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|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
To'kácasó (IPA: tɑʊkeɪʃæs, lit. the speech of our land) is a constructed language spoken in the micronation of Renasia, used as a second language after English. It is designed to be fairly easy for English speakers to pick up, despite some unusual features such as tripartite alignment, lack of conjugation and nouns with formal case.
The phonotactics of root or prefix phonemes in To'kácasó are as follows: C(C)V
The phonotactics of suffixes, however, are h'VCC.
H' must come between any two consecutive vowels. Allowed consonant clusters are: tl, as in Nahuatl; kw as in quaint; dz as in jade; ks as in Texas; th as in theme; ph as in phile and pl as in plume.
To'kácasó has seven cases, each one with its unique declensional suffix. The seven cases utilised by To'kácasó are; the ergative (ERG) which denotes the noun is an agent of a transitive verb; the accusative (ACC) which denotes the noun as being the direct object of a transitive verb; the dative (DAT) which denotes the noun as the indirect object of a transitive verb; the absolutive (ABS) which denotes the noun as being the subject of an intransitive verb; the locative (LOC) which denotes that the noun is the plave where the action occurred; the ablative (ABL) which denotes causation of the verb by the noun declensed; and the instrumental (INS), which shows the relationship of the noun as the causitive agent of the action.
- An ergative noun: The boy eats the cake.
- An accusative noun: The boy eats the cake.
- A dative noun: The boy passes the cake to the girl.
- An absolutive noun: The bird flies.
- A locative noun: We went shopping in town.
- An ablative noun: Due to sickness, I did not attend the concert.
- An instrumentive noun: The cake was made by the teacher.
Pluralising nouns in Tókacasó is simple, with each noun being given an affix, according to its number or rough amount. The affixes used are for one, few, some, many, uncountable and n-numbers of items:
So, if útlósípe' is "one rose", f'úh'sípe' is a few roses, cuplasípe is some roses and so on.
To'kácasó has four forms of adjective: positive adjectives, which are as one would expect, descriptive words with no other reference point; comparitive adjectives, which describe something as superior to another noun in the aspect described; superlative adjectives which mark out the noun as the highest with respect to the aspect being described; equative adjectives which set two nouns as being equal in the aspect given; and absolute adjectives, which are a special class of positive in English, those being adjectives which are without comparative or superlative forms, and for whom equative forms would be redundant.These include adjectives like unique or perfect.
Each of these forms comes with a suffix as follows:
To'kácasó has a number of derivational infixes. These are denoted with +[infix]+, so as to prevent them being lost in the roots. These make nouns into adjectives, adjectives into nouns and affect the intensity of adverbs. They come in front of the root they modify, and so may become prefixes if they modify the first root. A few examples follow, a complete list can be found [HERE (link to be added)]: