtih hôngarath-fêr-ant-drêtihsda Suffix -sda
1000 thûsanth thûsantha Suffix -a
  1. 1,431,542,456 is thûsanth fêr-hôngarath-ein-ant-drêtih-thûsanth fîf-hôngarath-twê-ant-fêrtih-thûsanth fêr-hôngarath-fîf-ant-sicstih. After each group of three a space should be placed.

Conjunctions Edit

  • âc (but)
  • ant/anda (and)
  • bihalf (unless)
  • bithet (because)
  • es (whether, like)
  • if (if)
  • mer (but)
  • ôf (whether)
  • ôthar (or)
  • sins (since, because)
  • sô (so)
  • thet (that)
  • thôh (though)
  • wet (what)
  • wî (how)
  • wilc (which)
  • withar (whether)
  • wô (where)

Syntax Edit

The syntax of a main clause is as following:

  • (SUBJECT) VERBS DATIVE OBJECT TIME PLACE
    • (Thû) hast gigêfan hir hundan i mêrt in Amsterdam.
      • When it was March, you've given her a dog in Amsterdam.

The syntax of a subordinate clause is as following:

  • CONJUNCTION (SUBJECT) DATIVE OBJECT TIME PLACE VERBS
    • (Sî) lêfat thî, bithet (thû) hir hundan i mêrt in Amsterdam hast gigêfan.
      • She likes you, because when it was March, you've given her a dog in Amsterdam.

Another possibility for both a main and a subordinate clause is:

  • (SUBJECT) OBJECT VERBS CONJUNCTION (SUBJECT) DATIVE OBJECT VERBS TIME PLACE
    • (Sî) thî lêfat, bithet (thû) hir hundan hast gigêfan i mêrt in Amsterdam.
      • She likes you, because when it was March, you've given her a dog in Amsterdam.

Example Edit

Pater Noster

Ôza Fâthar, thê in Hêmala aer,
thîn nâma scillat sên giheiliht.
Thîn rîca scillat côman.
Thû scillast giscêdan up êrth,
sôwî in ga Hêmala.
Gêfah ôsam heidan ant wig
ant firgêfah ôsas ôsa sculth,
sôwî ôuh wêr ân angaras hîna sculth firgêfan
Leithah ôs nêt i bicôringa,
âc firlôsah ôs quâthas.

Firlôsah ôs Hêr,
allas quâthas.
Gêfah fritha in ôsar dâgar.
Thet wêr, gistûnt thurh Thîn wirmhertihhêda,
thar sunda frî môgan sên
ant bigôdt gêgan allar ônrista:
hôpful wahtanda up Cômst Jêsusas, Firlôssar, Thîna Sôn.
Went Thîns aer Kunincrîca
ant crafta
ant hêrlichêda,
in êwichêda.

Sô it wâs.

