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Trilingvo

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The language Trilingvo (Trįļíngѡô; Pronounciation: [triˈliːŋgvo]) is an a posteriori, international auxiliary constructed language, although it can also be classified as an artlang, because it is originally a personal language (conlang designed for one's own edification, a work of art).

Trilingvo is based on some Romance languages (French_Language and Italian_Language) and the constructed language Esperanto. It has a phonetic extended Latin alphabet which means each letter can represent one sound only and all of the letters are pronounced. It uses 15 types of diacritic marks (accents) in total, with these, the alphabet contains 70 letters (each of them representing a sound).

The language was created in 2010, by Brumi2, but there may be some changes in its grammar or vocabulary later, as Trilingvo is a quite young experimental language.

The name of the conlang proves its origin: the word 'trilingvo' means 'three languages' which refers to the three languages Trilingvo was based on: French_Language, Italian_Language and Esperanto.


Alphabet Edit


a á ā ȧ â ąäv g ġ ģ d ḑ ȝeé ē ė ê ę

ë f h ħ i í ī î į ȋ ï c ĉ ċ ç ͼ l ļ m n ǹ o ó ō ȯ ô ǫ ö p ϣ r s ş ṡ t ţ u ú ū ụ û ų ȗ ü ѡ z ż ɀ


Pronunciation Edit

Vowels Edit


a á ā ȧ â ą ä e é ē ė ê ę ë i í ī î į ȋ ï o ó ō ȯ ô ǫ ö u ú ū ụ û ų ȗ ü

a = like u in 'mud'
á = like u in 'mud', but longer (emphasis)
ā = like u in 'mud', but longer
ȧ = like u in 'mud', but twice (a-a)
â = like u in 'mud', but shorter (sometimes schwa)
ą = like u in 'mud' (back vowel, high pitched)
ä = like a in 'what' (IPA: /ɒ/)
e = like e in 'bed'
é = like e in 'bed', but longer (emphasis)
ē = like e in 'bed', but longer
ė = like e in 'bed', but twice (e-e)
ê = like e in 'bed', but shorter (sometimes schwa)
ę = like e in 'bed' (back vowel, high pitched)
ë = like in 'hay' or 'fail' (IPA: /eː/)
i = like i in 'thick'
í = like i in 'thick', but longer (emphasis)
ī = like i in 'thick', but twice (i-i) - irregular
î = like i in 'thick', but shorter (sometimes schwa)
į = like i in 'thick' (back vowel, high pitched)
ȋ = like y in 'yes' (classified as vowel)
ï = like i in 'thick', but longer (as ˉ on regular vowels)
o = like o in 'force'
ó = like o in 'force', but longer, as a in 'all' (emphasis)
ō = like o in 'force', but longer, as a in 'all'
ȯ = like o in 'force', but twice (o-o)
ô = like o in 'force', but shorter (sometimes schwa)
ǫ = like o in 'force' (back vowel, high pitched)
ö = like u in 'burn' (IPA: /ø/)
u = like u in 'put'
ú = like u in 'put', but longer, as oo in 'good' (emphasis)
ū = like u in 'put', but longer, as oo in 'good'
ụ = like u in 'put', but twice (u-u) - irregular
û = like u in 'put', but shorter (sometimes schwa)
ų = like u in 'put' (back vowel, high pitched)
ȗ = like v in 'very' (classified as vowel)
ü = like oo in 'food', but shorter (IPA: /yː/)

Vowels that close a word (are at the end of a word) are usually short (e.g. â, î).


Consonants Edit


v g ġ ģ d ḑ ȝ f h ħ c ĉ ċ ç ͼ l ļ m n ǹ p ṗ ϣ r ṙ s ş ṡ t ţ ѡ z ż ɀ

v = b (by)
g = g (good)
ġ = j (jam)
ģ = Greek gamma (IPA: /ɣ/)
d = d (deck)
ḑ = th (the)
ȝ = ds or dz (Hudson)
f = f, ph (fish)
h = h (hello)
ħ = h and y at the same time (human; IPA: /ç/)
c = k, c (key, cat)
ĉ = ch or kh (Scottish 'loch'; IPA: /x/)
ċ = ch (church)
ç = ts (its, tsunami; IPA: /tʃ/)
ͼ = s (sea) - in foreign words, if original /ʃ/ is 'c' (like French name 'Alice' = Áļiͼ)
l = l (lie)
ļ = l and y at the same time (million; IPA: /ʎ/)
m = m (mine)
n = n (now)
ǹ = n and y at the same time (new, canyon, onion; IPA: ɲ)
p = p (pie)
ṗ = ph, f (phrase) - in foreign words, if original /f/ is 'ph' (like Greek word 'philosophy' = ṗîlǫsoṗíâ)
ϣ = qu (queen)
r = trilled r, as in Italian or Spanish (red)
ṙ = guttural r, as in French 'roue'
s = s (sea)
ş = sh (ship)
ṡ = between sh and s, like Greek sigma (/s/)
t = t (tell)
ţ = th (thing)
ѡ = v (very; same as ȗ)
z = z (zoo)
ż = French j (Jaques, pleasure, genre; IPA: /ʒ/)
ɀ = between French j and English z, like Greek zeta (/z/)

