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Thiedish

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Thiedish is a direct descendant of Old and Middle English and a sibling to English and Scots. Unlike English, it preserves most of the original lexis inherited from Old English. Comparable to Scots, Thiedish has moderate influences from Old Norse, Low German, French and Latin. Old English and Modern English both exert considerable influence upon new vocabulary.

SettingEdit

The language developed as a scholarly lingua franca due to the governance of a Thiedish Linguistic College, whose mandate was to establish basic rules for grammar, pronunciation, orthography, and standardisation for the burgeoning Saxon tongues across Mediaeval Britain. The language, which in the past has had a tendency to displayed intense prescriptivism, is currently evolving into a truly modern language suitable for literary and international use.

PhonologyEdit

AlphabetEdit

Thiedish uses the Frankish/Carolingian alphabet, a descendant of the Latin, in conjunction with some Old English letters. Combinations of letters can be used to produce single phonemes, as in English.

ConsonantsEdit

CAPITAL small IPA English Example
B b /b/ b in boy
C c /k/ or /s/ c in cat or ice
D d /d/ d in dog
Ð ð /ð/ th in then
F f /f/ f in fond
G g /g/ g in girl
H h /h/ h in hand
J j /j/ y in yes
K k /k/ k in kit
L l /l/ l in like
M m /m/ m in man
N n /n/ n in net
P p /p/ p in pen
Q q /k/ q in queen, always followed by u
R r /r/ r in run
S s /s/ in initial position, /z/ in medial and final positions s in sand, s in risen, s in his
T t /t/ t in top
Þ þ /θ/ th in thing (used in native words)
V v /v/ v in very
W w /w/ w in west
X x /ks/ x in box
Ȝ, Ʒ ȝ, ʒ /j/ y in yes
Z z /z/ z in zipper

VowelsEdit

CAPITAL small IPA English Example
A a /ɑ/ a in father
Æ æ /æ/ a in apple
E e /ɛ/ e in end
I i /i/ i in sit
O o /o/ o in open
U u /ʊ/ u in put
Y y /i/ y in hymn


DigraphsEdit

Digraph small IPA English Example
Aa aa /ɑː/ a in father
Ai ai /eɪ/ ai in rain
Au au /ɑː/

au in caught

Ch ch, tch /tʃ/ ch in chin
Dgh, Dʒh dgh, dʒh /ʤ/ dge in bridge
Ea ea /ei/ ea in great
Ee ee /eː/ /e:/ or ea in great
Ei ei /ai/ ei in heist
Eu eu /uː/ eu in
Gh gh /ç/ ch in loch
Ie ie /iː/ ie in believe
Ii, Ij ii, ij /aɪ/ i in time
( - ) ng /ŋ/ ng in sing
Oa oa /oː/ oa in foam
Oi oi /ɔɪ/ oi in voice
Oo oo /oː/ o in home
Ou ou /aʊ/ ou in out
Ph ph /f/ ph in phone (used only with Greek words)
Sch sch, sh /ʃ/ sh in ship
Th th /θ/ th in thing (used only with Greek words)
Ue ue /uː/ ue in true
Ui ui /ai/ i in guide
Uo uo /uː/ oo in food
Uu uu /uː/ u in rude

PhonotacticsEdit

Consonant clusters are common, and phonotactic rules for Thiedish are the same as Old and Middle English. Clusters 'kn-', 'gn-', 'fn-', etc. are pronounced as they are written.

Basic GrammarEdit

TypologyEdit

Thiedish is a Subject Verb Object (SVO) language, and specifically, a V2 language.

GenderEdit

There are three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. All common nouns are neuter, except where the sex is clearly discernable. Words such as: mann, boi, bull, draak, fader, sun ("son"), cock, kining ("king") are masculine. Feminines nouns are: wimman, wijf, læddiȝ, girl, muoder, swester, henn, quien ("queen"), etc. Many words can take either a masculine or feminine gender depending on the sex of the person or object being referred to, like: baker, larjow ("teacher"), hund ("dog"), fugel, dier ("animal"). In such cases, ðe larjow would be "the male teacher", while ða larjow would be "the female or lady teacher".

ArticlesEdit

Articles are similar to those in other West Germanic languages.

