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Simadovo Script

thumb|left|400px|link=TROLL

NO EDITING WITHOUT AUTHOR'S PERMISSION PLEASE

THE ALPHABET & PUNCTUATION

9. Pronouns

    1. PERSONAL PRONOUNS These are the words used in place of someone's actual name. The standard pronouns in Troll are all declined as nouns:

MASCULINE - FEMININE - COLLECTIVE

amyes - amyas [ Note 1 ] I, me

agyes - agyas- agyos You [ sing. or pl.]

asyes He, asyas She asyos It

vivyes - vivyas - vivyos We

astes - astas- astos They

vanyes - vanyas - vanyos Who ? Which ? [ Person(s)]

vantos Which ? What ? [ Thing(s) ]

vasyos -self *[ reflexive pronoun

quenyes - quentas - quentos Someone, Anyone

eltes - eltas- eltos Everyone

liquentos No-one

NOTE 1 The Collective gender is used for inanimate subjects, or when the gender of the subject is unknown or mixed ]

vantos is declined as an example :

Sing. Pl.

Nominative vantos vantoszi What ?

Genitive vantosam vantosamizi Of What ?

Prepositional vantoko vantokozi [ By, To, etc ] what ?

The personal pronouns also have Possessive forms, which are adjectives :

My, mine amya [sing.] amyazi [pl.]

Your, yours agya agyazi

His/ Her/ Its asya asyazi [ or asyesya/ asyasya / asyosya *]

Our, ours vivya vivyazi

Their asta astazi

Whose ? vanya vanyazi

Of What ? Of Which ? vanta vantazi

-self's* vasya vasyazi

Someone's, Anyone's quanta quantazi

Everyone's [ All ] elta eltazi

No-one's liquanta liquantazi

*The reflexive pronoun vasyos [ vasya, vasyazi ] is used to refer to the subject of the phrase or sentence. e.g mingasem vasya shikal = I saw [my own] destiny ( mingasem= I saw, vasya = own, shikal = destiny ).

In most contexts the general third person possessive asya [ = His / Her / Its ] refers to the subject of the sentence. When it is necessary to differentiate between more than one of these possibilities, the possessive adjectives asyesya (= asyes vasya ) / asyasya (= asyas vasya ) / asyosya ( = asyos vasya ) [ = His own, Her own, Its own ] or astesya / astasya / astosya (= astes vasya / astas vasya / astos vasya ) [ Their own ] are used. These always refer to the subject of the verb. For example : Sa sengi migasessho margoz nang sa beshinakozi; asyosya sikra zhes nagya = The lion had seen a goat among the oak trees ; its [ the lion's ] hair was black. Compare with Sa sengi migasessho margoz nang sa beshinakozi; asya sikra zhes nagya = The lion had seen a goat among the oak trees ; its [ the goat's ] hair was black. [ Note that the lion's and goat's genders are undetermined, hence the collective form of the adjectives is used ]

The emphatic pronouns amyasya [ = My own ], agyasya [ = Your own (s. or pl. ) ], vivyasya [ = Our own ] are sometimes used, and vanyasya [ = Whose own ? ], quantyasya [ = One's / Someone's / Anyone's own ], eltyasya [ Everyone's own ] are used more rarely.

    1. DEMONSTRATIVE AND RELATIVE PRONOUNS

  1. These are as follows : Independent - Singular - Plural

[Nouns - M / F / C ] [Adjectives]

This jintes / jintas / jintos jinta jintazi

[ This other ] That [ by you ] thantes/ thantas thantos thanta thantazi

[ That other ] That [ remote ] yantes/ yantas/ yantos yanta yantazi

[ At that time ] Then yanos yana yanazi

Which, that * yes / yas / yos ya yazi

[ Anything ] Some[thing] quantos quanta quantazi

No [thing] liquantos liquanta liquantazi

Every[thing],All eltos elta eltazi

Sometime quanos quana quanazi

*The relative pronoun, as in the sentence “ I read the book which [ or that ] you wrote “.This is not the same meaning as in “ Which book have you read ?”, where which must be translated by the interrogative vanta .

