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| Name: Tláymyts
Head Direction: Initial
Number of genders: 2
Modern Tláymyts (pron. ['tlɛmjts]) is the most important language in the planet Drion.
Its main characteristics are the loss of old second person in both singular and plural, with the adoption of old formal address fuzi as the new second person form. This reflected in a change in pronouns and a great simplification of verb conjugation.
Phonetically, the old stress pattern of unstressed, half-stressed and stressed syllables was changed to a simpler system with only stressed and unstressed syllables, which affected mostly the vowels i and u.
In nouns, a new case system was created, resulting from the use of prepositions as postpositions (which was already current in Classical Tláymyts) and then as suffixes. Articles were lost, although the number ón ([hɔn]) is still used as an indefinite article for emphasis.
In the field of phonology, Tláymyts has developed in a very interesting way.
The innovations that broke Modern Tláymyts apart from Classical Tláymyts are based on two factors:
- Stress became functional in both nominals and verbs.
- Semivowels tended to disappear, but always leaving some traces behind.
In almost all Nekturian languages, stress does not play any role in morphology or vocabulary. That was true for Tláymyts as well, up to the Classical period. In modern Tláymyts, stress has a morphologic use in nominals (nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numbers) and verbs.
In nominals, stress is used to distinguish nominative from other cases. In the nominative case, words are always stressed on the first syllable (there are some exceptions). In accusative (and, therefore, in all other cases), words are stressed on the last syllable (no exceptions). So, e.g.:
- nêmay ['nemɛ] "mine" (nominative), nemaí [nema'hi] "mine" (accusative)
- fárè ['faɾɛ] "candle" (nominative), faré [fa'ɾɛ]"candle" (accusative)
- êlnèmts ['helnɛmts] "sisters" (nominative), elnémts [hel'nɛmts] "sisters" (accusative)
In verbs, stress is used to differentiate past tenses from present/future tenses. All verbs in any present or future tense is stressed on the first syllable (there are exceptions, see below), while all verbs in any past tense is stressed on the last syllable (no exceptions). For this division, conditional is put in the group of past tenses. E.g.:
- stressed on the first syllable:
- éne ['hɛnɛ] "loves"
- énèlanwts ['hɛnɛlɑnWts] "we will love"
- énèlè ['hɛnɛlɛ] "you/he/she will love"
- stressed on the last syllable:
- ènwó [hɛnW'hɔ] "loved"
- ènèlaí [hɛnɛla'hi] "would love (sing.)"
- ènèlé [hɛnɛ'lɛ] "you/he/she had loved"
- dylaí ènètú [dila'hi (hɛ)nɛ'tu] "you/he/she would have loved"
Semivowels i and u have a tendence to disappear. However, they always leave some trace in the preceding consonants and, in some dialects, in the preceding vowels as well. A consonant that comes before the semivowel i is palatalized after it disappears, while a consonant that comes before the semivowel u is labialized after it disappears. So, we get:
- párw ['pɑɾW] "beautiful"
- méfy ['mɛfj] "spaceship"
Non-tonic i is written y, while non-tonic u is written w.
The standard language only recognizes alteration on vowels resulting from semivowel dropping in the case of diphthongs. All old diphthongs are turned to monophthongs in the modern language (although they are still written as diphthongs in the standard orthography). So:
- dáy (pron. [dɛ]) from dái ['dai] "aunt"
- dêw (pron. [do], [dø]) from dêw ['deu] "uncle"
- ráyw (pron. [ɾɔ], [ɾœ]) from ráiu ['ɾaiu] "lion" (i.e., a large fierce animal resembling a lion)
In all these cases, the old orthography is maintained in the native Tláymyts alphabet.
In diphthongs in which a semivowel comes before a vowel, there is no fusion.
In modern Tláymyts a vowel can not start a syllable. When this was the case, an aspiration is used. This aspiration is also used whenever a semivowel comes before a vowel. So:
- elaí (pron. [hela'hi]) from old elai (pron. [e'lai]) "would go (sing.)"
- ènwó (pron. [hɛnɯ'hɔ]) from old enúo (pron. [ɛ'nuo]) "(you/he/she) loved"
This aspiration, although present in all Tláymyts dialects with no exception, is never represented in writing.
When a word ends in a stressed vowel and the following word starts with an aspirated vowel, the starting syllable of the second word may be dropped:
- dylaí ènètú -> dylaí 'nètú (pron. [djla'hi nɛ'tu]) "you/he/she would have loved"
- fyeú híry -> fyeú 'ry (pron. [fje'huɻ]) "he came"
- fyeú árè -> fyeú 'rè (pron. [fje'huɾɛ]) "she came"
Words beginning with yts- drop the semivowel together with the aspiration:
- Old izdúlai -> ytsdúlay [hjts'dulɛ] -> ytsdúlay ['tsdulɛ] "story"
This occurs only in spoken language. It is never indicated in the standard orthography.
|p [p]||t [t]||k [k]|
|b [b]||d [d]||g [g]|
|f [f]||v [v]||ts [ts]|
|s [s]||sh [ʃ]||z [z]||j [ʒ]|
|m [m]||n [n]||r [r]||l [l]|
The cosonant z becomes ts at the end of syllables. E.g.:
- béz -> béts [bɛts] "peace"
- izdúlai -> ytsdúlay [(hj)ts'dulɛ] "history"
This variation of z has its own character in the standard Tláymyts alphabet.
The aspiration (h) is not considered a consonant and is not represented in Tláymyts orthography, although it happens in all current dialects.
When g comes before a stressed é, ê or í, it is pronounced as a semivowel y. So, gésè "house" is actually pronounced ['jɛsɛ] . In unstressed syllables there is no change, so the accusative gèsé is pronounced with a g just as it is written: [gɛ'sɛ] .
