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| Name: Thiskish
Head Direction: Final
Number of genders: 3
Thiskish is a language isolate in the Indo-European Group. It is influenced by Germanic languages and mainly uses the Latin Alphabet but also has some cyrillic-derived letters.
The language formed from a mixture of Indo-European languages and soon became unique as well as the sole language in the Thisk branch of languages. Sometime in the second millennium influence from English began and Thiskish became more similar to English over time. It is spoken around the coastline of the North Sea.
Thiskish is very phonetic, however, sometimes two sounds are represented by a single letter. There are twenty-seven letters, thirty-five sounds, four digraphs and three diphthongs.
The Thiskish alphabet is simple and has a letter or digraph for all of its sounds, and it uses the Latin alphabet mixed with a hint of Cyrillic alphabet. There are twenty-seven letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, Г, И, H, I, J, K, L, Ł, M, П, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z. Except for A, U, W, and X, each letter has one sound. In all instances, each sound has one letter.
|B||b||/b/||b in bit|
|C||c||/t͡s/||ts in sits|
|D||d||/d/||d in dog|
|F||f||/f/||f in face|
|Г||г||/g/||g in grand|
|H||h||/h/||h in hat|
|J||j||/j/||y in yacht|
|K||k||/k/||c in cat|
|L||l||/l/||l in lamb|
|Ł||ł||/w/||w in wind|
|M||m||/m/||m in meet|
|П||n||/n/||n in new|
|P||p||/p/||p in park|
|S||s||/s/||s in sand|
|T||t||/t/||t in tack|
|V||v||/v/||v in vulture|
|W||w||/ʃ/ or /ʂ/||sh in sheer or similar|
|X||x||/ʒ/ or /ʐ/||s in leisure or similar|
|Z||z||/z/||z in zebra|
|A||a||/æ/ or /ɑ/||a in apple, a in father|
|E||e||/e/||e in every|
|И||и||/ɪ/||i in sit|
|I||i||/i/||ee in meet|
|O||o||/o/||o in no|
|U||u||/ʌ/ or /ə/||u in duck, a in about|
|Y||y||/u/ or /ju/||oo in food, u in use|
|Tw||/tʃ/||ch in chip|
|Dx||/dʒ/||j in jam|
|Rr||/ɹ/||r in rat|
|Пг||/ŋ/||ng in sing|
|Ej||/eɪ/||ay in bay|
|Aj||/ɑɪ/||ye in bye|
|Oj||/ɔɪ/||oi in oil|
This is a chart of all the sounds found in Thiskish and what letter or digraph represents them, in parentheses. If two appear in one slot, in consonants the bottom is voiced and top is unvoiced while in vowels the top is unrounded and the bottom in rounded.
|Nasals||m (m)||n (n)||ŋ (nг)|
|Approxim.||ɹ (rr)||j (j)|
|Flaps / taps|
|Lateral Appr.||l (l)|
|Affricates||t͡s (c)||t͡ʃ (tw)|
|Co-art. approx.||w (ł) +velar||w (ł) +labiod|
|Close||i (i)||u (y)|
|Close-mid||e (e)||o (o)|
Consonant clusters are relatively uncommon in Thiskish. By far the most common types of cluster are either a plosive followed by a fricative, a fricative followed by a plosive (both letters are usually both voiced or both unvoiced), or a nasal followed by a fricative. Rarer clusters include approximant consonants (j, r) or lateral approximant (l) consonants followed or preceded by a fricative (s, z, f, v, w, x) or a co-articulated approximant consonant (ł) preceded by a fricative or a plosive.
Thiskish is a Subject Object Verb (SOV) language, an average sentence would be along the lines of "Sam oranges ate" (Sam orunw ce) . Thiskish is also a Place Manner Time language, so another sentence would be "I went to the store by car yesterday". Adjectives and Adverbs almost always are placed in front of the word they modify.
Thiskish contains five articles. The first and most common is the definite article, La (I ate the cheese). There is also the indefinite article Ka (I saw a bird), the partitive article Bi (Do you want some water?), the negative article Pi (No man is an island), and the [categoritive] article Гo (All birds are creatures).
