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Thalutian

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Template:Thalutian

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Thalutian
Thalúk, Thalúkstéro
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
Head-initial
(Right-branching)
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



HistoryEdit

Use and originsEdit

Thalutian [tʰəlyːʃən] (Thalúk [tʰɑluːk], Thalúkstéro [tʰɑluːkstɛrɔ]) was a Northern Thalic language that was spoken on the continent of Arka until approximately 250 years after the first Veremese settlers arrived from Éreth. The exact origins of the language are not well documented however archaeological excavations in the North of the Arkanian continent suggest that it developed in that region. It also appears that Thalutian, including various dialects, served as the lingua franca of trade, politics and religion during the pre-Veremese period. 

Exctinction and continuationEdit

Due to severe cultural oppression and prohibition of the use of Thalutian, it became exctinct in a relatively brief time. However, a dialect of the language (Lower Thalutian (Kári Thalúk)) did survive but was used mainly in underground organisations. Once the Veremese Regime had collapsed and the Kingdom of Likari was established, it became an official language and its use soon began to spread around the continent and is now recognised as an official language in 3 countries. 

General InformationEdit

Thalutian follows a Subject-Object-Verb typological system and is highly agglutinative (in terms of both prefixes and affixes). The language has five genders; four of which make use of determiners represented by suffixes and decline according to case, number and gender while the other makes use of free-standing definite and indefinite articles which never declines. 

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Thalutian has 24 consonants which are divided into two groups: 22 pulmonic consonants and 2 co-articulated consonants. 

Pulmonic ConsonantsEdit

Labial

Coronal

Dorsal

Laryngeal

Bilabial

Labio-dental

Dental

Alveolar

Palato-alveolar

Retroflex

Palatal

Velar

Uvular

Glottal

Nasal

m

n

Plosive

b p

t d

k g

ʔ

Fricative

f v

θ

s

ʃ ʒ

ç

x

h

Approximant

j

Trill

r

ʀ

Lat. Approx.

l

ɭ

Co-articulated ConsontantsEdit

Alveolar

Palatal-Alveolar

Affricate

t͡s

(z)

t͡ʃ

(c)

VowelsEdit

Thalutian has 10 monophthongs and 4 diphthongs.

MonophthongsEdit

The Thalutian monophthongs are classified according to vowel backness and roundedness which is used for vowel harmony.

Short Long
Front Back Front Back
Unrounded ä (æ) a (ɑ) a̋ (æ:) á (a:)
Neutral i (i) í (i:)
e (ɛ) é (ɛː)
Rounded ö (œ) o (ɔ) ő (œː) ó (ɔː)
ü (y) u (u) ű (y:) ú (u:)

Notes:

  1. The Thalutian letter á does not represent /ɑː/ but rather /aː/.

DiphthongsEdit

Thalutian has a total of 6 diphthongs which are, like the vowels, divided into two classes of backness.

Front Back
ai (a͡ɪ) äi (æ͡i)
au (a͡ʊ) äy (æ͡y)
oi (ɔ͡i) öi (œ͡i)

Vowel HarmonyEdit

Thalutian follows a pattern of vowel harmony and this is dependent on both the backness and the roundedness of a vowel. All vowels of a word must agree according to vowel harmony except in foreign loanwords or in other compound words. The vowels i, e, and é are considered neutral vowels in Thalutian and therefore may be used with any other vowel. If a word contains only these 3 letters, the vowel used in accordance is é. 

Due to the fact that there are five different vowel classes in Thalutian (front rounded, back rounded, neutral, front unrounded and back unrounded), there are five degrees of vowel harmony that apply to Thalutian words*:

  • If the word is comprised of:
  1. front rounded vowels (ö/y), y is used to create vowel harmony
  2. front unrounded vowels (ä), ä is used to create vowel harmony
  3. back rounded vowels (o/u), u is used to create vowel harmony
  4. back unrounded vowels (a/á), a is used to create vowel harmony
  5. neutral vowels (i/e/é), é is used to create vowel harmony


*Vowels only harmonise according to backness in verb conjugations and therefore make use of only ä and a.

Examples (vowel harmony is marked in bold)

  • Murú- man (undefined, masculine, back rounded) > Murúkutt - the man (definite, masculine, nominative singular)
  • Nain - woman (undefined, feminine, back unrounded) > Tanain - the woman (definite, feminine, nominative singular)
  • Jölit - wedding (undefined, feminine, front rounded) > Tyjölit - the wedding (definite, feminine, nominative)
  • Käräl - snake (undefined, masculine, front unrounded) > Kärälätt - the snake (definite, masculine, nominative)

AlphabetEdit

The Thalutian Alphabet is as followsː

I, M, N, Y, P, B, T, D, U, F, V, Ð, S, Ş, Ŝ, E, É, Ğ, K, G, X, H, Z, C, O, Ö, J, R, A, Ä, L, Ł, Í, Ú, Á

With the IPA equivalent:

i, m, n, y, p, b, t, d, u, f, v, θ, s, ʃ, ʒ, ə, ɛ, ç, k, g, x, h, ts, ʧ, ɔ, œ, j, r/ʀ, ɑ, æ, l, ɭ, iː, uː, aː