The consonant k may be pronounced as kh in stressed syllables.
In one single word, íry ['hiɾj] "he", and its plural form, íryts ['hiɾjts], there may be a retroflex variant of the consonant r, when this word comes after a stressed syllable ending in a vowel, becoming thus a suffix. So:
- fyá íry ['fja 'hirj] or ['fjaɻ] "he goes"
- zhikwó íry [dʒjkʍ'hɔ 'hiɾj] or [dʒjkʍ'hɔɻ] "he arrived"
When the vowel i disappears due to loss of stress, it affects the consonant which comes immediately before it by palatalizing it. The degree of palatalization is varies greatly from speaker to speaker. In the case of the letter n, the result is a palatal nasal [ɲ] in most cases.
|py [pʲ]||ty [tʲ]||ky [kʲ]|
|by [bʲ]||dy [dʲ]||gy [gʲ]|
|fy [fʲ]||vy [vʲ]|
|sy [sʲ]||shy [ʃ_j]||zy [zʲ]|
|my [mʲ]||ny [ɲ]||ry [rʲ]||ly [lʲ]|
The degree of retention of the vowel in these cases varies from speaker to speaker. E.g.; while most speakers pronounce bykél as [b_jçɛl] (one syllable), some would pronounce it as [b_ji'çɛl] (two syllables).
Some consonants have variations according to dialect.
- f -> [pf]
- v -> [bv]
- r -> [gr], [ʔɾ]
- l -> [gl], [ʔl]
- sh -> [tʃ]
- j -> [dʒ]
- g -> [ɣ]
- k -> [x]; [ç] (only before [e], [ɛ] and [i]).
These variations are more and more common in the standard language.
In the modern language, the vowels [ø], [œ] and [y] appear as contractions (monothongization) of [eu], [ɛu] and [iu]. A further development turns [ø] into closed [o], but this variation is not accepted by all speakers. Still more uncommon is the simplification of [œ] into [ɔ], thus mixing with original [ɔ].
In traditional transcription, the following convention is used for representing the four possibilities of the vowel e:
|Open||è [ɛ]||é ['ɛ]|
|Closed||e [e]||ê ['e]|
- elaí [hela'hi]
- vèlahí [vɛla'hi]
- vwê [vW'he]
- hárè ['haɾɛ]
- haré [ha'ɾɛ]
There are also the vowels [o], [ø] and [œ] resulting exclusively from old diphthongs. These sounds are not "productive" in the language and the closed [o] is even considered by many speakers as "wrong", [ø] and [œ] being tolerated because it still holds characteristics of its original components [e] and [u]. Ex.:
- ékoè ['hɛkœ], ['hɛkɔ] "water"
- bêwrew ['bøɾø], ['boɾo] "louse"
In one single word the sequence ea is pronounced [a] ([ja] in some dialects):
- nóreal ['nɔɾal] (dial. also ['nɔɾjal]) "woman"
but the accusative form is noreál [nɔɾe'hal] throughout.
The semivowels are y and w, corresponding to i and u.
Old diphthongs (and triphthongs) do not exist anymore. They are pronounced as a single vowel (called a monophthong) or divided by an aspiration, depending on where stress falls on the word.
- ai -> ay [ɛ] or aí [a'hi]
- êu -> ew [ø]/[o] or eú [e'hu]
- éu -> èw [œ]/[ɔ] or èú [ɛ'hu]
- aiu -> ayw [œ]/[ɔ] or ayú [ɛ'hu]
There is no definite article in modern Tláymyts. Old u/e are completely lost.
The indefinite article (the same as the number one), ón [hɔn], is generally not used, but is accepted and is regularly used in some dialects.
Modern Tláymyts has developed a new declension system with seven cases.
Nominative is the base form of the word and is stressed always on the first syllable:
- gésè ['jɛsɛ] "house"
- únan ['hunan] "man"
- gláymzè ['glɛmzɛ] "child"
If the first syllable has the vowel i or u, it may be stressed or not. If not, stress is shifted to the second syllable:
- títsklèzè ['titsklɛzɛ] or tytsklézè [tjts'klɛzɛ] "disgrace"
- búlgèlay ['bulgɛlɛ] or bwlgélay [bWljɛlɛ] "crap"
In these words, the form with the first syllable stressed (that is, with a stressed i or ú) is considered more "classical", "formal" or even "old-fashioned", while the form with the second syllable stressed is considered more colloquial, modern.
The accusative case has no ending, but stress is shifted to the last syllable:
- gésè ['jɛsɛ] -> gèsé [gɛ'sɛ] "house"
- únan ['hunan] -> wnán [hW'nan] "man"
- gláymzè ['glɛmzɛ] -> glaymzé [glɛm'zɛ] "child"
- títsklèzè ['titsklɛzɛ] -> tytsklèzé [tjtsklɛ'zɛ] "disgrace"
If the word ends in a monophthong (that is, a vowel resulting from an old diphthong), the components are separated and an aspiration is placed between them:
- dáy [dɛ] -> daí [da'hi] "aunt"
- dêw [dø] -> deú [de'hu] "uncle"
- búlgèlay ['bulgɛlɛ] -> bwlgèlaí [bWlgɛla'hi] "crap"
- nóreal ['nɔɾal] -> noreál [nɔɾe'hal] "woman"
- bêwrew ['bøɾø] -> bewreú [boɾe'hu] "louse"
In some dialects, all monophthongs, including those inside a word, are unfolded in the accusative, so:
- glaymzé [glahɪm'zɛ] "child"
- gwesé [gWhe'sɛ] "thing"
- wofetú [hWhɔfe'tu] "(internal) ear"
Standard language has: [glɛm'zɛ], [gwe'sɛ]/[gø'sɛ], [hwɔfe'tu].