  1. 9.3 OTHER RELATIVE PARTICLES AND PHRASES

MANNER [ Response to question ingviva ? How ? [ By which means ? ] ( = ingvi vanoko ?) ]

ingvi jintoko / jintokozi = Thus(ly), in this way, so / in these ways

ingvi yantoko / yantokozi = In that way / in those ways

ingvi quantoko / quantokozi = Somehow, anyhow, in some way / in some ways

ingvi eltoko / eltokozi = In every way / in all ways

ingvi liquantoko = In no way, [“nohow”]

PLACE [ Response to question mikiva ? Where ? [ In which place ? ] ( = miki vantoko ? ) ]

miki jintoko = Here, in this place vu jintoko = Hither, to this place

miki jintokozi = In these places vu jintokozi = Hither, to these places

miki yantoko = There, in that place vu yantoko = Thither, to that place

miki yantokozi = In those places vu yantokozi = Thither, to those places

miki quantoko = Somewhere, anywhere, in some place

miki eltoko = Everywhere, in every place miki eltokozi = in all places

miki liquantoko = Nowhere, in no place miki quantokozi = in some places

REASON [ Response to question farava ? Why ? [ For which reason ? ] ( = fara vantoko ? ) ]

fara jintoko = Because, for this reason fara jintokozi = For these reasons

fara yantoko = Therefore, for that reason fara yantokozi = For those reasons

fara quantoko = For some reason fara quantokozi = For some reasons

fara liquantoko= For no reason

TIME [ Response to question zavako ? When ? [ At which time ? ] ( = za vanta skamako ? ) ]

za yamako (= yanta skamako ) = Then, when, at that time [ Relative ]

za yamakozi (= yantazi skamakozi ) = At those times

za quamako ( = quanta skamako ) = At some time

za quamakozi (= quantazi skamakozi )= At some times

za elmako ( = elta skamako ) = Always, at every time

za elmakozi ( = eltazi skamakozi ) = At all times

za liquamako ( = liquanta skamako ) = Never, at no time

po yamako ( = yanta skamako ) = From then on

vu yamako ( = yanta skamako ) = Up until then

10. Interrogative Particles

The following words are used to ask questions.

ingviva ? How ? [ By which means ? ] ( = ingvi vanoko ?)

vanyos ? Who ?

vantos ? What ?

mikiva ? Where ? [ In which place ? ] ( = miki vantoko ? )

farava ? Why ? [ For which reason ? ] ( = fara vantoko ? )

pova ? Whence ? [ From which place ? ] ( = po vantoko ? )

vuvako ? Whither ? [ Towards which place ? ] ( = vu vantoko ?)

zavako ? When ? [ At which time ? ] ( = za vanta skamako ? )

pozava ? From when ? ( = po za vanta skamako ? )

vuzava ? Up until when ? ( = vu za vanta skamako ? )

11 Numerals

Numerals

Cardinal numerals ( nouns ) are given, Ordinal numerals ( adjectives ) are formed by the addition of the suffix -va / -iva

0 nayid 10 yinja 20 binja

1 yini 11 yinjayin 21 binjayin

2 bini 12 yinjabin 22 binjabin

3 drini 13 yinjadrin 23 binjadrin

4 fini 14 yinjafin 24 binjafin

5 shini 15 yinjashin 25 binjashin

6 mini 16 yinjamin 26 binjamin

7 thrini 17 yinjathrin 27 binjathrin

8 sorini 18 yinjasrin 28 binjasrin

9 volini 19 yinjavlin 29 binjavlin


30 drinja 100 yinbinja 1000 yindrinja

40 finja 200 binbinja 2000 bindrinja

50 shinja 300 drinbinja 3000 drindrinja

60 minja 400 finbinja 4000 findrinja

70 thrinja 500 shinbinja 5000 shindrinja

80 sorinja 600 minbinja 6000 mindrinja

90 volinja 700 thrinbinja 7000 thrindrinja

800 sorinbinja 8000 sorindrinja

900 volinbinja 9000 volindrinja

10,000 yinfinja 20,000 binfinja 30,000 drinfinja

40,000 finfinja 50,000 shinfinja 60,000 minfinja

70,000 thrinfinja 80,000 sorinfinja 90,000 volinfinja

100,000 yinshinja 200,000 binshinja 300,000 drinshinja

1,000,000 yinminja 2,000,000 binminja, etc.