Thiskish is declined by Case, Number, Tense and Gender. These are all served by suffixes.
Thiskish includes four cases, the nominative case, the accusative case, the dative case, and the genitive case. The nominative case is written as the root word. The accusative is marked by the suffix -n (if last letter is an illegal consonant cluster, -an), the dative by the suffix -m (if last letter is an illegal consonant cluster, -am), and the genitive by the suffix -f (if last letter is an illegal consonant cluster, -yf). Irregular case declension is extremely rare.
Fypif (English: Fish)
Thiskish has three grammatical numbers for its nouns, the singular (1), dual (2) and plural (more than 2). These can be identified by no suffix for singular, a suffix of -w (if the last letter is an illegal consonant cluster, -ew) for dual, and a suffix of -s (if the last letter is an illegal consonant cluster, -es) for plural. Sometimes there are irregular nouns, almost always caused by an illegal consonant cluster (see phonotactics).
Three genders exist in Thiskish, applying to Adjectives, Nouns and Verbs. Each word has a form in each gender. The three genders are positive, neutral and negative to denote if the words are referring to the word as a good thing, bad thing, or neither (an example in english is the three forms of the word tiny (petite for positive, puny for negative, and tiny for neutral). As each word has a form, one uses an affix to denote the gender, which varies. Each gender is declined in other forms similarly. Neutral is defaulted. An s is placed if adding the suffix results in two vowels next to each other.
Kames (English: Dog)
There are three tenses in Thiskish, these are the future tense, present tense, past tense. They are all used arbitrarily to tell a reader when the verb was done. The difference between present tense and past tense is that in past tense, the verb has been done after it has triggered another major event. Future tense is triggered by the suffix -ca (or if the last letter is an illegal consonant cluster, -aca). Past tense is triggered by the suffix -ba (or if the last letter is an illegal consonant cluster, -aba)
Efax (English: Run)
|type (part of speech)||modifier||end word||english equivalent|
|present (root)||[no suffix]||Efax||Running|
Pronouns are basic and straightforward in Thiskish. There are conjugations for first person, second person, and a masculine, feminine and neuter for third person. In addition, each of the five types of pronoun gets a singular, dual and plural form, making fifteen pronouns total, each for a different purpose. Pronouns must have their antecedent in the same sentence, however.
To create a participle out of a verb, one must add the suffix -a, since all adjectives end with -a. Therefore, the verb is an adjective and describes that a noun verbed or was verbed on or is being verbed or verbing. To change the tense, one simply uses the tense rules in Thiskish.
Gerunds are formed in Thiskish by changing the verb suffix to the noun suffix (see Parts of speech).
There are three types of sub clauses (parts of sentences that are sentences) in Thiskish: The Adverbial (such as He did it), Adjective (such as That walked to the store) and Noun (such as She kicked him) clauses. Adverbial always comes before Adjective which always comes before Noun. The sub clauses are then ordered as regular sentences. Sub clauses are connected by conjunctions.
There are two types of commands in Thiskish, one is the "polite" type and the other is the "impolite type". The polite type is made by the particle Seg, the sentence, and a question mark (a direct translation would be: Seg you me the hammer give?). The impolite type is created by just a plain sentence and an exclamation mark, which is not used anywhere else in Thiskish (A direct translation would be 'You me the hammer give!').
Parts of speechEdit
This is a list of suffixes that follow a root to make is a part of speech. Only adjectives, nouns, adverbs and verbs are suffixed because adjectives, nouns, adverbs and verbs are all one type of root that must be suffixed to create the individual part.
- Adjectives: -a
- Nouns: -e
- Adverbs: -i
- Verb: -o
If two vowels occur because the root ends in a vowel, an L in placed between them.
See Thiskish/Dictionary for a list of words in Thiskish.
English: This language was once featured. Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities it has been voted as featured.
Word for word translation from Thiskish: This language was featured. Thiskish was voted featured because its amount of quality and plausibility and usage capability.
Thiskish: Daf nagetike arovo xиpemen. Tиskiwef arovo makewoba xиpemen sarz va pyгolem lo гekoteraser jok badiłajalaser jok zurkaser vиlosem.