The other cases are built upon the accusative, by means of one-consonant endings:
- Genitive/possessive: -t (corresponding to preposition "of" or ending "´s")
- Dative-Ablative: -b (corresponding to prepositions "to", "for", "toward")
- Locative: -n (corresponding to prepositions "in", "at", "on")
- Commitative-Instrumental: -g (corresponding to prepositions "with")
- Abortive: -z (corresponding to prepositions "without")
As these endings are remnants of old prepositions used as postpositions, they come after the plural ending.
|Nominative||gélw ['jɛlW], [jœl]||gélwts ['jɛlWts], [jœlts]|
|Accusative||gèlú [gɛ'lu]||gèlúts [gɛ'luts]|
|Genitive||gèlút [gɛ'lut]||gèlútst [gɛ'lutst]|
|Dative-Ablative||gèlúb [gɛ'lub]||gèlútsb [gɛ'lutsb]|
|Commitative-Instrumental||gèlúg [gɛ'lug]||gèlútsg [gɛ'lutsg]|
|Abortive||gèlúz [gɛ'luz]||gèlútsz [gɛ'lutsz], [gɛ'lutz]|
Abortive plural is rarely used, either because of the meaning ("without shoes" would be the same as "without a shoe") or because of the resulting clumsy consonant cluster (tsz).
It is very common in speech to add a final -a to the case endings. E.g.:
- reíb [ɾe'hiba] "to him"
- gèsén [gɛ'sɛna] "in the house", "at home"
- mútst ['mutsta] "of us"
Prepositions require the genitive case. E.g.:
- baldún bwldét [bal'dun bWl'dɛt]"by the door", "next to the door"
- zwplín nysét [zW'plin nj'sɛt]"on the table"
Prepositions always end with the locative ending (n). The most common are:
- baldún [bal'dun] "by", "next to"
- zwplín [zW'plin] "on"
- gwnún [gW'nun] "like"
- pyajún [pja'dʒun] "under"
- rètún [ɾɛ'tun] "beside"
- amdlín [ham'dlin] "between", "among"
- rwmshín [ɾWm'ʃin] "far from"
- rwmkún [ɾWm'xun] "along"
- tamdlún [tam'dlun] "inside"
- vwlén [vW'lɛn] "out of"
- rètún gwnbodètúlt [ɾɛ'tun gWnbɔdɛ'tult] "next to the computer"
- pyajún nysét [pja'dʒun nj'sɛt] "under the table"
- gwnún reít [gW'nun ɾe'hit] "like you/him/her"
A special use of the commitative case is taking over the taks of the conjunction "and". In this use it can appear together with other case endings, coming always as the last element in a word and often receiving the helping -a to make pronunciation easier. Ex.:
- yó reíg [hjɔ ɾe'hig] "I and you"
- fúzy níg [fuzj nig] "you and I"
- êzw byáb nyábg ['hezW bj'hab nj'habga] "This is for the father and for the mother"
- laí híry baytét zoé gèlétg [la'hiɻ bɛ'tɛta zɔ'hɛ gɛ'lɛtga] "He was laughing because of the joke and because of your face."
Nominative vs. AccusativeEdit
As has been stated above, in principle the only difference between the nominative and the accusative forms of a word is stress. However, due to how the language evolved phonologically, there are words that show great differences from one form to the other. Some examples:
- dêw [dø], acc. deú [de'hu]"uncle"
- dáy [dɛ], acc. daí [da'hi] "aunt"
- nyá [nja], acc. nyá [nj'ha]"mother"
- byá [bja], acc. byá [bj'ha]"fater"
- êlnèw ['helnœ], acc. elnèú [helnɛ'hu]"brother"
- gésè ['jɛsɛ], acc. gèsé [gɛ'sɛ]"house"
- gélw [jɛlW]/[jœl], acc. gèlú [gɛ'lu]"car, vehicle"
- béw [bœ], acc. bèú [bɛ'hu] "bread"
- nóreal ['nɔɾal], acc. noreál [nɔɾe'hal] "woman"
- géw [jœ], acc. gèhú [gɛ'hu]"dog"
- ékoè ['hɛkœ], acc. èkoé [hɛkɔ'hɛ] "water"
However, in most words the difference is limited to stress:
- zêtèty ['zetɛtj], acc. zetètí [zetɛ'ti] "town"
- négemè ['nɛgemɛ], acc. nègemé ['nɛgemɛ] "machine"
- êmtsdedodw ['hemtsdedɔdW], acc. emtsdedodú [hemtsdedɔ'du] "institute"
Plural of nouns is in -(i)ts. There are some irregularities according to the original ending of the word.