10,000,000 yinthrinja 100,000,000 yinsorinja

1,000,000,000 yinvolinja 10,000,000,000 yinja yinvolinja, etc.

4,973 findrinja volinbinja ima thrinjadrin

125th yinbinja binjashiniva

Troll
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Statistics
Nouns 1%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Syntax Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Words of 1500
Creator rfh48


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

1. Nouns

Nouns are the names used to talk about things, animals, people, or abstract concepts. Nouns end in either consonants or vowels.

  • Those ending in vowels add the ending -zi in the plural

  • e.g :

  • retto ( horse ) -> rettozi ( horses )

  • If the noun ends in a consonant then -izi is added in the plural

  • e.g

marjeb ( king ) -> marjebizi ( kings )

These forms are what is known as the Nominative cases of the noun, ie the " name " of the thing you are talking about. Troll also has two other cases of nouns, which are described in a later paragraph.

2. Adjectives

Adjectives are words used to qualify the type of thing we are talking about, for example, we speak of a " rich king ", or a " pretty bird ", or a " fast horse ". The adjectives describe the qualities of the nouns they are connected with. In English, and in Troll, the adjective precedes the noun it describes in most sentences. But sometimes we can use the adjective as the main object of a sentence, for example " The horse was fast " is a complete sentence consisting of a noun ( the horse ), a verb ( was ) and an adjective ( fast ). In this type of sentence the adjective usually follows the verb, which itself follows the noun. Of course there can be other adjectives in this kind of sentence as well : " The grey horse was fast " is an example.

Adjectives in Troll usually end in a or e ( rarely in ) when they refer to a singular noun. If the noun to which the adjective refers is plural, then the a changes to azi ( e -> ezi , or + azi ) in the plural : e.g

sa rigya marjeb zhes medsha -> The great king was wise

( sa = the, rigya adj. = great, zhes = [he] was, medsha = wise )

sa rigyazi marjebizi zhesti medshazi -> The great kings were wise.

( zhesti = [they] were )

Adjectives can also be used in a comparative sense, eg “ The king is wiser than his son “, or a superlative sense ; “ The king is wisest of all men “. Troll expresses these meanings by use of the preposition sang, and the suffix -ba, meaning more, as in the following examples.

COMPARATIVE DEGREE [ A one - to one comparison ]

sa marjeb zhas medshaba sang asya sirako = The king is wiser above his son ( zhas = he is, medshaba = more wise, sang = above, asya = his , sirako , from sira = son ; Prepositional Case, see below )

Rettozi zhasti sirunaziba sang tantukozi = Horses are faster than bulls

( zhasti = [they] are, sirunaziba = more fast [ pl ], tantu + kozi = bulls )

SUPER-COMPARATIVE DEGREE [ A comparison of one to many ]

sa marjeb zhes medshaba sang quantokozi asyazi siramizi = The king was wiser above some of his sons ( quantokozi = some, asyazi = his own [pl.] siramizi = of sons )

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE [ A comparison of one to all others ]

sa marjeb zhes medshaba sang eltazi simadakozi = The king was wiser above all people ( eltazi = all , simadakozi = people )

Comparisons can also be made where the subject is less endowed than the others,

sa marjeb zhas medsha zatsan asya sirako = The king is wise below his son ( zatsan = below, under )( ie, the king was less wise than his son ; note that the incremental suffix -ba is not used here ) ( The same idea could also be expressed as sa sira marjebam zhas medshaba sang asya harbishoko = The son of the king is wiser above his father )

Declension of Nouns

In Troll the various ways a noun is used in a sentence require different endings to be applied to the noun's Nominative form, which is the form listed in the dictionary. Troll has three cases, each indicating a different meaning. We have already seen the use of the Nominative case, this refers to the name of the thing which is the subject or object if the sentence. So in both of the following sentences, the Nominative case is used :

sa rigya marjeb zhes medsha = The great king was wise

[ marjeb > Nominative ]

Pareltin zhes rigya marjeb = Pareltin [ a person's name ] was a great king.

The second sentence differs from the first in that marjeb is the object of the verb zhes [was], while in the first it is the subject. Troll uses the same case ending for both meanings, but the subject of the sentence precedes the verb, and the object follows it.