Double consonants are often used. If, for a special reason, the two identical consonants next to each other should be pronounced separately, they can be joined with the • sign (-). This means, a schwa is pronounced between the consonants. There are no words in Trilingvo that should be pronounced with the double consonants separated, but this rule can be important when compound words accidently make incorrect pronunciation.


Diacritics Edit


Diacritics1
&nbsp













A vowel can only have one type of diacritic at a time (e.g. ˊ and ˛ on the same letter is impossible). If the stress would fall on a vowel that must have another type of diacritical mark, the acute accent (ˊ) is invisible.
E.g. compȋūter - the ū has the tone, but it is hidden.

Grammar Edit


The sentence structure of Trilingvo is SVO.
Verbs are not conjugate, however their endings might change because of the personal pronouns used (there are no rules for this). Therefore, the personal nouns should always be used (they can be left out in some other languages.) Pronouns are not nouns.

Personal pronouns Edit


Ppronouns1

Note: the letters Ѡ and ѡ are represented as V and v in the table. (The Trilingvo letter 'v' does not appear in this table. Sorry!)



Other personal pronouns Edit


The plural personal pronoun 'we' can have two different versions:

  • Inclusive 'we' - includes the listener ('you')
Subject: ni
Object: ná
Reflexive: nonsélfî
Possessive adjective: non
Possessive pronoun: nón
  • Exclusive 'we' - does not include the listener ('you')
Subject: ǹi
Object: ǹí
Reflexive: ǹîsélfî
Possessive adjective: ǹî
Possessive pronoun: ǹî

(irregular pronouns and adjectives)


The personal pronouns 'ti' and 'ni' (you) have formal versions:

Singular: 'Te' instead of 'ti' (object: té*)
Plural: 'Ѡe' instead of 'ѡi' (object: ѡé*)


*(The reflexive and possessive pronouns are the same as the informal ones.)

Possessive Pronouns Edit


Padjectives1
&nbsp

Note: the letters Ѡ and ѡ are represented as V and v in the table. (The Trilingvo letter 'v' does not appear in this table. Sorry!)







Verbs Edit


There are only three tenses in Trilingvo, nine less than in English. A tense is used as simple, continuous and perfect at the same time. The tenses are:

  • Past (Ѡęrvtémpâ pâṡṡá)
-ét; -ít
e.g. he went = ļí âllét
  • Present (Ѡęrvtémpâ prîzéntâ)
verb without change
e.g. he goes = ļí áļļį
  • Future (Ѡęrvtémpî âѡėnrî)
personal pronoun + ѡa (ѡ' before vowel) + infinitive
e.g. he will go = ļí ѡ'âlléṙ


There are three grammatical moods in Trilingvo language:

  • Realis mood (Módô grâmmątīcô di dēcląréṙ) - verb
  • Imperative mood (Módô grâmmątīcô di āppêléṙ) - verb + û (Dónû má ton paṡṡppórtîϡ)
  • Conditional mood (Módô grâmmątīcô di pręɀômçȋonéṙ) - verb + ī (Mi ąļļī¸)


The infinitive always has the ending -éṙ or -íṙ. For example,
I go. = Mi áļļį¸
To go = Âlléṙ

I repeat. = Mi repétê
To repeat = Rępêtíṙ


Auxiliary verb:
to be = êṡṡéṙ

Present:

Mi é (m'é)
Ti é (t'é)
Ļí és
Se é (s'é)
Ni é (n'é)
Ѡi é (ѡ'é)
Éļļį é (also êllȋé)
Sį é (sȋé)

Past:

Mi ét (m'ét)
Ti ét (t'ét)
Ļí ét
Se ét (s'ét)
Ni ét (n'ét)
Ѡi ét (ѡ'ét)
Éļļį ét
Sį ét (sȋét)

Future:

personal pronoun + ѡ'êṡṡéṙ

Nouns Edit


Nouns can be split into two groups:

  • Proper nouns (prǫpertîónômį)
  • Common nouns (cômųnîónômį)


Rules for proper nouns:

  • They are all capitalized.
  • In acronyms, each letter is followed by a full stop. E.g. NATO = N¸A¸T¸O¸ ; AD (Anno Domini) = A¸D¸


Rules for common nouns:

  • Uncountable nouns (or mass nouns) are said as countable nouns.
  • Collective, concrete and abstract nouns are all common nouns.
  • Abbrevations have full stops.