- Words ending in a vowel, semivowel or in -m add -z:
- véneray ['vɛneɾɛ] "family", pl. vénerayts ['vɛneɾɛts]
- zêtèty ['zetɛtj] "town", pl. zêtètyts ['zetɛtjts]
- êlnèm ['helnɛ(m)] "sister", pl. êlnèmts ['helnɛ(m)ts]
- Words ending in -l add -its:
- nóreal ['nɔɾal] "woman", pl. nórealyts ['nɔɾaljts]
- Some words ending in -ts change this to -sits, others remain unchanged:
- byáts [bjats] "country", pl. byásyts [bjasjts]
- rébets ['ɾɛbets] "pencil", pl. rébets ['ɾɛbets]
- Words ending in -n change -n to -mts:
- únan ['hunan] "man", pl. únamts ['hunamts]
- Words ending in -èr change this to -yats:
- vêmèr ['vemɛɾ] "ending", pl. vêmyats ['vemjats]
- Words ending in -er change this to -ets:
- péler ['pɛleɾ] "barrel", pl. pélets ['pɛlets]
- Some masculine words ending in monophthong -o (from èw) just add -ts regularly:
- êlnèw ['helnɔ] "brother", pl. êlnèwts ['helnɔts]
- úlkèw ['hulkɔ] "organ", pl. úlkèwts ['hulkɔts]
- Feminine words and some masculine words ending in monophthong -èw change this to -wits:
- vlézèw ['vlɛzɔ] "fraction", pl. vlézwits ['vlɛzWits]
- pérèw ['pɛɾɔ] "balloon", pl. pérwits ['pɛɾWits]
- Some other masculine words ending in monophthong -èw) change this to -éyts; however, these words are rare in modern Tláymyts and, when used, tend to use a regular plural:
- géw ['jœ], ['jɔ] "dog", pl. géyts ['jɛjts] (rare, géjwlw ['jɛʒWlW], pl. géjwlwts ['jɛʒWlWts] is used instead)
- gébedèw ['jɛbedɔ] "captain", pl. gébedèyts ['jɛbedɛjts] (or simply gébedèwts ['jɛbedɔts])
Adjectives have only two cases, nominative and oblique. The oblique form is used for accusative and for all the other cases. Plural follows the same rules indicated for nouns.
In the following example you can see the adjective múfw "new" declined along with a masculine noun (gélw, "car") and a feminine noun (lwóbè, "piece of cloth"):
There are adjectives with a masculine and a feminine form, and adjectives with a single form for both genders. E.g.:
- múfw m., múfè f. "new", "young"
- klémty m./f. "great"
- vêmèr m./f. "final"
Only adjectives in -w have a feminine form which is always in -è. Adjective pún "good" has the feminine form pwé.
The comparitive of superiority is formed with the adverb nyáts placed before the adjective:
- nyáts fárew "older"
- nyáts múfw "newer"
- nyáts vúldy "stronger"
In the modern spoken language, there are two possibilities for the pronunciation of this construction:
- the adverb is pronounced as a noun in the accusative or locative case: nyáts fárew [nj'hats 'faɾo], nyátsn fárew [nj'hatsn 'faɾo]
- the adverb is used as a prefix to the adjective: nyáts faro ['njaffaɾo]
This last form is the most current. When this happens, the final -ts of the adverb is assimilated to the first consonant of the following word, resulting in a doubled consonant. In the nominative case, stress is shifted to the prefix, while in the other cases accent falls regularly on the last syllable:
- nyáts farew ['njaffaɾo] "older", Acc. nyáts fareú [njaffaɾe'hu]
- nyáts mwfw ['njammWfW] "newer", Acc. nyáts mwfú [njammW'fu]
- nyáts vwldy ['njavvWldj] "stronger", Acc. nyáts vwldí [njavvWl'di]
The complement is put in the genitive case:
- nyáts farew reít ['njaffaɾo ɾe'hit] "older than him"
- nyáts mwfw wodlút ['njammWfW (hw)ɔ'dlut] "newer than the other"
- nyáts vwldy mútst ['njavvWldj mutst] "stronger than us"
There are four adjectives that keep old Nekturian irregular comparatives:
- pún [pun], comp. nírewl ['niɾol]
- nér [nɛɾ], lyún [ljun], comp. bêwl [bol]
- klémty [klɛmtj], comp. nyáwl [njɔl]
- bygámw [bj'gamW], comp. námwl ['namWl]
Relative superlative ("the most ...") has exactly the same form as the comparative of superiority:
- nyáts fárew ['njats 'faɾo], nyáts(n) fárew [nj'hats(n) 'faɾo], nyáts farew ['njaffaɾo] "the oldest"
- nyáts múfw ['njats 'mufW], nyáts(n) múfw [nj'hats(n) 'mufW], nyáts mwfw ['njammWfW] "the newest"
- nyáts vúldy ['njats 'vuldj], nyáts(n) vúldy [nj'hats(n) 'vuldj], nyáts vwldy ['njavvWldj] "the strongest"
Absolute superlative ("very ...", "extremely ... ") is formed with the adverb nyúdw "very" placed before the adjective:
- nyúdw fárew "very old"
- nyúdw múfw "very new"
- nyúdw vúldy "very strong"
In spoken language, this adverb nyúdw is used either as a noun in the locative case (nyudún) or as a prefix. When prefixed to the adjective, the last syllable (-dw) is assimilated to the first consonant of the adjective, resulting in a doubled consonant, and, in the nominative case, stress is shifted to the prefix. So:
- nyudún fárew [nju'dun 'faɾo], nyúdw farew ['njuffaɾo] "very old"
- nyudún múfw [nju'dun 'mufW], nyúdw mwfw ['njummWfW] "very new"
- nyudún vúldy [nju'dun 'vuldj], nyúdw vwldy ['njuvvWldj] "very strong"
Attributive adjectives generally come before nouns. They can, however, come after nouns, with no change in meaning. Ex.:
- pwè êtaay [pwɛ 'hetahɛ], êtaay pwè ['hetahɛ pwɛ] "good idea"
- mézewmèr gúmgolzw ['mɛzømɛɾ 'gumgɔlzW], gúmgolzw mézewmèr ['gumgɔlzW 'mɛzømɛɾ] "national contest"
- fárew nátsdly ['faɾø 'natsdlj], nátsdly fárew ['natsdlj 'faɾø] "old master"
- nyreúl nwtún [njɾe'hul nW'tun], nwtún nyreúl [nW'tun njɾe'hul] "in a better way"
Modern Tláymyts has replaced old second person pronouns by treatment forms which were originally 3rd person. So, except for the nominative form of the personal pronouns, Tláymyts has a two-person pronominal system, with a single form shared by 2nd and 3rd persons. This system affects pronouns (in the oblique forms), possessives and verbs.
