|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
|Progress||Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%|
Classification and DialectsEdit
b d k t p l s f z y sh r v n m ñ
|Flap or tap|
- Vowels can be short or long. Long vowels are marked duplicating the vowel. These long vowel are only present in undeclined forms. When declinations are added to the word, all long vowels become short.
- Vowels in this positions are pronounced as ə:
-A, e or o in the end of a word
-In combinations like consonant+vowel+nasal
- Often ə approximates to æ.
Tharsi is a (C)(C)V(C) language, meaning that words like crab are allowed, but others like act aren´t.
Word formation Edit
In Tharsi there are three main types of words, nouns, adjectives, and verbs. Every idea (i.e big, tree, run) has all those three forms. The word alone, without declination or affixes is called the "root". The root can be and adjective, a verb or a noun, depending of the word, and the remaining forms are constructed using different suffixes.
|And I want to make a...||Noun||Verb||Adjective|
eru or -om (1)
|Verb||-ari or -re (2)||-||-ari or -re|
|Adjective||-el or -s (3)||-el or -s||-|
(1): eru if the word ends in vowel, om if it end with consonant.
(2) ari if the word ends in a, i, u, t, l, f, y, r, n. -re if the word ends in e, o, b, k, p. s, z, sh, v, m
(3) -el if the word ends in any vowel but e, -s If it ends with any consonant or e (the final consonant from the root is removed).
Saraat (desert), (the root is a noun, using the root we can make the verb and the adjective with the rules above) : saratari (verb, to make a desert) , saras (adjective, desertical)
Udei (verb, to go or move), Udeieti (noun, movement) udeiel (moving)
Nouns decline according to this structure:
DEMOSTRATIVES + ROOT + DETERMINERS + OTHER INFIXES + NUMBER/CASE
- Ce- : The noun is at the same place as the speaker.
- Ci- : The noun hasn´t still been reached by the speaker.
- Thu- : The noun has been reached by the speaker.
Example with the word "tag" (day) : Cetag (today), Citag (tomorrow), Thutag (yesterday)
The root alone, without any particle like -eti, -eru or -om
Used for derivation. Examples:
- -It- Makes a word femenine: Ishvo (person), Ishvit (female person, woman)
- -ug- Makes a word masculine: Ishvo (person), Ishvug (male person, man)
- -arte- Express a whole, a set: Kayoob (tree), kayobarte (forest)
- -am- Similar to the suffix "-er" in English: anakyari (to play) anakyam (player)
- -ut- Diminutive: Tasem (dog) Tasemut (little dog)
- -aina- Despective suffix. Afasi (house) Afasaina
- accusative (direct object) [-ak]
- genitive (possesion) [-ig]
- dative (indirect object) [-al]
- abesive (without the house) [-ot]
- locative (in/ the house, marks where the action happens) 
- ablative (out of the house, far away the house) 
- comitative (with the house) [-il]
- dedative (related with houses) [-it]
- esive/conditional (if/when the house...) [-osk]
- instructive (with/using the house) [-av]
- causative (marks why the action happened) [-ov]
- Finality (marks the intention of the action) [-ol]
- Temporal(marks when the action happened) [-eim]
- ablative (out of the house, far away the house) [-eni]
- adesive (near the house) [-ulim]
- inesive (inside the house) [-ays]
Normally, these particles are added after the nouns (only nouns decline for case) but they also can be used as separate words in complex case structures or formal speech. They always come before the noun.
In order to form separate words, just put "k-" before each particle, what leads us with Kak, kig, Kal, kot...
They also work as interrogative particles in interrogative sentences.
Verbs decline according to this structure:
ROOT + TENSE + ASPECT + MOOD + PERSON + PLURAL MARKER
|Inperfect||-c- or -k-*|
+Depending on the vowel after it
Combining tense and aspect lead us with six different possibilities
- -Perfect past: The action started on the past and it has already finished.
- -Imperfect past: The action started on the past and it has not finished.
- -Perfect present: The action starts at the time of the speech and it ends at the same moment. (The action is instant)
- -Imperfect present: The action starts at time of speech and it will finish in the future.
- -Perfect future: The action will start in the future and it will finish.
- -Imperfect future: The action will start in the future and it will never finish. (It lasts forever)
Adjectives are formed using derivation from the root form, depending on the ending, different suffixes are used.
-If it ends in any vowel but e, the final vowel is removed and the suffix -el is added. Example: (noun), Tharsel (adj)
-If it ends with any consonant or e, the final letter is removed and the suffix -s is added. Example: kurof (noun), kuros (adj)
Adjectives don´t decline according to the noun they are refering to. Unless we want to give emphasis, nouns are always placed after the nouns. If they are placed before, the suffixes used to form the adjectives change to -et and -is, respectively.
Tharsis default order is SVO but VSO is used a lot on literature. Technically any order is possible, but this is only done when giving emphasis on a certain expression.
"Udasai afasi" "I'm going home" ( GO[PRES,I] HOME)
If we wanted to change the order, the accusative case must be added to the direct object:
(Note that the subject is attached after the verb, but that only happens with personal pronouns, other subjects work as shown before)
Tasem udas afasi (the dog goes to the house)
Possesion is marked declining the possesor in genitive case and the possesed thing in nominative case.
"Afasi mig" My house (litteraly: the house of me)
Theoretically, the possesor could be placed before, but the language is head-initial and the order shown before is preferred.