Plural:
There is no rule for marking the plural of a noun, but the appropriate article (lé) should be used before a plural noun.


Adjectives Edit


Adjectives are usually written after the noun they describe.
E.g. the big house = lá dómô grāndô


Degrees of comparison:

  • Comparative:
-ër, -ïr
  • Superlative
-ëh, -ïh ('h' is silent)


For example,

Positive: vȯnô
Comparative: vȯnër
Superlative: vȯnëh


In this case, 'ë' or 'ï' usually have an accent.

Derivation:

For example,

  • Opposite: nôn-
e.g. irresponsible = nônrêṡpǫnzáblį; unacceptable = nônāççêptáblâ
  • Possibility: -áblį (ending may vary)
e.g. (see above)
  • Lack: sēn-
e.g. sēntétâ = headless; sēncōmfórtô = comfortless
  • Surfeit: fųl-
e.g. fųlrespéctê = respectful
  • Inhabitant: usually -ëzê or -nëzê
e.g. hųngerëzê = Hungarian; brįtânnëzê = British; âmēricąnëzê = American

(same for languages)

  • Adverb (as an adjective with suffix): -ȧ (tone on first sound: 'á-â')
e.g. fųlrespęctȧ = respectfully



Participles are never identical to the verb's preterite (past tense) form (as they usually are in English), however the present participle is the same as the infinitive (but in this case it changes to a noun). The reason why this is possible is that Trilingvo does not have continuous tenses (see: Verbs). In Trilingvo, past participles usually have the -ntê ending (especially -ántê, -éntê, -íntê, -óntê).


Examples of participle formation in Trilingvo include:

InfinitivePast SimplePast ParticiplePresent Participle
crēâréṙcrēârétcrēâréntêcrēâréṙ
dįsíṙdįsítdįsíntêdįsíṙ
mângéṙmângétmângéntêmângéṙ
grâféṙgrâfétgrâféntêgrâféṙ
vāttréṙvāttrétvāttréntêvāttréṙ
cântéṙcântétcântántêcântéṙ
ѡįdíṙѡįdítѡįdéntêѡįdíṙ


Grammatical conjunctions Edit


  • Coordinaring Conjunctions:


and = ē
but = máȋ
or = ó
for = pri
yet = êncrí
so = ṡį


  • Subordinating Conjunctions:


after = ąprí
although = çepêndántâ
as = cómê
because = pri lá ręâȝóna
before = âѡántį
how = cómê
if = í
once = únų
since = depí
than = ϣe
that = ĉé
until = finá ą
when/while = ϣāntį


  • Correlative Conjunctions (both/and; not only/but also; either/or etc.) are not so often used or are not classified as conjunctions.



Articles Edit


Definite articles:

  • lá (singular) - e.g. lá gátô = the cat
  • lé (plural) - e.g. lé gátê = the cats
  • l' (before vowel) - e.g. l'ālǫģô = the horse


Indefinite articles:

  • ún (before vowel) - e.g. ún ālǫģô = a horse
  • únô (before a consonant, means 'one') - e.g. únô gátô = a cat


Cases Edit


  • Nominative case (subject):
E.g. lá móntį


  • Accusative case (object):
The direct object of a transitive verb is not marked in Trilingvo by the accusative case.


  • Genitive (or possessive) case:
of = di


For example,
lá gátô di únô pêrzónî = the cat of a person
lé gátê di únô pêrzónî = the cats of a person
lá gátô di pêrzónô = the cat of people
lé gátê di pêrzónô = the cats of people



Punctuation Edit


Trilingvo Punctuation Marks
English symbol Trilingvo symbol
'
'
:
»
,
,
...
¸¸¸
,,,
!
ϡ
-
( )
< >
.
¸
?
;
" "
, ʹ
;
,,


Uses of comas Edit


  • Single coma (,)
M'é îçí, pri lá pri lá ręâȝóna¸¸¸
Lá cánô, lá gátô <ci hâmít grándâ ōręíllâ>, lá cácô ē l'ālǫģô ѡȋét įnsêmvlȧ¸
  • Double coma (,,)
Lá cánô,, lá gátô, ci hâmít grándâ ōręíllâ,, lá cácô ē l'ālǫģô ѡȋét įnsêmvlȧ¸
  • Triple coma (,,,)
Lá cánô, lá gátô, lá cácô, l'ālǫģô,,,


Useful phrases Edit

Some useful Trilingvo words and phrases along with IPA transcriptions:

English Trilingvo IPA
Hello Sąlūtî sa.ˈlu.ti
Yes Si ˈsi
No No ˈno
Good morning Vȯnô mątēnôϡ bo.ˈono ma.ˈtɛː.no
Good evening Vȯna ṡǫárâϡ bo.ˈona sɔ.ˈaː.ɾa
Good night Vȯnô nōctôϡ bo.ˈono ˈnoːk.to
Goodbye Pri reѡįdéâϡ ˈpɾi ɾɛ.vi.ˈdɛː.a
What's your name? Ϣ'é ton nómo; ˈkwɛː ˈton ˈno.mo
My name is John Mon nómo é Ġón¸ ˈmon ˈno.mo ˈɛː ˈdʒon
How are you? Cómê ta sęntê; ˈko.mə ˈta ˈsen.tɛ
Do you speak Trilingvo? Párlâ Trįļíngѡô; ˈpaːɾ.la tɾiˈliːŋgvo
I don't understand you Mi nôn cômpréntį tḠˈmi ˈnon kom.ˈpɾen.ti ˈtaː
All right Vȯna bo.ˈona
Okay S'é vȯna ˈsɛ bo.ˈona
Thank you Todā / Sęrênitá to.ˈdaː sɛ.ɾe.ni.ˈta
You're welcome S'é nǫrmálâ ˈse nɔɾ.ˈma.la
Please Pri faѡórį ˈpɾi fa.ˈvo.ɾi
Bless you Ą ton sąntí a ton san.ˈti
Congratulations Fęļîçití fe.li.tsi.ˈti
One beer, please Únô bírî, pri faѡórįϡ ˈu.no ˈbiː.ɾi, ˈpɾi fa.ˈvo.ɾi
What is that? Ϣ'é sa? ˈkwɛː ˈsa
That is a horse S'é ún ālǫģô¸ ˈsɛ ˈun ˈaː.lɔ.ɣo
Peace! Sęrênitá sɛ.ɾe.ni.ˈta

Sample text Edit


The Lord's prayer (in Trilingvo)
Non Pâpá, cį é in lá pârádįṡâ,
Ton nómô dêѡrë êṡṡéṙ sántê,
Ton pȧsį ѡénû îçí,
Ton ѡųlí dêѡrë êṡṡéṙ,
Cómê in lá pârádįṡâ, sür lá móntô tróppô¸
Dónû non pánê ôǹí seȋúro,
Ē pârdónû ná pri non pêşé,
Cómê ni pârdóni tróppô pri non ęnemí,
Ē nôn préndû ná in ą tëntâçȋónį,
Máȋ lįvērárû ná de l'evįļ¸


Trilingvo:
In móltį lôcálį in Ċínâ ét témpļî di lá Drągōn•réṡṡ⸠In lá sïççitî•témpê, pêrzónô prįét in lé
témpļî ĉé lá Drągōn-réṡṡâ donī plíâ pri l'hómmâ mónt⸠Ą se témpê, lá drągón ét únô
ṡįmvólî di lá supērnąturál¸ Ąprí, se dēvenít l’anͼétrê di lé govêrné grāndëh ē ṡįmvolįzét
l’āûţorįté cǫmplêté di l’įmpêrątórô fëųdálê¸ L’įmpêrątórô dêmandét êṡṡéṙ fíla di lá drągón.
Óla di lȋon possêçȋónâ pêrzônálâ pôrtét lá nómâ Drągón ē ét dęcôraçȋóntê cǫn
drągōn•fįgúrâ ѡārí⸠Setémpî, drągōn•dęcôraçȋónâ é visíblâ in Ċínâ ē lêgéndâ di drągónô
çîrcųlátê¸

English translation:
In many places in China, there were temples of the dragon-king. During times of drought,
people would pray in the temples that the dragon-king would give rain to the human world.
At that time the dragon was a symbol of the supernatural. Later on, it became the ancestor
of the highest rulers and symbolised the absolute authority of the feudal emperor. The
emperor claimed to be the son of the dragon. All of his personal possessions carried the
name "dragon" and were decorated with various dragon figures. Now dragon decorations
can be seen everywhere in China and legends about dragons circulate.

Plans for the future Edit


The letter 'y' is likely to be added to the Trilingvo alphabet. The letter would represent a schwa, because at the moment there is no symbol for this sound in Trilingvo, although it would be important.
In this case, the letters of the alphabet will be split into three groups (the order will not change):

  1. Main letters - letters without accents (shown black on top of the page)
  2. Diacritics - letters with accents (shown red and blue on top of the page, where blue means 'recently added')
  3. Compatibility characters - latin letters that are not in the Trilingvo alphabet, but are used in foreign words (e.g. b, j, q, w, x and maybe y that would represent a schwa).


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