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Theubeg

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Theubeg
ðɯbɪg
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Theubeg was the language of a once proud empire, whose refugees took residence in the north. Theubeg is a language isolate which evolved from Proto Theubeg-(language). It evolved into two languages, High (language) and Vulgar (language). Theubeg lives on as an isolated dialect of some mountain villages. The language of the northern natives, Mygdållaðr , was heavily influenced by Theubeg.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g q
Fricative ð s z ç ʝ
Affricate
Approximant ʋ j
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i ɯ
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid o
Mid
Open-mid ʌ
Near-open æ
Open

TranscriptionEdit

IPA Transcription
ɟ ds
ð th
ç cs
ʝ cz
ʋ w
ɯ eu
ɪ e
ʌ u
æ a
ɟː dz
ðː dh
çː sh
ʝː zh
cs chs
cz chz
ds dhs
dz dhz

PhonotacticsEdit

The syllable structure of Theubeg is CV(C), with C standing for all consonants and V standing for all vowels. If two of the same consonants are adjacent to each other, they geminate. The standard stress pattern places stress on syllables with the vowels /i/ or /o/. If those vowels are not present, /ɪ/ and /ɯ/ take precedence. In a series of identical adjacent syllable vowels, the first one takes precedence.

DialectsEdit

There are three distinct village dialects of Theubeg that survive in the present, each with minimal lexical shift and enough resemblance to be mutually intelligible to each other and speakers of the standard literary Theubeg.

Northern TheubegEdit

The northern dialect is closest in resemblance to the classic literary variant of Theubeg. The stress pattern is virtually unchanged except for loanwords in which the foreign stress pattern is approximated. Other changes consist of lenition in between vowels, and almost zero lexical change, although words may be borrowed from their neighbors. The sound changes can be described (in IPA) as follows:

Stop Voiced Stop Continuant Approximant No Sound
p b v ʋ zero
t d z ɹ -
k g ɣ - j zero
  • /ɣ/ is transcribed as gh and /ɹ/ as r.
  • theubeg /ðɯbɪg/ becomes theuveg /ðɯvɪg/.


GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No Yes No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes No No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns decline for definiteness and otherwise are without declension. The prefix /je/ is added to the noun to make it definite. There is a series of derivational morphemes specific to nouns listed below. The morphemes are placed before the word.

Morpheme Meaning Usage
dsok cycle (archaic) noun to adjective
waskol to do noun to verb
czeu (unclear) organization to leader
qut shrine (archaic) place of
pe negative polarity (archaic) absence of
jaleu superior augmentative
coku dog (archaic) diminutive

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate for voice with the active voice being unmarked, and the passive voice being marked with the prefix /wa/. The derivational morphemes for verbs are:

Morpheme Meaning Usage
pethu not dead (archaic) verb to adjective
geuj (unclear) verb to abstract noun
kolo horse verb to agent noun
csek to wound (archaic) verb to patient noun
weth (unclear) verb to action noun
czi formality (archaic) supine
lipe (unclear) transitive to intransitive

The supine verb is placed after the verb it modifies.

CopulaEdit

There is only one copula that links the subject with the predicate, which is /mun/.

NumeralsEdit

Theubeg uses a base ten numeral system.

Number Meaning
do one
csods two
cseu pair
ko three
cse four
keu five
mi six
teud seven
ge eight
san nine
co ten
nu twenty
czud hundred
da thousand
beuth ten thousand
mat hundred thousand
wic million

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives modify both nouns and verbs. When the tense and aspect are not nonpast and perfective, adjectives can describe them in detail. They also serve as determiners of mood. An important adjective is the negative polarizer /wucske/. The adjective order is this:

  1. Head
  2. Tense/Aspect
  3. Mood
  4. Qualifier
  5. Quantifier
  6. Modality
  7. Demonstrative

The derivational morphemes for adjectives are:

Morpheme Meaning Usage
toj harvest (archaic) adjective to noun
seumut to change (archaic) adjective to verb
qoja sun (archaic) adjective to semblative adjective
tuw (unclear) any word to characteristic adjective
cike tall (archaic) comparative
kuteu (unclear) elative
gog mountain (archaic) superlative

Tense/AspectEdit

The tense/aspect adjective is attached to a verb. If the adjective is attached to the subject instead, the clause takes on a subjunctive mood.

Adjective Usage
zas perfective nonpast
peug perfective past
thes imperfective nonpast
cods imperfective past

The imperfective aspect may be elaborated on with more adjectives.

MoodEdit

There are only three moods expressed through adjectives attached to verbs. Unmarked verbs default to the indicative mood.

Adjective Usage
ceus imperative
tak interrogative
nomka conditional

ModalityEdit

These adjectives express probability, neccessity, evidentiality and mirativity.

Adjective Usage
zeuzze without a doubt
luleuk high probability
jokat generally probable; somewhat probable
nekocs very neccessary
dseti generally neccessary; somewhat neccessary
kasa nonvisual sensory evidence
monti inferential; circumstantial evidence
kolow reportative; reporting what was told
czimne direct evidence
jed very surprised
jolas apparently; irony; sarcasm; mild surprise

QuantifiersEdit

These words indicate the quantity of the modified word.