4.1 POSSESSIVE CASE

The Possessive case indicates either the source of something, or possession of something. It corresponds to the English construction " ... of [ the king ] " or " the [ king's ] ...". In Troll the Possessive case is formed by adding -m to the Nominative form if the noun ends in a vowel, or -am if the noun ends in a consonant. The plural endings are -mizi or – amizi.

sa retto marjebam zhas dikara = the horse of the king [ the king's horse ] is white.( zhas = [it] is, dikara = white, marjeb + am = king's )

sa sikra rettom zhas dikara = The hair of the horse is white. ( sikra = hair - can be singular or plural, as in English, retto + m = horse's )

sa sikra rettomizi marjebam zhas dikara = The hair of [the] king's horses is white.

( ie the hair of several horses belonging to a ( = the) king is white )

( retto + mizi = horses' )

Note that the word order in Troll has the possessor or source in the Possessive following the object referred to. In the third sentence, the object(s) referred to ( the horses ) are also in the Possessive case because they are the possessors of the hair, which is the subject of the sentence. Note also that the article sa is really only needed before the subject noun , unless there is some reason to make it clear that the possessor is not any king, but the king !

4. PREPOSITIONAL CASE

The Prepositional case is used when a noun is governed by a preposition. The Prepositional is formed by adding -ko to the end of nouns ending in vowels in the singular. If the noun ends in a consonant, -ako is added. The plural is formed by adding -zi to the Prepositional singular. e.g:

sa sengi nyamasessho marjeb ingvi kronako= The lion had injured the king with a claw ( sengi = lion, nyamanessho = [ he ] had injured, ingvi = by means of, kron + ako = claw)

sa rettozi prulasesti sebla sa beshinakozi = The horses walked between the oak trees ( prulanesti = they walked, sebla = between, beshin + akozi = oak trees )

CASE NOMINATIVE POSSESSIVE PREPOSITIONAL
SING. Marjeb Marjeb-am Marjeb-ako
PLUR. Marbeb-izi Marjeb-amizi Marjeb-akozi
SING. Bishto Bishto-m Bishto-ko
PLUR. Bishto-zi Bishto-mizi Bishto-kozi

VerbsEdit

3. Adverbs

An adverb ( as can be deduced from its name ) is an addition to a verb. It qualifies how an action is performed, and therefore has some strong similarity to an adjective. In fact, almost all adverbs in Troll are derived from the corresponding adjective, by adding va to the end. There is no plural form. The incremental suffix -ba can also be used with adverbs.

e.g : sa rigya marjeb debansas medshava-> The great king rules wisely.

( debansas = [he] rules, medshava ''[ from ''medsha + va ] = wisely )

Asya sira debansases medshavaba > His son ruled more wisely.

( debansases = [he] ruled, medshavaba [ from medsha + va + ba ] = more wisely

4.

  1. Verbs

Verbs are the words which describe the action in a sentence. They have a fundamental meaning, which is modified by various endings to signify when the action takes place, and who is doing it. The timing of the action is called the tense, and there are four tenses in Troll: Present, Future, Past, and Perfect.

    1. THE BASIC FORM OF THE VERB

This is given in the vocabularies in the Infinitive form, as in the following examples :

prulare = to walk ; nyamare = to wound ; debansare = to rule

The “stem” of the verb is found by removing the re ending of the infinitive form. Thus the stems of the above verbs are prula- , nyama- , and debansa- .

5.2 PRESENT TENSE

This corresponds to the English continuous present tense; ... is reading, ... are writing, etc. It is formed from the verb stem if this ends in a,i,o or u. If the stem ends in e, then the present tense ending is ea.

5.3 FUTURE TENSE

This is equivalent to the English ... will be reading, ... will be writing, as well as the indefinite future tense, ... will read, ... write, etc. There is no distinction between these meanings in Troll . The Future tense is formed by adding

-fi to the verb stem.

5.4 PAST TENSE

Again this corresponds to two English tenses, for example ... was reading, ... was writing, and also ... read, ... wrote, etc. The Past tense is formed by adding -se to the verb stem.

5.5 PAST PERFECT TENSE

The Past Perfect tense indicates that the action has already been completed and is no longer occurring. It corresponds to English ... has read, ... have written, etc. It is formed by attaching the suffix -sho to the Past tense.