Definite Articles ("The")Edit

Masc. Fem. Neut. Plur.
Nom. ðe ða ðe, ðet ða
Obj. ðe ða ðe, ðet ða
Gen. ðes ðer ðes ðer

The neuter switch-forms ðe and ðet operate in the same way that English a and an do: when the following noun begins with a consonant, the form ðe is used ("ðe land"), otherwise ðet is the default article ("ðet æppel"). Definite articles are not declined, except in the genitive case as in ðe buok ðes manns ("the book of the man/the man's book"), and for number ða æppels ("the apples").

Indefinite Articles ("A/An")Edit

Masc. Fem. Neut. Plur.
Nom. a, an a, an a, an -
Obj. a, an a, an a, an -
Gen. anes aner anes -

PronounsEdit

Demonstrative Pronouns ("That/Those")Edit

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nom. ðie ðoa ðæt ðoa
Obj. ðeam ðear ðæt ðoam
Gen. ðæs ðear ðæs ðoar


Demonstrative Pronouns ("This/These")Edit

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nom. ðies ðoas ðis ðoas
Obj. ðissen, ðiesen ðisser, ðoaser ðis ðissen, ðoasen
Gen. ðisses, ðieses ðisser, ðoaser ðisses ðisser, ðoaser


Interrogative Pronouns ("Who/What") Edit

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nom. hwea hwoa hwæt hwoa
Obj. hweam hwear hwæt hwoam
Gen. hwæs hwear hwæs hwoar


Relative Pronouns ("That/Who/Which")Edit

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nom. ðie ðoa ðæt ðoa
Obj. ðeam ðear ðæt ðoam
Gen. ðæs ðear ðæs ðoar


Personal PronounsEdit

Case Singular First Singular Second Singular Third (masc.) Singular Third (fem.) Singular Third (neut.) Dual First Dual Second Plural First Plural Second Plural Third (all genders)
Nom. ik ðou hie scho hit wit ȝit wie ȝie hea
Obj. mie ðie him hir hit unk ink ous iew, jow hem
Gen. mijn ðijn his, sijn hir his unker inker ouser iewer, jower her
Reflex. mijnself ðijnself himself hirself hitself unkerselvs inkerselvs ouserselvs iewerselvs, jowerselvs herselvs

NounsEdit

Nouns fall into two classes: Strong Nouns and Weak Nouns.

Strong NounsEdit

The majority of nouns fall into the Strong category, even nouns belonging to Weak declensions in Old English. All Strong Nouns are declined alike, regardless of gender. The Strong declension is declined as follows:

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural (all genders)
Nom. loaverd fruow hand loaverds, fruows, hands
Obj. loaverd fruow hand loaverds, fruows, hands
Gen. loaverds fruows hands loaverden, fruowen, handen

Weak NounsEdit

The Weak declension is preserved only for nouns derived from Weak Adjectives, as in Charles ðe Greate, or ða deaden in Crijst, and is used to refer to a specified individual with a certain quality or qualities: ðe boalde ("the bold one"). The Weak declension is declined as follows:


Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nom. greate greate greate greaten
Obj. greate greate greate greaten
Gen. greate(s) greate(s) greate(s) greaten


Irregular NounsEdit

A limited number of nouns form their plurals in an irregular or mixed way. They are declined as other Strong Nouns, appending -s to form the Genitive Singular, and -en to form the Genitive Plural (unless an -(e)n has already been added).

Singular Plural
mann menn
wimmann wimmenn
chijld childer
lied liede
guos gies
nut nitte
schroud schreid
mous meis
lous leis
burg birg
muoder mieder
bruoðer brieðer
doghter deghter
calf calver
bread breader
goat geat
eaȝ eaȝen
ear earen
wijs wijsen
schuo schuon
flea flean
ox oxen
hoos hosen
morgen mergen
neaght nieght

VerbsEdit

Verbs in Thiedish are categorised into two classes: Strong and Weak.

Strong VerbsEdit

Strong verbs show tense without the use of a dental affix (-t/-(e)d), have past participles which end in -(e)n, and mutate the Second and Third Person singular vowel stems in the Indicative.