Genesis I

1. Gôd sceppada hêmalan ant êrthan in git biginnan.
2. Êrtha wôr wust ant leithih nû, ant dôncarnissa wôr up âfgrôndan; ant Geist Gôdas swêfada up wâtarar.
3. Ant Gôd sâg: Dâ wâs lêh! ant dâ wêrada lêh.
4. Ant Gôd sêada lêhtan, aer gôd; ant Gôd mâcada sceidingan tiscan lêhtan ant dôncarnissan.
5. Ant Gôd nam lêhtan dâgan, ant nam dôncarnissan nahtan. Wôr âfand giwêst, ant môrgan giwêst then, êirsta dâg.
6. Ant Gôd sâg: Dâ wâs scalta i middanan wâtarar; ant thet mâca sceidingan tiscan wâtarar ant wâtarar!
7. Ant Gôd mâcada thî scalta, ant mâcada sceidingan tiscan wâtarar, thî undar scaltan sênt, ant tiscan wâtarar, thî up scaltan sênt. Ant sô it wâs.
8. Ant Gôd nam scaltan hêmalan. Wôr âfand giwêst, ant môrgan giwêst then, twêda dâg.
9. Ant Gôd sâg: Thet wâtarar fan undar hêmalan in einan burgan cômant, ant thet drôgan wêrat gisêat! ant sô it wâs.
10. Ant Gôd nam drôgan êrthan, ant burgan watarar sêan; ant Gôd sêada, thet it wôr gôd.
11. Ant Gôd sâg: Thet êrtha ûtscêta grâsan, crûdan sêdanda sînas êrthas, frihtbârar tirrê, bêranda frihtar sînas êrthas, in wilcar sâdar bênan, al sînas êrthas! Ant sô it wâs.
12. Ant êrtha bâr grâsan, crûdan sêdanda sînas êrthas, ant frihtbârar tirrê, in wilcar sâdar bênan, al sînas êrthas. Ant Gôd sêada, thet it wôr gôd.
13. Wôr âfand giwêst, ant môrgan giwêst then, thrêda dâg.
14. Ant Gôd sâg: Thet dâ lêhtar in scaltan hêmalar bênan, up mâcan sceidingan tiscan dâgan ant nahtan, ant thet thî sênt fôre têcanar ant fôre tîdar, ant fôre dâgar ant gârar!
15. Ant thet thî lêhtar in scaltan hêmalar bênan, up gêfan lêhtan up êrthan! Ant sô it wâs.
16. Gôd mâcada thî twê grôtar lêhtar then; grôt lêh up rihtan dâgas, lil lêh up rihtan nahtas; mâcada ôuh stirran.
17. Ant Gôd sât thî in scaltan hêmalar, up gêfan lêhtan up êrthan.
18. fôre rihtan up dâgan, ant in nahtan, ant up mâcan sceidingan tiscan lêhtan ant tiscan dôncarnissan. Ant Gôd sêada, thet it wôr gôd.
19. Wôr âfand giwêst, ant môrgan giwêst then, fêrda dâg.
20. Ant Gôd sâg: Thet wâtarar ôfardôndih swirman lêfandar sêlar fôratbringa; ant fôgalar flêgant ôfir êrthan, in scaltan hêmalar!
21. Ant Gôd sceppada grôtar wâlar, ant allar lêfandar sêlar, wilcar in wâtarar ôfardôndih brahtant fôrat, sînas êrthas; ant allar fôgalar mit wennan sînas êrthas. Ant Gôd sêada, thet it wôr gôd.
22. Ant Gôd sêganada thî, sîgganda: Bîth frihtbâr, ant sclittat, ant firfillat wâtarar in sêar; ant fôgalar up êrthan sclitta!
23. Wôr âfand giwêst, ant môrgan giwêst then, fîfda dâg.
24. Ant Gôd sâg: êrtha lêfandar sêlar fôratbringa, sînas êrthas, fêoh, ant crûpanda, ant wild dêr êrthar, sînas êrthas! Ant sô it wâs.
25. Ant Gôd mâcada wildar dêrar sînas êrthas, ant fêar sînas êrthas, ant allar crûpandar dêrar êrthar sînas êrthas. Ant Gôd sêada, thet it wôr gôd.
26. Ant Gôd sâg: ih mînscar mâca, mînas beildas, after mîn siaht; ant thet thî rihtant fiscar in sêar, ant fôgalar in scêan, ant ôfir fêoh, ant ôfir êrthan ant ôfir allar crûpandar dêrar, thî crûpant ôfir êrthan.
27. Ant Gôd sceppada mînscan sînas beildas; hê him beildas Gôdas sceppa; hê thî mînscan ant wîfan sceppa.
28. Ant Gôd sêganada thîn, ant Gôd sâg up thîn: Bîth frihtbâr ant sclittat, ant firfillat êrthan, ant undarwirpat hir, ant hâbat rihtan up fiscar in sêar, ant ôfir fôgalar in scêan, ant ôfir allar dêrar, thî crûpant ôfir êrthan!
29. Ant Gôd sâg: Sêah, hâba uha allar sêdanda crûd gigêfan, thet hîr anda thâ up êrthan aer, ant allar tirrên, in wilcar sêdanda frihtar sênt; wâs uh es spîsar!
30. Âc ân allar dêrar up êrthan, ant allar fôgalar scêar, ant allar crûpandar dêrar up êrthan, wô in ein lêfanda sêla is, hâba gigêfan allar grôn crûd es spîsar. Ant sô it wâs.
31. Ant Gôd sâg al thet hê hat gimact, ant sêat, it wôr bûn gôd. Wôr âfand giwêst, ant môrgan giwêst then, sicsda dâg.

See also Edit

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