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To'kácasó

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To'kácasó
To'kácasó
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
No
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

To'kácasó (IPA: tɑʊkeɪʃæs, lit. the speech of our land) is a constructed language spoken in the micronation of Renasia, used as a second language after English. It is designed to be fairly easy for English speakers to pick up, despite some unusual features such as tripartite alignment, lack of conjugation and nouns with formal case.


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant IPA Consonant IPA
b b n' ɲ
d d p p
f f q x
f' v r r
g g s s
h h t t
h' ' t'
k k w w
l l x z
ll ʎ z ʒ
m m c

shEdit

n n

VowelsEdit

Vowel IPA Vowel IPA
a æ í ɑɪ
á o

äEdit

a' ɑː ó

ōEdit

e e o'

ouEdit

é ɪː u

əEdit

e' ú

o͞oEdit

i ɪ

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound Letter Sound
a bat l lag
a' bar l' llamo
á bait m mango
b bet n night
c ship n' piñata
d dark o dock
e elm o' tau
e' yeah ó slow
é beam p pie
f fire q loch
f' vice r rouge
g get s set
h home t tense
h' histoire t' chew
i inter u utter
í ice ú embue
i' triiron u' coo
k keep w water
z measure x xerox

PhonotacticsEdit

The phonotactics of root or prefix phonemes in To'kácasó are as follows: C(C)V

The phonotactics of suffixes, however, are h'VCC.

H' must come between any two consecutive vowels. Allowed consonant clusters are: tl, as in Nahuatl; kw as in quaint; dz as in jade; ks as in Texas; th as in theme; ph as in phile and pl as in plume.


GrammarEdit

Cases:Edit

To'kácasó has seven cases, each one with its unique declensional suffix. The seven cases utilised by To'kácasó are; the ergative (ERG) which denotes the noun is an agent of a transitive verb; the accusative (ACC) which denotes the noun as being the direct object of a transitive verb; the dative (DAT) which denotes the noun as the indirect object of a transitive verb; the absolutive (ABS) which denotes the noun as being the subject of an intransitive verb; the locative (LOC) which denotes that the noun is the plave where the action occurred; the ablative (ABL) which denotes causation of the verb by the noun declensed; and the instrumental (INS), which shows the relationship of the noun as the causitive agent of the action.

Case

ERG ACC DAT ABS LOC ABL INS
Declension -a'g -aks -édat -abs -alók -íkos -méns
  • An ergative noun: The boy eats the cake.
  • An accusative noun: The boy eats the cake.
  • A dative noun: The boy passes the cake to the girl.
  • An absolutive noun: The bird flies.
  • A locative noun: We went shopping in town.
  • An ablative noun: Due to sickness, I did not attend the concert.
  • An instrumentive noun: The cake was made by the teacher.

Plurality:Edit

Pluralising nouns in Tókacasó is simple, with each noun being given an affix, according to its number or rough amount. The affixes used are for one, few, some, many, uncountable and n-numbers of items:

Case

ONE FEW SOME MANY UNCOUNT N-NUM
Declension útló- f'úh'- cupla- pluci- nof'é- n-ú-

So, if útlósípe' is "one rose", f'úh'sípe' is a few roses, cuplasípe is some roses and so on.

AdjectivesEdit

To'kácasó has four forms of adjective: positive adjectives, which are as one would expect, descriptive words with no other reference point; comparitive adjectives, which describe something as superior to another noun in the aspect described; superlative adjectives which mark out the noun as the highest with respect to the aspect being described; equative adjectives which set two nouns as being equal in the aspect given; and absolute adjectives, which are a special class of positive in English, those being adjectives which are without comparative or superlative forms, and for whom equative forms would be redundant.These include adjectives like unique or perfect.

Each of these forms comes with a suffix as follows:

Form

POS COM SUP EQU ABS
Declension -a -a' -u'tl

So:

Case

POS COM SUP EQU ABS
Red xepa xepa' xepá xepé N/A
Perfect N/A N/A N/A N/A koplu'tl

Derivational Prefixes/Infixes:Edit

To'kácasó has a number of derivational infixes. These are denoted with +[infix]+, so as to prevent them being lost in the roots. These make nouns into adjectives, adjectives into nouns and affect the intensity of adverbs. They come in front of the root they modify, and so may become prefixes if they modify the first root. A few examples follow, a complete list can be found [HERE (link to be added)]:

English Equivalent Infix
against antifreeze, antidote +dí+
together conspire, conflict +fuz+
inside endogenous, endotherm +ít'ó+
different heterocycle, heterosexual +áta+
between intercity, internet +kros+
equal isobar, equate +ósó+
all omniscient, panasian +plét+
highest Archangel +hu'tl+

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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