PhonotacticsEdit

Thalutian has the following phonotactological rules:

  1. Complex onsets and complex codas are restricted to a maximum of two consonants [CCV]/[VCC].
  2. Complex onsets and complex codas may not contain affricates. 
  3. Fricatives (with the exception of /s/) may not be followed by nasals in neither complex onsets nor complex codas. 
  4. The consonant of a coda is always unvoiced except for nasals, trills and lateral approximants.
  5. The final consonant of a coda is always unvoiced except for nasals, trills and lateral approximants. 
  6. No glides may exist in a coda.
  7. The nucleus may only be comprised of a vowel/diphthong [CVC].
  8. Both closed and open syllables are permitted [VC]/[CV].
  9. The consonant /r/ may not be used in the second position of a complex onset. Instead, /ʀ/ must be used. 


Based on the above, the smallest syllable may be [CV] or [VC] and the longest may be [CCVCC]

GrammarEdit

Main article: Thalutian Grammar

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No Yes
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SyntaxEdit

Thalutian follows a SOV structure in both its main and subordinate clauses and the verb always remains the last element of a clause.

Example:

Joon béllök murkuran sködlät. John kicked the ball over the wall. 

  • Subject: Joon (John)
  • Object: béllök (the ball - accusative)
  • Object: murkuran (over the wall - superessive)
  • Verb: sködlät (kicked)

VerbsEdit

Thalutian verbs are conjugated according to voice, mood, person, number, tense and aspect. Due to Thalutian’s high level of agglutination, there exist only two irregular verbs in the entire language. As with the rest of Thalutian, verbal suffixes are subject to vowel harmony but only according to backness; roundedness does not affect vowel harmony in these instances. 

Conjugation classesEdit

Thalutian verbs are divided into 3 different classes which are determined by the infinitive ending:

  1. Verbs that end in double consonants (except -ff and -rr)
  2. Verbs that end in -rr or -ff
  3. Verbs that end in one or more vowels. 

Conjugation possibilitiesEdit

The table below illustrates the possible verb forms in terms of aspect, tense, mood and voice:

Mood

Indicative

Subjunctive

Conditional

Imperative

Voice

Active

Passive

Active

Passive

Active

Passive

Active

Passive

Tense

Aspect

Perfect

Preterite

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Perfect

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Imperfect

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Pluperfect

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

Present

Present

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Future

Future

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

Perfect

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

No

No

No

TensesEdit

There are a total of 7 tenses in Thalutian and they are divided into two groups: simple and compound tenses. Simple tenses require no auxiliary verbs while compound tenses do.

Simple tensesEdit

The simple tenses are comprised of the present, the preterite, the imperfect, the future and the conditional. 


ConstructionEdit

Verbs are constructed using 3 affixes:

stem tense person

For example, the verb app (to have) conjugated according to 3rd person singular in the imperfect tense is constructed as follows:

ap al at

Thus, apalat (he/she/it was having)

ConjugationsEdit

The tables below illustrate the conjugations of all 3 types of verbs in each of the 4 simple tenses. The verb in the infinitive is given in italics in the upper left hand cell.


First conjugation

App – have

Present

[-ar/är-]

Preterite

[-l-]

Imperfect

[-al/äl-]

Future

[-dr-]

Conditional

[-lir-]

Singular

1

aparax

aplax

apalax

apdrax

aplirax

2

aparan

aplan

apalan

apdran

apliran

3

aparað

aplað

apalað

apdrað

aplirað

Plural

1

aparau

aplau

apalau

apdrau

aplirau

2

aparus

aplus

apalus

apdrus

aplirus

3

aparon

aplon

apalon

apdron

apliron


Second conjugation

Köff  purchase

Present

[-ar/är-]

Preterite

[-l-]

Imperfect

[-al/äl-]

Future

[-dr-]

Singular

1

köväräk

kövläk

köväläk

kövdräk

2

kövärän

kövlän

kövälän

kövdrän

3

kövärät

kövlät

kövälät

kövdrät

Plural

1

köväräy

kövläy

köväläy

kövdräy

2

kövärys

kövlys

kövälys

kövdrys

3

kövärön

kövlön

kövälön

kövdrön


Third conjugation

Ténacéa – change

Present

[-ar/är-]

Preterite

[-l-]

Imperfect

[-al/äl-]

Future

[-r-]

Singular

1

ténacarax

ténaclax

ténacalax

ténacrax

2

ténacaran

ténaclan

ténacalan

ténacran

3

ténacarað

ténaclað

ténacalað

ténacrað

Plural

1

ténacarau

ténaclau

ténacalau

ténacrau

2

ténacarus

ténaclus

ténacaluy

ténacrus

3

ténacaron

ténaclon

ténacalon

ténacron

Compound tensesEdit

The compound tenses are comprised of the perfect, the pluperfect and the future perfect.