So, to avoid confusion, new accusative forms appeared, following the general rule of regular stress shift to the last syllable. These alternative forms are used only in colloquial language and exclusively when needed to make clear if one means 2nd or 3rd person. An alternative form for the fisrt person singular also exists, but is rejected by most speakers.
The following table presents the personal pronouns in both the nominative and the accusative forms. Other cases are built upon the accusative by means of suffixes (ses above).
|1s||yó [hjɔ]||ní [ni]||(yó [hj'hɔ])|
|2s||fúzy ['fuzj]||reí [ɾe'hi]||fwzí [fW'zi]|
|3s m.||íry ['hiɾj], [hɻ]||reí [ɾe'hi]||yrí [hj'ɾi]|
|3s f.||árè ['haɾɛ]||reí [ɾe'hi]||aré [ha'ɾɛ]|
|1p||múts [muts]||múts [muts]||-|
|2p||fúzyts ['fuzjts]||reíts [ɾe'hits]||fwzíts [fW'zits]|
|3p m.||íryts ['hiɾjts], [hɻts]||reíts [ɾe'hits]||yríts [hj'ɾits]|
|3p f.||árèts ['haɾɛts]||reíts [ɾe'hits]||aréts [ha'ɾɛts]|
Subject personal pronouns must always be used, even when the verb ending clearly indicates the person. Both subject and object pronouns generally come before the verb, but inversions may be used if a special effect is wanted, mainly in poetry or in songs. However, inversions have no effect on the meaning of the sentence. Examples:
- Yó reí físhw [hjɔ ɾe'hi 'fiʃW], Reí yó físhw [ɾe'hi hjɔ 'fiʃW], Reí físhw yó [ɾe'hi 'fiʃW hjɔ], "I see you/him/her"
- Reíb têkè fúzy ezú [ɾe'hib 'texɛ 'fuzj he'zu], Ezú reíb têkè fúzy [he'zu ɾe'hib 'texɛ 'fuzj], Têkè fúzy ezú reíb ['texɛ 'fuzj he'zu ɾe'hib] "(You) tell it to him/her."
When expressed by nominal expressions with a noun as a nucleus, however, subject always comes before the verb, while objects always come after the verb:
- Yó físhw mwzú blwvyzúl [hjɔ 'fiʃW mW'zu blWvj'zul], Físhw yó mwzú blwvyzúl ['fiʃW hjɔ mW'zu blWvj'zul] "I see our teacher."
- Múzw blúvyzwl múts fí ['muzW 'bluvjzWl muts fi], Múzw blúvyzwl fí múts ['muzW 'bluvjzWl fi muts] "Our teacher sees us."
Inversions with nominal syntagms may occur, but is not very common:
- Mwzú blwvyzúl físhw yó [mW'zW blWvj'zul 'fiʃW hjɔ] "I see our teacher"
- Múts fí múzw blúvyzwl [muts fi 'muzW 'bluvjzWl] "Our teacher sees us."
In these cases there is no ambiguity, as the difference of stress in the nominative and oblique cases makes it clear who is the subject and who are the objects; cf. múzw blúvyzwl (nom.) x mwzú blwvyzúl (acc.).
Properly speaking, there are only three possessive adjectives:
- nyó [njɔ] "my"
- múzw ['muzW] "our"
- zyó [zjɔ] "thy", "your", "his", "her", "their"
But, to avoid ambiguity, the genitive form of the second and third person pronouns are used:
- reít [ɾe'hit], fwzít [fW'zit] "thy", "your (s.)"
- reít [ɾe'hit], hyrít [hj'ɾit] "his"
- reít [ɾe'hit], harét [ha'ɾɛt] "her"
- reítst [ɾe'hitst], fwzítst [fW'zitst] "your (pl.)"
- reítst [ɾe'hit], hyrítst [hj'ɾitst] "their (m.)"
- reítst [ɾe'hit], harétst [ha'ɾɛtst] "their (f.)"
The actual possessives nyó, múzw and zyó are adjectives and so are declined for gender, number and case (nominative and oblique):
- nyó [njɔ] (m.), nêmay ['nemɛ] (f.)
- múzw ['muzW] (m.), múzè ['muzɛ] (f.)
- zyó [zjɔ] (m.), zóè ['zɔhɛ] (f.)
Demonstrative pronouns are the following:
- ízy ['hizj] (m.), ázè ['hazɛ] "this"
- égyry ['hɛgjɾj], ['hɛjiɾj] (m.), égarè ['hɛgaɾɛ] "that"
They are declined for number and case. When functioning as adjectives, they have only the nominative and the general oblique case, but when used as pronouns they receive case endings like nouns. Ex.:
- Ázè vúdw nyáts párè a ègaré vwdút. ['hazɛ 'vudW 'njappaɾa hɛga'ɾɛ vW'dut] "This picture is more beautiful than that picture."
- Ázè vúdw nyáts párè a ègarét. ['hazɛ 'vudW 'njappaɾa hɛga'ɾɛt] "This picture is more beautiful than that (one)."
The Tláymyts relative pronoun par excellence is gy [ji] "that", "which", "who". In the nominative case, it is sometimes reduced to [i] in connected speech. In the other cases, however, it is always stressed. Ex.:
- Gélè gy jykwó wmdán ['jɛlɛ (j)i ʒjkW'hɔ (hW)m'dan] "The guy who arrived yesterday"
- Gólzw gy gwnázè wshín ['gɔlzW (j)i gW'naz(ɛ h)W'ʃin] "The course that starts today"
- Únan gí fê yó zamdlún ['hunan ji fe hjɔ zam'dlun] "The man (that) I saw downtown"
- Nóreal gíg vèrèfé fúzy ['nɔɾal 'jig(a) vɛɾɛ'fɛ 'fuzj] "The whoman you were talking to"
The genitive case of gy is also used for both "why?" and "because":
- Gít tysetsdeó fúzy? ['jit(a) tjsetsde'hɔ 'fuzj] "Why did you give up?"
