Thalutian Grammar (Thalúkskéloska) is the grammar of the Thalutian language.
Thalutian follows a Subject-Object-Verb typological system and is highly agglutinative (in terms of both prefixes and affixes). The language has five genders; four of which make use of determiners represented by suffixes and decline according to case, number and gender while the other makes use of free-standing definite and indefinite articles which never declines.
Thalutian nouns have one of five grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, neuter, common gender, omnigender) and are conjugated according to case and number.
Thalutian makes use of all four (masculine, feminine, neuter and common gender) genders found in the Thalic languages family but has, uniquely, a fifth gender, the omnigender. As with most languages, the gender of a noun does not necessarily correspond with the actual gender of the real-life object and therefore must be learnt with the noun, since it is almost impossible to determine the gender using only the root word.
The common gender
The common gender, marked in dictionaries as (c), is applied to nouns which may be either masculine or feminine (which depends on the real-life sex of the object which is referred to) but not omnigender nor neuter.
Example: The uninflected Thalutian word for parent is ba which takes the common gender as it can become batt (father) or taba (mother), where -tt serves as the masculine singular definite suffix, while ta- serves as the feminine singular definite prefix. This often occurs in the cases of nouns such as parent, teacher, worker. If the gender of the real-life object, the masculine is used by default.
The omnigender is used for certain Thalutian nouns that are not considered neutral, masculine nor feminine, rather that are considered masculine and feminine. The formation of the omnigender is realtively simple: the noun uses both the feminine prefix (ta- in the nominative singular) and the masculine suffix (-att in the nominative singular).
An example of such a noun is gott (god), which in the nominative singular would be tagottatt (the god).
Thalutian has a highly extensive grammatical case system according to which nouns, pronouns and adjectives decline. There are 33 cases in total which are are divided into 6 grammatical categories (morphosyntactical, relational, state, semantic, temporal and locative) while the locative category (which alone has 19 cases) is divided into 4 subcategories (static location, motion towards, motion from and motion via)
- Accusative: The direct object of a transitive verb (whom or what?).
- Instrumental: The object with with the verb is completed (using what?).
- Nominative: The subject of the verb (who or what?).
- Aversive: The object which is avoided (for fear of, avoiding)
- Benefactive: The object for the benefit of which somethinge is done (for (the sake of))
- Causal: The object which is the reason for something happening (due to, because of)
- Comitative: The object in the company of something else (with what or whom?)
- Dative: The indirect object of the the sentence (to whom or what?)
- Distributive: Indicates distribution by piece (per)
- Genetive: The possessor of another object (whose?)
Cases of stateEdit
- Abessive: The object which is lacked (without)
- Essive: The object's state of being (as)
- Partitive: Used for amounts of something (3 'of' houses)
- Temporal: Specifies a time when something occurs (at 7 o' clock, on Monday)
- Adessive: The object which adjacent to which something else is located (at, near, by).
- Antessive: The object in front of which something else is located (in front of).
- Apudessive: The object next to which something else is located (next to).
- Inessive: The object inside of which something else is located (inside, within).
- Intrative: The object(s) between which something else is located (between).
- Postessive: The object behind which something else is located (behind).
- Subessive: The object underneath which something else is located (under, underneath).
- Superessive: The object on the surface of which something else is located (on (top of)).
- Allative: The object towards which something else moves (toward)
- Illative: The object into which something else moves (into)
- Sublative: The object onto which something else moves (onto)
- Terminative: The object where something else ends (ending at, at the end of)
- Ablative: The object away from which somethine else moves (away from).
- Delative: The object off of which somethine else moves (off of).
- Elative: The object out of which something else moves (out of).
- Initiative: The object where something else begins (starting at, at the start of).
- Perlative: The object through which something else moves (through).
- Prosecutive: The object near which something else moves (near, nearby).
- Vialis: The object across/on which something else moves (along, on).