Verb - eten ("to eat")


Present Indicative
Singular Dual/Plural
ik eet wit/wie eteþ
ðou itst ȝit/ȝie eteþ
hie itþ hea eteþ


Past Indicative
Singular Dual/Plural
ik æt wit/wie eaten
ðou eatst ȝit/ȝie eaten
hie æt hea eaten


Present Perfect
Singular Dual/Plural
ik hæv eten wit/wie haveþ eten
ðou hæst eten ȝit/ȝie haveþ eten
hie hæþ eten hea haveþ eten


Past Perfect
Singular Dual/Plural
ik hæd eten wit/wie hædden eten
ðou hædst eten ȝit/ȝie hædden eten
hie hæd eten hea hædden eten

Weak VerbsEdit

Regular Weak VerbsEdit
Irregular Weak VerbsEdit

ConjugationEdit

Verbs are conjugated for Person and Number. There are three moods: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative. There are two basic tenses: present and past; all other tenses are compound, relying heavily on auxiliary verbs, similar to other Germanic languages.

Present IndiciativeEdit

verb - maken ("to make")

Person Singular Person Dual Person Plural
ik maak wit makeþ wie makeþ
ðou maakst ȝit makeþ ȝie makeþ
hie/scho/hit maakþ - - hea makeþ


Past Indiciative (Preterit)Edit

verb - maken ("to make")

Person Singular Person Dual Person Plural
ik maakd wit maakden wie maakden
ðou maakdest ȝit maakden ȝie maakden
hie/scho/hit maakd - - hea maakden


Present SubjunctiveEdit

verb - maken ("to make")

Person Singular Person Dual Person Plural
ik maak wit maken wie maken
ðou maak ȝit maken ȝie maken
hie/scho/hit maak - - hea maken


Past SubjunctiveEdit

verb - maken ("to make")

Person Singular Person Dual Person Plural
ik maakd wit maakden wie maakden
ðou maakd ȝit maakden ȝie maakden
hie/scho/hit maakd - - hea maakden


ImperativeEdit

verb - maken ("to make")

Person Singular Person Dual Person Plural
ik - wit - wie -
ðou maak! ȝit makeþ! ȝie makeþ!
hie/scho/hit - - - hea -

DictionaryEdit

NumeralsEdit

English Cardinal Ordinal
one oan first, earst
two twoa uoðer, twijþ
three þrie þrid
four fiewer fierþ
five fijf fifþ
six six sixþ
seven seven sevenþ
eight eaght eaghtþ
nine nigen nigenþ
ten tien tienþ
eleven elléven ellévenþ
twelve twelf twelfþ
thirteen þrijtien þrijtienþ
fourteen fiertien fiertienþ
fifteen fiftien fiftienþ
sixteen sixtien sixtienþ
seventeen seventien seventienþ
eighteen eaghttien eaghttienþ
nineteen nigentien nigentienþ
twenty twentiȝ twentiȝþ
twenty-one oan-ond-twentiȝ first-ond-twentiȝ
twenty-two
thirty

Example textEdit

The Lord's Prayer in ThiedishEdit

Ouser Fader,

ðie art in hevens

ȝehálged sij ðijn naam.

Cum ðijn rijch, ȝewéarþ ðijn will, on earþ as hit is in hevens.

Ouser dæȝliche bread ȝiv ous tuodǽȝ, ond forȝív ous ouser schilds as wie forȝíveþ ouser schildands.

Ond lead ous nee intuo costning, ok alíes ous fram ivel.

Ðonn ðijn is ðe rijch, ond ðe meaght, ond ðe wulder, foréaver. Suoþlich.


2 Chronicles 7:14Edit

Ȝif mijn liede, ðoa hoateþ of mijn naam, willen hienen hemselvs ond beden, ond sieken mijn lier, ond cherren fram her ivelen wijsen, ðann will ik hieren fram hevens ond forȝíven her sinns ond healen her loand.


Preamble to the United States ConstitutionEdit

Wie ðoa Liede ðer Foréanden Staten, agáng tuo scheppen an altéawer eandom, onstéllen ȝeríghthad, ȝetrímmen ieðelfriþ, ȝeréad tuo ðet ermenóandfeng, ȝefrémmen ðe þiedwelfær, ond affǽsten ða blessings of frielsdom, for ouserselvs ond ouser æfterknieress, duoþ ȝehoaden ond astéllen ðis ȝesétness for ða Foréanden Staten América.

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