5.6 PRONOMINAL ENDINGS

All of the above tenses of the verb have pronominal suffixes attached after the tense endings, to indicate who is performing the action. The pronominal suffixes are as follows :

-m = I ; 1st Person sing.]

-g = You ; [2nd p., sing. ]

-s = He/ She/ It ; [ 3rd p. sing].

-vi = We ; [ 1st p. pl.]]

-gzi = You ; [2nd p., pl. ]

-sti = They ; [ 3rd p. pl.]

Thus, the full endings are :

PRESENT FUTURE PAST PAST PERFECT

-m -fim -sem -semsho I ; 1st Person sing.]

-g -fig -seg -segsho You ; [2nd p., sing. or pl ]

-s -fis -ses -sessho He/ She/ It ; [ 3rd p. sing].

-vi -fivi -sevi -sevisho We ; [ 1st p. pl.]]

-gzi -figzi -segzi -segzisho You ; [2nd p., pl. ]

-sti -fisti -sesti -sestisho They ; [ 3rd p. pl.]


6. Conjugation of Verbs

Some typical verbs are conjugated below to illustrate the application of the above endings:

INFINITIVE prulare = to walk, go nyamare = to injure, harm debansare = to rule

STEM prula- nyama- debansa-

I* = m You (s)* = g He* = He/ She/ It = s We* = vi You (pl)* = gzi They* = sti

PRESENT

prulam I* am walking nyamam I* am injuring debansam I* am ruling

prulag You* are walking nyamag You* are injuring debansag You* are ruling

prulas He* is walking nyamas He* is injuring debansas He* is ruling

prulavi We* are walking nyamavi We* are injuring debansavi We* are ruling

prulagzi You* are walking nyamagzi You* are injuring debansagzi You* are ruling

prulastI They* are walking nyamastI They* are injuring debansastI They* are gruling

FUTURE

prulafim I* shall w walk nyamafim I* shall injure debansafim I* shall rule

prulafig You* will walk nyamafig You* will injure debansafig You* will rule

prulafis He* will walk nyamafis He* will injure debansafis He* will rule

prulafivi We* shall walk nyamafivi We* shall injure debansafivi We* shall rule

prulafigzi You* will walk nyamafigzi You* will injure debansafigzi You* will rule

prulafisti They* will walk nyamafisti They* will injure debansafisti They* will rule

PAST

prulasem I* walked nyamasem I* injured debansasem I* ruled

prulaseg You* walked nyamaseg You* injured debansaseg You* ruled

prulases He* walked nyamases He* injured debansases He* ruled

prulasevi We* walked nyamasevi We* injured debansasevi We* ruled

prulasegzi You* walked nyamasegzi You* injured debansasegzi You* ruled

prulasesti They* walked nyamasesti They* injured debansasesti They* ruled

PAST PERFECT

prulasemsho I* had walked nyamasemsho I* had injured debansasemsho I* had ruled

prulasegsho You* had walked nyamasegsho You* had injured debansasegsho You* had ruled

prulasessho He* had walked nyamasessho He* had injured debansasessho He* had ruled

prulasevisho We* had walked nyamasevisho We* had injured debansasevisho We* had ruled

prulasegzisho You* had walked nyamasegzisho You* had injured debansasegzisho You* had ruled

prulasestisho They* f had walked nyamasestisho They* had injured debansasestisho They* had ruled

PAST / PASSIVE PARTICIPLE [ADJECTIVES] eg sa nyamasha retto - the injured horse

prulasha [sing.] walked nyamasha [sing.] injured debansasha [sing.] ruled

prulashazi [pl.] nyamashazi [pl.] debansashazi [pl.]

PRESENT / ACTIVE PARTICIPLES [ADJECTIVES] eg sa debansara marjeb – the ruling king

prulara [sing.] walking nyamara [sing.] injuring debansara [sing.] ruling

prularazi [pl.] nyamarazi [pl.] debansarazi [pl.]