Locative case system parameters
|Motion toward ( → o )||Illative (into)||Sublative (onto)||Allative (towards)|
|Terminative (ending at)|
|No motion ( o )||Inessive (within)||Antessive (in front of)||Adessive (at)|
|Apudessive (next to)|
|Motion away ( ← o )||Elative (out of)||Delative (off of)||Ablative (away from)|
|Initiative (starting at)|
|Motion via ( ø )||Perlative (through)||Vialis (along)||Prosecutive (near)|
Note: the cases that are marked as exterior without motion (antessive, apudessive, intrative, postessive, subessive and superessive) can be used in both 'motion away' and 'motion toward' latives.
Example use of casesEdit
Möndäikä1, murúkatt2 kövlällélär3 tarvotlað átt lopekiriaklar4 köväi. Murúkinén5 lopéjanattlar2 lopéliaidén6 lopékirialéstök4 datlað, ok4 lopéliattlar2 éksilopéslär7 tarvodron. Att raiklað, éta junén8 ádrað, jok raisök4 juntaloltén9 alklað 2 kilométériä10 attinén5 talolla11, jok tarkotlað, éta ylitijé12 tarvotlað kävéll, jok lopélädé ja paikalan parkkinén5 äzrätäbytlär13 átlað. Tyränälänlär14 , joklar lopéläzäk15 nautlaron kérätt, att dölänök4 ádrað köttürr, jok attok4 jénint körpyrön16 ja kittint sutturan17 apavlirað. Attinén5 döläninén5 sounalla11 , juntalolt18 kälänlät, jok göndiländé19 ja paralandé19 ölénlät, jok kouvirizlär20 ölénlät. Tajuntijélär2 akkant stattinén5 dirälläk21, vuontalta22 ja stattsközään23 juokslon. Alla, murúkatt2 jundur24 ramazlað ja kövläközällé3 alklað andatt. Post allallé3 kälänlät, kertanaika1 andatlað bis trouvlað, jokátun25 katslað. Kiriattlar2 kallin olenlon: kiriaidén6 déjö de 50 éjuronia10 makslað muva lopélianna26, att alek4 potlað satta. Tödök4 kiriainénlär5 laskul27 laitlað étén ökövläru4 pettallað. Post pettallað, tödök4 attinén5 kiriainénlär5 laukuun23 laitlað, muva attinén5 saljuk4 laskudur24 uonlað ansatta muva dak4 vainka tajunlað, alut juntalollé3 énkälänlät allé3 , ilmalainen, saljutta28 liputok4 talollé3 plys potlað köff. Ökéri4, Julia, vylät, jok samant kiriakövlällé3 inénta5 tabanitsélär29 atlað. Kérilaidan30, Julia attok4 kiriakövlässä31 abunlað. Tattlar 2 suljuk4 laskuran17, kirianésidé32, hoomlon ja postjok, murúkatt2 kövlästä33 kétlät ja talollé3 átlað.
|1: Temporal||12: Vialis||23: Illative|
|2: Nominative||13: Perlative||
|3: Allative||14: Aversive||
|4: Accusative||15: Postessive||
|5: Genetive||16: Subessive||
|6: Distributive||17: Superessive||
|7: Benefactive||18: Terminative||
|8: Instrumental||19: Intrative||
|9: Initiative||20: Antessive||
|10: Partitive||21: Prosecutive||
|11: Adessive||22: Ablative||
On Monday, a boy needed to go to the shops in order to buy some textbooks. The boy's teachers had given each student a list of all of the books that they would require for their studies. He decided that he would go by train which began it's journey at the station 2 kilometers from his house which meant that he would have to walk along the road which ran next to the school and through the trees of the local park. In order to avoid the bullies that liked to gather behind the school, he decided to take a detour which would lead him under the new bridge and over the little ravine. At the end of his detour, he reached the train station which was located inbetween the post office and the bank which was in front of the old hotel. The railway line ran past the the agricultural part of town, away from the residential area and into the city centre. Once there, the boy climbed off the train and began to walk in the direction of the mall. After arriving there, he walked around for some time until he was finally inside the bookstore that he had been looking for. He finally found all the books which were quite expensive: each book cost more than €50 but being a student he was eligible to receive a discount. He placed all the books on the counter before paying the shopkeeper. After paying, he forgot to take his wallet off the counter in his excitement but he only realised this when he had gone back to the station where obviously, because he didn't have his wallet, he could not buy a ticket home. He saw his friend, James, who was on his way to the same bookstore with his parents. Because of their friendship, Julia helped him look in the bookstore. They found the wallet on the counter, next to the book display after which the boy left the shop and went home.