- Gít méw zhèmzí dámew yó. ['jit(a) mœ ʒɛm'zi dam jɔ] "Because I have got no chance."
The following interrogative words are in use:
- gy [ji], accus. gí [ji] "what", "which"
- gan [gan], [ɣan] "who"
- góèr [gœɾ], accus. goér [gɔ'hɛɾ], pl. góyats ['gɔjats] (m./f.) "which", "which one"
The other ones are now used with the locative ending:
- gwnún [gW'nun] "how"
- wmtín [hWm'tin] "where"
- goèmtún [gœm'tun] (also [gohɛm'tun]) "when"
The old forms gúnw ['gunu], úmty ['humti] and góèmtu ['gɔhɛmtu] are still found in some dialects.
The following words are declined regularly:
- Érkon ['hɛɾkɔn] (m.), érkonè ['hɛɾkɔnɛ] (f.) "some", "any"
- Mámeon ['mam(eh)ɔn] (m.), mámeonè ['mam(eh)ɔnɛ] (f.) "no", "none"
- Dútw ['dutW] (m.), dútè ['dutɛ] (f.) "all", "every", "each"
- Wódlw ['hwɔdlW] (m.), wódlè ['hwɔdlɛ] (f.) "other", "another"
- Nyúdw ['njudW] (m.), nyúdè ['njudɛ] (f.) "much", "a lot of"
- Nyúdwts ['njudWts] (m.), nyúdèts ['njudɛts] (f.) "many", "a lot of"
- Bwógw ['bwɔgW] (m.), bwógè ['bwɔgɛ] (f.) "few"
- Bwógwts ['bwɔgWts] (m.), bwógèts ['bwɔgɛts] (f.) "a few"
- Záldw ['zaldW] (m.), záldè ['zaldɛ] (f.) "a certain"
- Félewts ['fɛløts] (m.), félayts ['fɛlɛts] (f.) "several"
- Démdw ['dɛmdW] (m.), démdè ['dɛmdɛ] (f.) "so much"
- Démdwts ['dɛm(d)Wts] (m.), démdèts ['dɛmdɛts] (f.) "so many"
- Góèrgal ['gœɾgal] "whatever", "whichever"
The following words are invariable:
- Érkw ['hɛɾkW] "something", "anything"
- Dótw ['dɔtW] "everything", "all"
- Métè ['mɛtɛ] "nothing"
- Érkan ['hɛɾkan] "someone", "somebody", "anyone", "anybody"
- Mêmkan ['memkan] "nobody"
- Gétè ['jɛtɛ] "each", "every"
Other numbers are formed by compounding. So:
Although each number, up to infinity, has an ordinal form, ordinal numbers higher than 10 are rarely used. All ordinal forms are declined like regular adjectives.
Verbs in Tláymyts are conjugated for 2 Voices (Active and Medio-passive), 4 Moods (Indicative, Subjunctive, Conditional, Imperative), 7 Tenses (Present, Preterite Perfect, Preterite Imperfect, Pluperfect, Future, Present Perfect, Future Perfect), 2 Persons (first and second/third) and 2 Numbers (singular and plural). There are also two nominal forms: Participle and Gerund.
There is a high number of irregular verbs.
Old Tláymyts had an active voice, a reflexive voice built with reflexive pronouns and a passive voice built with the auxiliary verb zíl. Modern Tláymyts, while still recognizing the old passive voice (with zíl), extended the use of the old reflexive form to the passive voice, resulting in what is currently called the medio-passive voice. The old passive voice is still found in dialects.
|Active Voice||Old Passive Voice||Medio-Passive Voice|
|blíbèlw "(I) am preparing"||zú blíbèlètw "I am being prepared"||ní blíbèlw "I am preparing myself", "I am get prepared", "I am being prepared"|
|fí "(you/he/she) see(s)"||á fêtsdw "(you/he/she) is/are seen"||zí fí "(you/he/she) see(s) your/him/herself", "(you/he/she) is/are seen"|
|blwgolènúts "we looked for"||vwnúts blúgolètwts "we were looked for"||múts blwgolènúts "we looked for ourselves", "we were looked for"|
|vylaín "(you/they) used to hurt"||alén víletwts "(you/they) were hurt", "(you/they) used to be hurt"||zí vylaín "(you/they) used to hurt your/themselves", "(you/they) were hurt", "(you/they) used to be hurt"|
The reflexive pronouns are:
|ní||1st person singular|
|múts||1st person plural|
|zí||2nd and 3rd persons, singular and plural|
Elision is common with verbs beginning with an aspirated vowel, sometimes causing ambiguity:
- zí èjwó íry [zi ʒw'hɔɻ] "he has been found", "he has found himself"
- ní wplekyê yó [ni plekj'he hjɔ] "I forced myself (to)", "I was forced (to)"
- zí yryfèlén íryts [zi ɾjfɛ'lɛn hɻts] "they were lifted", "they lifted themselves"
- (cf.) zí ryfèlén íryts [zi ɾjfɛ'lɛn hɻts] "they were taken away", "they took themselves away (=they went out)"
The agent of the passive voice is marked with the genitive case:
- Zí blamtyó íry bwrezaírt [zi blamtj'hɔɻ bWɾeza'hiɾt] "He was arrested by the policeman."