GERUND [NOUNS][ exist only in the singular ] eg prulavyo zhes zinda fara rettokozi - walking is good for horses

prulavyo walking nyamavyo injuring debansavyo ruling

IMG 20151221 0001 (2)

7. Irregular Verbs

The verbs zhire = to be, and lizhire = not to be, have irregular conjugations :

INFINITIVES zhire being lizhire not being

PRESENT

zham = I* am, I* do lizhim = I* am not, I* do not

zhag You* (s) are, you do lizhig You* (s) are not, do not

zhas He* is, he* does lizhis He* is not, does not

zhavi We* are, do lizhivi We* are not, do not

zhagzi You*(pl) are, you do lizhigzi You*(pl) are not, do not

zhasti They* are, do lizhisti They* are not, do not

FUTURE

zhifim I* shall be/ do lizhifim I* shall not be/ do

zhifig You*(s) will be/ do lizhifig You(s) will not be/ do

zhifis He* will be/ do lizhifis He* will not be/ do

zhifivi We* shall be/ do lizhifivi We* shall not be/ do

zhifigzi You*(pl) will be/ do lizhifigzi You*(pl) will not be/ do

zhifisti They* will be/ do lizhifisti They* will not be/ do

PAST

zhem I* did , I* was lizhem I* did not, I* was not

zheg You*(s) did, you were lizheg You*(s) did not, were not

zhes He* did, he* was lizhes He* did not, was not

zhevi We* did, We* were lizhevi We* did not, were not

zhegzi You*(pl) did, you were lizhegzi You*(pl) did not, were not

zhesti They* did, they* were lizhesti They* did not, were not

FUTURE PERFECT

zhifimsha I shall have been /done lizhifimsha I* shall not have .....

zhifigsha You*(s) will have been /done lizhifigsha You*(s) will not have ....

zhifissha He will have been / done lizhifissha He* will not have ...

zhifivisha We shall have been/ done lizhifivisha We* shall not have .....

zhifigzisha You*(pl) will have been /done lifzhiigzisha You*(pl) will not have ....

zhifistisha They will have been/ done lizhifistisha They* will not have ...

These verbs do not have Past Perfect tenses. They are used with the Present Participles of other verbs to form a Future Perfect tense. eg zhifissha prulara = He will have walked, ( literally, he will have done walking ), lizhifistisha nyamarazi = They will not have injured ( literally, they will not have done injuring ). The Present Participle agrees in number with the subject of the verb.

These verbs can also be used in an auxiliary mode with the Present Participle of another verb to express emphasis :

eg,

Sa sengi zhes nyamara asta tantu = The lion DID injure their bull.

PARTICIPLES : PASSIVE PARTICIPLES [ADJECTIVES]

zhisha [sing.] having been lizhisha [sing.] not having been

zhishazi [pl.] lizhishazi [pl.]

PRESENT/ ACTIVE [ADJECTIVES]

zhira [sing.] being lizhira [sing.] not being

zhirazi [pl.] lizhirazi [pl.]

GERUNDS [NOUNS]

zhivyo being, existence lizhivyo non-being, non-existence

8. Other Verbal Constructions

NEGATION can be implied by placing the article li before the verb.

:eg linyamafivi = We shall not injure

The particle zhai expresses the SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD, ie may ..., let ..., [followed by a verb in the Future tense ]

The negative subjunctive is expressed as zhaili ...( let it not...)

: eg zhai prulafivi = Let us walk, zhaili prulafivi Let us not walk

The IMPERATIVE is formed from the stem of the verb by adding the suffix -stig (s), -stigzi (pl) : eg prulastig ! ''Walk ! (s) ; lizhistigzi pyimazi ! Don't be late ! (pl)

The PASSIVE MOOD ( as opposed to the INDICATIVE MOOD, which is the normal meaning of the verbal forms given above ) is expressed by means of impersonal constructions. For example, the sentence “ I was injured “ can be reworded as “ [It] injured me “ : nyamases amyes. Or “[They] injured me “ : nyamasesti amyes. If the context does not imply otherwise, the Third person singular would normally be employed in this construction.

Paradigm : Prulare = to walk ; stem Prula-
PERSON PRESENT FUTURE PAST PAST PERFECT
1st p. sing = I Prula-m Prula-fim Prula-sem Prula-semsho
2nd p. sing = You Prula-g Prula-fig Prula-seg Prula-segsho
3rd p. sing = He, She, It Prula-s Prula-fis Prula-ses Prula-sessho
1st p. pl. = We Prula-vi Prula-fivi Prula-sevi Prula-sevisho
2nd p. pl. = You Prula-gzi Prula-figzi Prula-segzi Prula-segzisho
3rd p. pl. = They Prula-sti Prula-fisti Prula-sesti Prula-sestisho
PAST PASSIVE

PARTICIPLE (ADJ. )

PRESENT ACTIVE

PARTICIPLE ( ADJ.)

