Phonology Edit

Consonants Bilabial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n nj (ɲ) ng (ŋg)
Plosive unaspirated p b t d k g kw (kʷ) gw (gʷ) q (ʔ)
aspirated ph (pʰ) bh (bʰ) th (tʰ) dh (dʰ) kh (kʰ) gh (gʰ) kwh (kʷʰ) gwh (gʷʰ) qh (ʔʰ)
Fricative f (ɸ) v (ð) s z sh (ʃ) zh (ʒ) x c (ɣ) xw (xʷ) cw (ɣʷ) xh (χ) ch (ʁ) h
Affricative ts dz tsh (tʃ) dzh (dʒ)
Approximant rh (ɹ) j wh (ʍ) w
Trill bw (ʙ) r
Lateral fricative tl (ɬ)
Lateral approximant l
Vowels Front Central Back
Close Short i y u
Long (ii) iː (yy) yː (uu) uː
Mid Short a (ə)
Long aa (əː)
Open-mid Short e (ɛ) a (œ) o (ɔ)
Long ee (ɛː) aa (œː) oo (ɔː)

Grammar Edit

Nouns can be inflected rather simply. Almost all nouns end on -i, they can be put into plural by adding an extra -i, xwuutsi (dog) - xwuutsii (dogs). Some nouns are irregular. They always haven't got a suffix, nuus (ice, no plural), toom (house) - tsaamii (houses), gwhee (human) - gwhii (people). Adjectives always agree on the number and are placed after a noun, tri skuuni (a beautiful tree), toom dheesi (an old house) - trii skuunii (beautiful trees) - tsaamii dheesii (old houses).

Verbs are easy to conjugate. The present tense is formed using the personal pronoun (or other subject) and stem+ts, so xwo xhefts means we walk, xwo si xhefwíí means we are walking, xwo xhefum means we walked and xwo si xheftiv means we have walked. The passive is constructed by inserting the particle aa between the subject and the stem of the verb, so tsuuï oofts kherhi means the man repairs the car, while kherhi aa oof bho tsuuï means the car was repaired by the man.

There is only one irregular verb, si (to be), it is conjugated as follows: xwo si (we are), xwo si shaï (we are being), xwo soov (we were) and xwo si saüf (we have been).

The personal pronouns are: itsh (I), tsaü (you, sing.), steem (he, she, it), xwo (we), tsewii (you, plural), stii (they). They are inserted before a verb, itsh si (I am). Possessive pronouns are created by putting a personal pronoun after a noun, toom (bwo) tsaü (your house, lit. house (of) you).

There are only two demonstrative pronouns, ven (near) and vii (far away); ven tsuuï (this man), ven tsüii (these men), vii tsuuï (that man), vii tsüii (those men).

Dialects Edit

Apart from the standard language, tlisani means something united/union, there are different dialects and older language forms. The list below shows all variaties and is followed by a translation of the sentence My favorite animal is the grey wolf.

  • Tlisani:
    • Modern Tlisani: Shuuni vendhi itsh si tsamtli (khreeli).
    • Middle Tlisa(a)ni: Shuuni vandhi itsh sii tsaamtli khreeli.
    • Old Tlisa(a)ni: Shuuni gwanvi itsh shii tsaamtli kreeli.
  • Bwaüni:
    • Modern Bwaüni: Shuni vendhi osh si tsamtli (khreli).
    • Middle Bwaüni: Shuni vandhi otsh si tsamtli (khreli).
  • Eastern dialects:
    • Kraüshi: Shyyni gwandi ish saü tseemsi kraali.
    • Sheemtsili: Shyni gwendi itsh saü tsemtli kraali.
  • Western dialects:
    • Shuunotoki: Shuuni fendi itsh shiü tsamtli (kreeli).
    • Thiimikhi: Shuni vendhi itsh shii tshamtli (khrheïli).
    • Tsuulingtsaünaï: Shuuni vandhi itsh shiü tsamsi kreeli.
  • Zherhaï: Zhaanj venjdhi(j) azh z(h)ii dzaamtsi (krhaazhli).

Phrases Edit

Some questions:

  • Fa tsaü zuuts maa Englishi? («question particle» You speak too English? - Do you speak English too?)
  • Kham tsaü uurts? (How you have? - How are you?)
  • Khev gweedi tsaü si? (What name you is? - What's your name?)
  • Khev khriimii si bwo tsaü? (What years are yours? - What's your age?)
  • Khev tsiimeti si bwo tsaü? (What work is yours? - What's your proffesion?)
  • Khoo toom tsaü si? (Where house you is? - Where do you live?)

Example Edit

The accented vowels á, é, í, ó, ú, ý mark stress, the accented vowels ä, ï and ü mark diphtongues.

Tlisani English
Taami uutsi "eedzhi bwo nuus" ta, prhaséïs pho, "eedzhi kleeshali" cwoots tsiimani dzhiiülódzhikhali bwo rhidákshani tlutaami voo temprhatshaarhi bwo saafazi nu etmasfiärhi bwo muuti, tagwíí eksphénshani bwo nuus-phaarii kontinéntalii nu poülarhii nu kleesharhi elpaïnii. Xwaamo eedzhi bwo nuus tlutaami, kheenjii indifíghwalii bwo khleïmati ekstrha tshaïti si taamtiv "kleeshééshanii". Kleesholódzhikhali, eedzhi bwo nuus impléïts eesakhri bwo nuus-phaarii eksténsifii voo hemisfiärhii norhvani nu savani; voo ven defaníshani xwo si smuuvis voo eedzhi bwo nuus (foo nuus-phaarii si smuuvis voo Khrhiinlandi nu Entérhkthiki). The general term "ice age" ta, more precisely, "glacial age" denotes a geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in an expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Within a long-term ice age, individual pulses of extra cold climate are termed "glaciations". Glaciologically, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in the northern and southern hemispheres; by this definition we are still in an ice age (because the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets still exist).
Source: English Wikipedia

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