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Torolnan

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Torolnan
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders masculine, feminine
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Gibberish Inspired

Torolnan is a South Germanic language spoken in Slovenia & Northeast Italy. It is influenced by German, Italian, & Friulian.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Torolnan is a South Germanic language.

Sound Changes from Proto-South GermanicEdit

Consonat Evolution

PSG____ Torolnan___________
VdvV VddV > V:dV
ks s
VbV VvV
k c
VkV VhV
VgV VghV > VkhV > VssV
zv st
sk (final) st

Vowel Evolution

PSG_________________________ Torolnan
aC (not first syllable) eC
a (first syllable) ae
eye ei
e: ei / e
o: o
u: o
a (final/not in single syllable words) o
u (final) o
VCez VCz

Additionally, when a word has more that 2 syllables, a kind of vowel shift involving vowel harmony occurs. If there are two front vowels & one back vowel, the back vowel becomes a front vowel, & if there are two back vowels and one front vowel, the front vowel becomes a back vowel. If /a/ is one of the three vowels, there is no change. Ultimately, a change must occur when there are an odd number of front & back vowels combined. This does not effect weak verbs & grammatical adfixes.

Long vowels count as two vowels in these changes.

Changes with 3 vowels

PSA____________ Torolnan__
Two of the same back vowel & one front vowel. Three of the same back vowel.
Two of the same front vowel & one back vowel. Three of the same front vowel.
E, I, & O. E, I, & I.
E, I, & U. E, I, & E.
O, U, & E. O, U, & U.
O, U, & I. O, U, & O.
Any combination plus /a/. No change.
No back vowels.

No change.

No front vowels. No change.

Changes with 4 vowels

PSA____________ Torolnan__________
Any combination plus two /a/'s. No change.
No front vowels. No change.
No back vowels. No change.
Three of the same front vowel & a back fowel. Four of the same front vowel.
Three of the same back vowel & a front vowel. Four of the same front vowel.
Two front vowels in between two back vowels, Four back vowels.
Tow back vowels in between two front vowels. Four front vowels.
e-o-e-o / e-u-e-u e-e-e-e
o-e-o-e o-o-o-o
o-e-u-e o-u-u-o
u-e-u-e u-u-u-u
Any combination plus /a/. /a/ is ignored & unchanged while everything else changes according to the 3 syllable rules.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ng
Plosive p b t d c g (')
Affricate ts dz ch gh
Fricative f v th h
Sibulant s z ss
Approximant j
Rhotic r r r r r
Lateral app. l lj*
  • The lj is found only in loanwords.

VowelsEdit

Front Front long Back short Back long
Close i u u:
Mid e e: o o:
Open a a:


Writing SystemEdit

Letter a aa b c ch d ds e ee f g gh
Sound a a: b c ch d dz e e: f g gh
Letter h i j l lj m n ng o oo p r
Sound h i j l lj m n, ng ng o o: p r
Letter s ss t th ts u uu v z
Sound s ss t th ts u u: v z

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Plural
Plain -z -z
Plain Definite -o -zo -zo
Genitive -ego -egoz -unoz
Genitive Definite -ega -egza -unza
Dative -emo -emoz -umaz
Dative Definite -ema -emza -umza

AdjectivesEdit

Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Masculine Plural Feminine Plural
Plain -s -a -i -o
Genitive -iz -iz
Dative -am -am -im -im

PronounsEdit

"i" "we" "thou" "you" "he" "she" "it" "they"
Nominativa ec vez tho joz ez se et thi
Accusative mec onz thec estez eno ejo et thaenz
Genitive menz onserz thenz esterz eis eis eizuz thaes
Dative mez onsez thez estez emi emi eizive thaemi

Weak VerbsEdit

Past (Singular) Past Plural_ Present (Singular) Present Plural Future (Singular) Future Plural
Indicative -do -dedom -o -emez -o -en
Conditional -eete -eeter -eebe -eeber -ee -eever
Subjunctive -dede -dedem -im -vo -ven
Infinitive ned - no - neth -
Participle -enez -endez tso -endez

Strong VerbsEdit

Present Singular Present Plural Past Singular Past Plural Past Participle
e-eno e-ede i i-on e-enez
ev-ene ev-ede o o-on o-enez
u-ana u-ede o o-on o-enez
e-enw e-ede ae o-on o-enez
ei-ene e-ede ae o-on o-enez
ei-ene e-ede ae e-on o-enez
ei-ene e-ede ae e-on ei-enez
e-ene e-ethe ae e-on ei-enez
ae-ene ae-ede u u-on e-enez
-ene -ede ke- ke--on -enez
-eine -eide -ezo -ezon -einez

SyntaxEdit

SVO

LexiconEdit

Numerals

PSG Torolnan
inaz inez
tva tvae
threyez threi
fedvurez feeder
femfe femfe
se:ks seis
sebo:n sevon
aktu act
nevu:n nevon
te:ku:n tehon

Example textEdit

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