ConstructionEdit

Compound tenses are constructed with use of the conjugated auxiliary verb app (to have) and the relavant past participle (all 3 compound tenses in Thalutian are perfect tenses)

auxiliary participle
aparat apax

aparat apax (he/she/it has had)

ConjugationsEdit

The tables below illustrate the conjugations of all 3 types of verbs in each of the 3 compound tenses, including the auxiliary. The verb in the infinitive is given in italics in the upper left hand cell.

First conjugation

Sködd – kick

Perfect

(Present + past part.)

Pluperfect

(Preterite + past part.)

Future Perfect

(Future + past part.)

Singular

1

aparax sködäk

aplax sködäk

apdrax sködäk

2

aparan sködäk

aplan sködäk

apdran sködäk

3

aparað sködäk

aplað sködäk

apdrað sködäk

Plural

1

aparau sködäk

aplau sködäk

apdrau sködäk

2

aparus sködäk

aplus sködäk

apdrus sködäk

3

aparon sködäk

aplon sködäk

apdron sködäk

The past participle is removed and -ax/-äk is added*.


  • Infinitives that end on unvoiced plosives (-pp, -kk or –tt) undergo the following changes:

The plosives are removed and replaced by a single voiced counterpart (-b, -g, and –t). Thereafter, the past participle suffix (-ax/-äk) is added.

Examples:


  1. app - apax
  2. morékk - morégax
  3. gett - gedäk


Second conjugation

Köff – buy

Perfect

(Present + past part.)

Pluperfect

(Preterite + past part.)

Future Perfect

(Future + past part.)

Singular

1

aparax köväk

aplax köväk

apdrax köväk

2

aparan köväk

aplan köväk

apdran köväk

3

aparað köväk

aplað köväk

apdrað köväk

Plural

1

aparau köväk

aplau köväk

aprau köväk

2

aparus köväk

aplus köväk

apdrus köväk

3

aparon köväk

aplon köväk

apdron köväk

The past participle is formed by using the verb stem (köv-) and adding ax/äk.

Third conjugation

Ténacéa – change

Perfect

(Present + past part.)

Pluperfect

(Preterite + past part.)

Future Perfect

(Future + past part.)

Singular

1

aparax ténacax

aplax ténacax

apdrax ténacax

2

aparan ténacax

aplan ténacax

apdran ténacax

3

aparað ténacax

aplað ténacax

apdrað ténacax

Plural

1

aparau ténacax

aplau ténacax

apdrau ténacax

2

aparus ténacax

aplus ténacax

apdrus ténacax

3

aparon ténacax

aplon ténacax

apdron ténacax

The past participle is formed by using the verb stem (ténac-) and adding ax/äk.

Supine

The supine, which indicates the purpose of an action, is created rather simply: -ai/-äi is added to the verbal stem.

Examples
  1. sködd: sköd + äi = sködäi (in order to kick)
  2. app: ap + ai = apai (in order to have)
  3. köff: köv + äi = köväi (in order to buy)
  4. xarr: xav + ai = xavai (in orde to go)
  5. ténacéa: ténac + ai = ténacai (in order to change)
  6. kötty: kött + äi = köttäi (in order to snatch)

GerundEdit

The gerund, which nominalises a verb, is formed by using the verbal stem and adding –att/-ätt. The gerund is then treated as a masculine noun and declines accordingly. 

Examples

  1. sködd – sköd + ätt = sködätt
  2. app – ap + att = apatt     
  3. köff – köv + ätt = kövätt
  4. xarr – xav + att = xavatt
  5. ténacéa – ténac + att = ténacatt
  6. kötty – kött + ätt = köttätt

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1Iîk
2you (singular)sinäen
3heatt
4werou'ag
5you (plural)urúk
6theyattin, ta'ir, éttir
7thisdatt, tada, dadan
8thatdétatt, tadét, déttan
9hereérän
10therebörin
11whoajo
12whataká
13wherealy
14whenalút
15howænen
16notplys
17allkajatt, takæ, kædan
18manypalæ, æpal, paljäen
19someokunæ, tænoku, okudäen
20fewkutt, taku, kudäen
21othermútt, tamú, múdan
22oneolva
23tworalva
24threekolom
25fournella
26fivebest
27bigkroş
28longalt
29wideblon
30thickbron
31heavyðork
32smallkvien
33shortokien
34narrowðyn
35thinðyn
36womantaro (f)
37man (adult male)montt (m)
38man (human being)londin (o)
39childtakvilott (o)
40wifetanæ (f)
41husbandnætt (m)
42mothertaba (f)
43fatherbatt (m)
44animaltäläen (o/c)
45fishmieral (n/c)
46birdilmaral (n/c)
47dogkairal (n/c)
48louselirok (n)
49snakekärmal (n)
50wormmatok (n)
51treetabyt (f)
52foresttabyşé (m)
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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