- Ázè námzèshan zí nèmtwó telydúlt ['hazɛ 'namzɛʃan zi nɛmtW'hɔ telj'dult(a)] "This message was sent by the director."
As the genitive case has other uses, there may appear ambiguous sentences. E.g.:
- Zí nèdwó hárè reít. [zi nɛdW'hɔɾɛ ɾe'hit(a)] "She was killed by him." but also "She killed herself because of him."
- Ízy rêflw zí ytsglyfyó mwzú enbylètúlt. ['hizj 'ɾeflW zi tsgljfj'hɔ mW'zu nbjlɛ'tult(a)] "This book was written by our emperor.", but also "This book was written in favour of our emperor."
Indicative and subjunctive, working basically like the Italian counterparts, are current and represent the core verb moods of the language. Conditional is very limited in tenses, only the present being in current use. The imperative mood has one single form (called the present). Mood is indicated by different sets of endings. Examples:
- fámew ['famø], ['famo] "(I) come" (indicative)
- fámay ['famɛ] "(that I) come" (subjunctive)
- felaí [fela'hi] "(I) would come" (conditional)
- fámay ['famɛ] "come" (imperative)
In practice, there is not really an imperative mood, as it has exactly the same forms as the subjunctive mood.
Tenses correspond roughly to those used in Spanish or Portuguese.
|Present||Simple Present, Present Continuous|
|Preterite Perfect||Simple Past, Present Perfect|
|Preterite Imperfect||Simple Past, Past Continuous, "used to"|
|Future||Simple Future ("will"), Near Future ("going to"), Future Continuous|
|Present Perfect||Present Perfect|
|Future Perfect||Future Perfect|
Old progressive tenses, built with the auxiliary zíl and the gerund, are also recognized, although used only in the literary language and in some dialects:
|Present Progressive||Present Continuous|
|Preterite Progressive||Past Continuous|
|Future Progressive||Future Continuous|
Person and NumberEdit
Verbs in Tláymyts are conjugated in a two-person system, in which the first person has a separate form, with second and third persons sharing a common form. Singular and plural have distinct forms. Ex.:
|vérè||['vɛɾɛ]||"(you) speak", "(he/she) speaks"|
|vérèn||['vɛɾɛn]||"(you) speak", "(they) speak"|
Personal pronouns are always used with verbs, so there is no ambiguity. As for the position, personal pronouns may come before or after the verb:
|Pronoun before the verb||Pronoun after the verb|
Verbs in Tláymyts are divided in three types, according to the old Nekturian verb types. The differences from one type to the others are minimal but can be found throughout the whole system. The three verb types are called "conjugations" (gúmshokèzwyts), and are called by the ending of the infinitive form: -él, -íl and -êl.
Infinitive and GerundEdit
Note that, although the names of the conjugations use tonic vowels (é, í, ê), the infinitive form of the verb is mostly stressed on the first syllable, because it is considered to be a noun in the nominative case. When used as the complement of another verb, however, the infinitive is stressed regularly on the last syllable for the accusative case. So:
- Gémdèl vézer á. ['jɛmdɛl 'vɛzeɾa] "Singing is easy." (gémdèl is the subject of the sentence, so it is in the nominative case.)
- Árè zépy gèmdél. ['haɾɛ 'zɛpj jɛm'dɛl] "She can sing", "she knows (how) to sing" (gèmdél is the complement of the verb zépy, so it is in the accusative case.)
For other cases, the gerund is used instead of the infinitive. Ex.:
- Fyeú íry gèmdèmtúb. [fje'huɻ gɛmdɛm'tub] "He came (in order) to sing.", "He came for singing."
- Gémzètè árè á gèmdèmtút. ['jɛmzɛtaɾa gɛmdɛm'tut] "She is tired of singing."
- Zí vwlén íryts gèmdèmtúz. [zi vW'lɛn hɻts gɛmdɛm'tuz] "They left without singing."
- Also: Zí vwlén íryts zán gèmdèmtút. [zi vW'lɛn hɻts zan gɛmdɛm'tut] "They left without singing."
The gerund in the locative case is used with a conditional meaning which in English is translated with the conjunction "if". Ex.:
- Reí famtún fúzy, ní éfesy vèfúlt. [ɾe'hi fam'tun 'fuzj, 'nifesj vɛ'fult(a)] "If you see him, please tell me."
- Gyamtún méfy ázè, dútwts núlylèw. [jam'tun 'mɛf(j) '(h)azɛ, dutts 'nuljlœ] "If this shipe falls down, everybody will die."
- Bèkèmtún bèzèshán fúzy, búty amdlél. [bɛkɛm'tun bɛzɛ'ʃan 'fuzj, 'but(j h)am'dlɛl] "If you pay for a ticket, you will be able to get in.}}
In some dialects, the gerund in the locative case is used as a kind of progressive tense:
- Gèmdèmtún yó [gɛmdɛm'tun hjɔ] "I am singing."
- Gèmdèmtún íry [gɛmdɛm'tun hɻ], [gɛmdɛm'tunaɻ] "He is singing."