Thalutian verbs may be classified into either the 1st, 2nd or 3rd conjugation, depending on the infinitive suffix. Thalutian is highly rare in the sense that it contains no irregular verbs.
Thalutian has three persons, two numbers and four moods that are used to conjugate verbs which themselves are divided into 3 regular conjugations and these are determined by the infinitive suffix:
|Translation||to go||to buy||to find|
Tense and aspectEdit
Thalutian exhibits a past-present-future tense system and the past and future tenses of which are further divided into aspects. These indicate and specify smaller divisions of time and are either constructed simply (the verb itself is conjugated) or compoundedly (use of an auxilliary verb and the appropriate participle).
The following tables illustrate the past, present and future aspects of the indicative mood and whether the constructions are compound or simple:
|Past||Aspect||Description||Thalutian example||English example|
|Simple||Simple||Immediately-completed action which is often used with a specific time.||Äilen kövläjélär átlax.||I went to the shops yesterday|
|Imperfective||Habitual action that occurred on a regular basis but has since been stopped||Todont paivaidén kövläjélär átalax||I used to go to the shops everyday (but not anymore)|
|Compound||Progressive||Incompleted action usually occurring before another.||Kövläjélär öléndäk átalen||I was going to the shops|
|Perfect||Completed action which occurs before another action in the past.||Kövläjélär aplax átiran||I had gone to the shops.|
|Present||Aspect||Description||Thalutian example||English example|
|Simple||Simple||Refers to a habitual action - contrasts with the imperfective past||Todont pavaidén kövläjélär átarax||I go to the shops every day|
|Compound||Perfect||Recently-completed action, the time time of which is not specified.||Kövläjélär aparax átiran||I have gone to the shops (already)|
|Progressive||An action occuring in the present with limited duration.||Kövläjélär ölénteräk átalen||I am going to the shops|
|Future||Aspect||Description||Thalutian example||English example|
|Simple||Simple||Refers to an action that will take place in the future.||Kövläjélär átdrax||I will go to the shops|
|Compound||Perfect||Refers to and action that will have been completed in the future.||Kövläjélär apdrax átiran||I will have gone to the shops|
|Progressive||Refers to a continuous action that will take place in the future.||Kövläjélär öléndäk átalen||I will be going to the shops|
In addition to the indicative, Thalutian also makes use of the conditional, imperative and interrogative moods.
The conditional mood only functions with the present and past tenses, each of which only has the simple aspect:
|Conditional||Aspect||Description||Thalutian example||English example|
|Past||Simple||A hypothetical action which was not completed due to another circumstance or unmet condition||Kövläjélär apriax átiran, jos att plys öléndät räitalen||I would have gone to the shops if it weren't raining|
|Present||Simple||A hypothetical action which may be completed if another condition is met prior.||Kövläjélär átriax, jos täräi opétläk||I would go to the shops if the rain stopped|
The imperative only funtions with the present tense and is used to express orders and commands and is used for the second and thrid person in both plural and singular.
|3rd||áton!||(Let him) go!||átonlar!||(Let them) go!|
Note: Although the translations of the1st and 3rd person use let me, it does not have the same meaning as release as the instruction does not lie in let. Rather, it lies in go in the same way that live functions in long live the king.
The Thalutian interrogative mood functions like that of most other languages. Interrogative sentences contain either polar questions (requiring an exclusive disjunction such as either yes or no) or non-polar questions (which require a response that answers an interrogative word such as why or how).
Polar questions are formed by simply adding the interrogative suffix -ún or -yyn, depending on the final vowel of the stem. (See example below)
|Infinitive||Conjugated verb||Interrogative Suffix||Polar question||Translation|
|átt (to go)||átlon||-ún||átlonún?||Did they go?|
|vyy (to see)||vyrän||-yyn||vyränyyn?||Do you see?|