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To'kácasó

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To'kácasó
To'kácasó
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
No
Genders
0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

To'kácasó (IPA: tɑʊkeɪʃæs, lit. the speech of our land) is a constructed language spoken in the micronation of Renasia, used as a second language after English. It is designed to be fairly easy for English speakers to pick up, despite some unusual features such as tripartite alignment, lack of conjugation and nouns with formal case.


PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Consonant IPA Consonant IPA
b b n' ɲ
d d p p
f f q x
f' v r r
g g s s
h h t t
h' ' t'
k k w w
l l x z
ll ʎ z ʒ
m m c

shEdit

n n

VowelsEdit

Vowel IPA Vowel IPA
a æ í ɑɪ
á o

äEdit

a' ɑː ó

ōEdit

e e o'

ouEdit

é ɪː u

əEdit

e' ú

o͞oEdit

i ɪ

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound Letter Sound
a bat l lag
a' bar l' llamo
á bait m mango
b bet n night
c ship n' piñata
d dark o dock
e elm o' tau
e' yeah ó slow
é beam p pie
f fire q loch
f' vice r rouge
g get s set
h home t tense
h' histoire t' chew
i inter u utter
í ice ú embue
i' triiron u' coo
k keep w water
z measure x xerox

PhonotacticsEdit

The phonotactics of root or prefix phonemes in To'kácasó are as follows: C(C)V

The phonotactics of suffixes, however, are h'VCC.

H' must come between any two consecutive vowels. Allowed consonant clusters are: tl, as in Nahuatl; kw as in quaint; dz as in jade; ks as in Texas; th as in theme; ph as in phile and pl as in plume.


GrammarEdit

Cases:Edit

To'kácasó has seven cases, each one with its unique declensional suffix. The seven cases utilised by To'kácasó are; the ergative (ERG) which denotes the noun is an agent of a transitive verb; the accusative (ACC) which denotes the noun as being the direct object of a transitive verb; the dative (DAT) which denotes the noun as the indirect object of a transitive verb; the absolutive (ABS) which denotes the noun as being the subject of an intransitive verb; the locative (LOC) which denotes that the noun is the plave where the action occurred; the ablative (ABL) which denotes causation of the verb by the noun declensed; and the instrumental (INS), which shows the relationship of the noun as the causitive agent of the action.

Case

ERG ACC DAT ABS LOC ABL INS
Declension -a'g -aks -édat -abs -alók -íkos -méns
  • An ergative noun: The boy eats the cake.
  • An accusative noun: The boy eats the cake.
  • A dative noun: The boy passes the cake to the girl.
  • An absolutive noun: The bird flies.
  • A locative noun: We went shopping in town.
  • An ablative noun: Due to sickness, I did not attend the concert.
  • An instrumentive noun: The cake was made by the teacher.

Plurality:Edit

Pluralising nouns in Tókacasó is simple, with each noun being given an affix, according to its number or rough amount. The affixes used are for one, few, some, many, uncountable and n-numbers of items:

Case

ONE FEW SOME MANY UNCOUNT N-NUM
Declension útló- f'úh'- cupla- pluci- nof'é- n-ú-

So, if útlósípe' is "one rose", f'úh'sípe' is a few roses, cuplasípe is some roses and so on.

AdjectivesEdit

To'kácasó has four forms of adjective: positive adjectives, which are as one would expect, descriptive words with no other reference point; comparitive adjectives, which describe something as superior to another noun in the aspect described; superlative adjectives which mark out the noun as the highest with respect to the aspect being described; equative adjectives which set two nouns as being equal in the aspect given; and absolute adjectives, which are a special class of positive in English, those being adjectives which are without comparative or superlative forms, and for whom equative forms would be redundant.These include adjectives like unique or perfect.

Each of these forms comes with a suffix as follows:

Form

POS COM SUP EQU ABS
Declension -a -a' -u'tl

So:

Case

POS COM SUP EQU ABS
Red xepa xepa' xepá xepé N/A
Perfect N/A N/A N/A N/A koplu'tl

Derivational Prefixes/Infixes:Edit

To'kácasó has a number of derivational infixes. These are denoted with +[infix]+, so as to prevent them being lost in the roots. These make nouns into adjectives, adjectives into nouns and affect the intensity of adverbs. They come in front of the root they modify, and so may become prefixes if they modify the first root. A few examples follow, a complete list can be found [HERE (link to be added)]:

English Equivalent Infix
against antifreeze, antidote +dí+
together conspire, conflict +fuz+
inside endogenous, endotherm +ít'ó+
different heterocycle, heterosexual +áta+
between intercity, internet +kros+
equal isobar, equate +ósó+
all omniscient, panasian +plét+
highest Archangel +hu'tl+

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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