Quantifier Usage
dakup all
cseunat some
cizi no
dadhe few
teulo many (more than ten)
kugeuj even
wuwu odd
csukes half
tazedeu quarter
beukas double
cotuw paired

PostpositionsEdit

Postpositions indicate a word's relationship to another. The postpositional phrase is placed before the modified word. Some postpositions can be used as nouns.

Postposition Usage
qebo at the adjacency of
thocsi right next to
wicel inside
thidko outside
teubkac on top of
cewi beneath
zolcuc between
dsugdu halfway between
tuzas in contact with
popeth moving away from
thoka moving away from on top
same moving away from below
qiczu moving out of
deqeu starting from
dsom moving towards
sec moving on top
tote moving below
nip moving into
peuqil ending at
cocs moving through
pabkuq moving by way of
dewpeu moving across
lamtheds moving along
mebeul concerning
cinek avoiding
cseupti for the benefit of
guzocpoc because of
deuds efficient or final cause; for a
waneu with; in the company of
nunataq recipient; for; to
cozmub per; by piece
geuwlid per time; on
qadcud inalienable possession; of
nebbip alienable possession; of
csuleu composition; of
geutheb origin; of
ludsthod reference; of
ladsqiw description; of
wodos endowed with
csupso possessed by
cuczeu without
lagu similar to
sogbe along with
mube being as
subkemazu comparable to
zeuknuzo temporarily being as
dsipo shaped as
csegim from being as
linemina identical to
zucute oriented towards
nozputho oriented backwards to
lotegpa turning into
gepeu after
pes before
wineth during

CollocationsEdit

Set series of words that act as postpositions. The special collocations are listed, while there are many other possible combinations.

Postposition Collocation Usage Composition
pelgi qebo to the left of left; at the adjacency of
macsu qebo to the right of right; at the adjacency of
thocsi thocsi around right next to; " "

ConjunctionsEdit

Conjunctions link clauses or words/phrases together, with the conjunction coming before the word/phrase it forms a phrase with. Conjunction phrases are placed after the modified mostly.

Conjunction Usage
dseutha presents rationale (word)
czane lists items or ideas (word)
widzoz presents alternative item or idea (word or clause)
kasducs presents consequence (word)
bittito start time or location to end (word)
dothceug presents noncontrasting items or ideas (clause)
cazaz presents contrast or exception (clause)
tawdecs presents consequence (clause)
tizi relativizer (clause)

CollocationsEdit

Set series of words that act as conjunctions. The special collocations are listed, while there are many other possible combinations.

Conjunction Collocation Usage Composition
soke mamo dothceug nevertheless (clause) pro-adj like so; interrogative manner; presents noncontrasting items or ideas (clause)
cazaz dothceug although (clause) presents contrast or exception (clause); presents noncontrasting items or ideas (clause)
waneu dothceug alternative relativizer (clause) postposition in the company of;  presents noncontrasting items or ideas (clause)
thocsi dseutha condescendingly presents rationale (word) postposition right next to; presents rationale (word)
tawdecs tizi conditional; replaces adjective (clause) presents consequence (clause); relativizer (clause)

Pro-wordsEdit

Pro-words are substitutes for words or referents to previous words.

DemonstrativesEdit

The three demonstratives are:

  • proximal - /kolkos/
  • medial - /jugki/
  • distal - /csopel/

InterrogativesEdit

Interrogatives can modify nouns or act as pronouns.

Interrogative Usage
teuwe personal
qug impersonal
tocsu location
dside route of travel
qal source
julla goal
coji time
mamo manner
seuzti reason
kekikeu amount

PronounsEdit

First Second Third
Animate wasnoj tinac gojet
Inanimate - juk bun

Pronouns can become collective when adding the exclusive /wit/ or inclusive /pocs/ morphemes.

Pro-verbsEdit

The three pro-verbs are:

  • to do - /waskol/
  • to be - /dsine/
  • to use - /dula/

Pro-adjectivesEdit

Pro adjectives are used to classify nouns or to describe a demonstration. The classifiers can be omitted except when counting, in which case they go after the number.

Pro-adjective Usage
ke animate entity
nuj inanimate entity; general inanimate
ma flat object; sheet
ken round object
seu grainy object
czeul slender object
got mushy object
qa burden
soke like so; in this way

ReferentsEdit

The three referents are:

  • subject of previous clause - /pics/
  • object of previous clause - /qosi/
  • verb of previous clause - /dunu/

Sentence StructureEdit

The word order of Theubeg is VSO. Relative clauses are formed by relativizer conjunctions. Other conjunctions form different subclauses if necessary.

Example textEdit

jecinibi wicel zas meupobeu gojet

zas mazina csukescondi kalenet


def.forest inside pfv.npst to-vanish 1.inan.pro

pfv.npst to-reveal midnight outsider


One vanishes in the forest.

Midnight reveals an outsider.

See alsoEdit

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