Here follow the conjugation tables for regular verbs.
|Pluperfect II||demaí èn-ètú||demaí èn-ètú||demaynúts èn-ètú||demaín èn-ètú|
|Present Perfect||dámew èn-ètú||dán èn-ètú||dánwts èn-ètú||dán èn-ètú|
|Future Perfect||dílye èn-ètú||dílè èn-ètú||dílawts èn-ètú||dílèw èn-ètú|
|Present Perfect||dámay èn-ètú||dámay èn-ètú||dámaynwts èn-ètú||dámayn èn-ètú|
|Preterite Perfect||defazí èn-ètú||defazí èn-ètú||defazynúts èn-ètú||defazán èn-ètú|
|Future Perfect||dêfal èn-ètú||dêfal èn-ètú||dêfalnwts èn-ètú||dêfalan èn-ètú|
|Preterite Perfect||dylaí èn-ètú||dylaí èn-ètú||dylaynúts èn-ètú||dylaín èn-ètú|
|Pluperfect II||demaí famt-etú||demaí famt-etú||demaynúts famt-etú||demaín famt-etú|
|Present Perfect||dámew famt-etú||dán famt-etú||dánwts famt-etú||dán famt-etú|
|Future Perfect||dílye famt-etú||dílè famt-etú||dílawts famt-etú||dílèw famt-etú|
|Present Perfect||dámay famt-etú||dámay famt-etú||dámaynwts famt-etú||dámayn famt-etú|
|Preterite Perfect||defazí famt-etú||defazí famt-etú||defazynúts famt-etú||defazán famt-etú|
|Future Perfect||dêfal famt-etú||dêfal famt-etú||dêfalnwts famt-etú||dêfalan famt-etú|
|Preterite Perfect||dylaí famt-etú||dylaí famt-etú||dylaynúts famt-etú||dylaín famt-etú|
|Pluperfect II||demaí bèld-etú||demaí bèld-etú||demaynúts bèld-etú||demaín bèld-etú|
|Present Perfect||dámew bèld-etú||dán bèld-etú||dánwts bèld-etú||dán bèld-etú|
|Future Perfect||dílye bèld-etú||dílè bèld-etú||dílawts bèld-etú||dílèw bèld-etú|
|Present Perfect||dámay bèld-etú||dámay bèld-etú||dámaynwts bèld-etú||dámayn bèld-etú|
|Preterite Perfect||defazí bèld-etú||defazí bèld-etú||defazynúts bèld-etú||defazán bèld-etú|
|Future Perfect||dêfal bèld-etú||dêfal bèld-etú||dêfalnwts bèld-etú||dêfalan bèld-etú|
|Preterite Perfect||dylaí bèld-etú||dylaí bèld-etú||dylaynúts bèld-etú||dylaín bèld-etú|
There is a large number of irregular verbs in Tláymyts. The most important are the following:
- ríl "read"
- zépyl "know"
- gépyl "fit (into)"
- gílyl "want"
- bútyl "can", "be able to", "may"
- têsyl "say", "tell"
- vésyl "do", "make"
- dlésyl "bring", "carry"
- glíl "believe"
- tél "give"
- éfyl "there be"
- zíl "be"
- díl "have"
- fíl "see"
- fêl "come"
- lêl "laugh"
- êl "go"
- búl "put", "place"
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Tláymyts is written in its own alphabet, which descends from the old Arishian writing. It is a pure alphabet of the Latin type, indicating each vowel and consonant by means of a constant symbol. A diacritic with the form of a horizontal line was formerly used to indicate stress. This diacritic has now, in most writing styles, merged with the vowel letters, thus yielding a new series of symbols for stressed vowels.
One of the most characteristic features of Tláymyts writing is that the aspiration ([h]), although present in all variations of the language, is never written. That happens because, when the aspiration entered in the phonology of the language, the alphabet was already in use, and it had no symbol for this sound as it did not exist in the language earlier. Another reason is that the aspiration is completely predictable, so we can know where an aspiration must go even if it is not indicated in writing. All syllables initiating with a vowel is actually pronounced with an aspiration. For example, the word elaí "(I) would go", syllables are e-la-í, first and last syllables begin with vowel, so we must aspirate them, resulting in [hela'hi].
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The monumental style, widely used in the past, is used today only in special occasions like commemorative inscriptions or in titles when one wants an old-fashioned look. In this style almost all the letters have the same shape as they have in the original style, albeit some letters (notably R, U ad L) generally appear in an older form. The greatest difference from the other styles is that letters are grouped according to syllables, most like in the Korean alphabet. Text normally runs in columns from right to left, but a considerable quantity of texts written in horizontal lines also exists.
One special modern usage of the classical style is for writing fancy names or nicknames of spaceships. On the hull of vessels, the official name and identification of the vessel is written in the original style, but in the case of a ship with a popular name or nickname, the crew is allowed to write it as well, provided it is written in a different style. Sometimes the classical style is used, but the monumental style is much more popular as it helps conveying the idea of strength, solidity and resistance.
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This style reflects the first adaptation to Tláymyts of the Arishian alphabet. The name "original", however, does not fully apply, as the letters used today have been considerably simplified. Both a monospace and a variable width version of this style exist.
This is the most common writing style in computational media, and also the official writing style for all military uses.
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The style called classical is the one which replaced the monumental as the standard script for Tláymyts. Visually, it is very similar to the old Mongol alphabet, both in the design of the letters and in the disposition of writing. Letters are joined like in Mongolian or Arabic, each letter having four slightly different forms, one used in isolation, one for initial position, one for medial position and one for final position (the letter TS has only a final position, as it consists in a variant of Z which was originally used only at the end of words).
Writing direction is both horizontally from left to right and vertically with columns going from right to left. It is considered the most beautiful style of Tláymyts, and several calligraphic variants have been developed. In this style some ligatures are used, mostly corresponding to the nominal case endings. The most common are tsn (locative plural) and tst (genitive plural).
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The handwritten style is a derivation of the real original Tláymyts alphabet. The letters of a word are written tightly together, with a considerable amout of space between words. It is considered the most difficult style for reading, as it is common for characters to be joined in ligatures that are largely dependent on personal preferences. Visually it is similar to the Egyptian Demotic alphabet, sometimes resembling also the Merovingian script with its free-floating lines.
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