GERUND

( NOUN )

SING. Prula-sha Prula-ra Prula-vyo
PLUR. Prula-shazi Prula-razi NOT USED

Irregular Verbs : Zhire = to be, to do ;

PERSON PRESENT FUTURE PAST FUTURE PERFECT
1st p. sing = I Zha-m Zhi-fim Zhe-m Zhi-fimsha
2nd p. sing = You Zha-g Zhi-fig Zhe-g Zhi-figsha
3rd p. sing = He, She, It Zha-s Zhi-fis Zhe-s Zhi-fissha
1st p. pl. = We Zha-vi Zhi-fivi Zhe-vi Zhi-fivisha
2nd p. pl. = You Zha-gzi Zhi-figzi Zhe-gzi Zhi-figzisha
3rd p. pl. = They Zha-sti Zhi-fisti Zhe-sti Zhi-fistisha
PAST PASSIVE

PARTICIPLE ( ADJ. )

PRESENT ACTIVE

PARTICIPLE ( ADJ. )

GERUND

( NOUN )

SING. Zhi-sha Zhi-ra Zhi-vyo
PLUR. Zhi-shazi Zhi-razi NOT USED

Lizhire = not to be, not to do

PERSON PRESENT FUTURE PAST FUTURE PERFECT
1st p. sing = I Lizhi-m Lizhi-fim Lizhe-m Lizhi-fimsha
2nd p. sing = You Lizhi-g Lizhi-fig Lizhe-g Lizhi-figsha
3rd p. sing = He, She, It Lizhi-s Lizhi-fis Lizhe-s Lizhi-fissha
1st p. pl. = We Lizhi-vi Lizhi-fivi Lizhe-vi Lizhi-fivisha
2nd p. pl. = You Lizhi-gzi Lizhi-figzi Lizhe-gzi Lizhi-figzisha
3rd p. pl. = They Lizhi-sti Lizhi-fisti Lizhe-sti Lizhi-fistisha
PAST PASSIVE

PARTICIPLE ( ADJ. )

PRESENT ACTIVE

PARTICIPLE ( ADJ. )

GERUND

( NOUN )

SING. Lizhi-sha Lizhi-ra Lizhi-vyo
PLUR. Lizhi-shazi Lizhi-razi NOT USED

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

TROLL ENGLISH

miskavyo n ability

miska adj able, capable

sang prep above, over, than

pozedavyo n acceptance, reception

rikyen n accident

rikyena adj accidental, chance

predi prep across

damivyo v advice, warning

ladna prep after

yanba conj again

nadi n air, atmosphere

elta adj all, every

arra prep along

aska conj also

za elmeko adv always

nang adv among, amidst

ima conj and

sarog n animal

zanma adj another

gremog n ant

asparpo adv apart from, away from

ajivo n appearance, aspect

lagso n arm

skarimedshavyo n astronomy

za prep at [ time ]

stonka n autumn

aspar prep away

prigu n baby

pazhniva adv backward

nyeshka adj bad

rindi n ball

pagas n bark ( of a tree )

pavang n bat (animal)

krid n bath

dored n bear

smarz n beard

smarza adj bearded

midaza adj beautiful

midaz n beauty

fara jintoko conj because

nyiziki n bed

jang n beer

snyama prep before

paro adv behind

zatsan prep below, under, beneath

sebla prep between, among

panja prep beyond

gyasa adj big, large

dabje n bird

nagya adj black

zinopa adj blue

grut n boat

luso n body

lepjos n book

tham n boot

nyisa adj both

bumpa n bottle

zatis n bottom, base, foundation

bishtik n boy

sparda adj brave

bagleb n bread

ambishtik n brother

tantu n bull

tsam adv but, although, however

pussi n cat, kitten

sugam n chest, box, container

prugje n chick, baby bird

serpik n child

kron n claw, talon

prin n cloud

ranga adj cold

yag n cow

kumbirra n crocodile

griba adj dark

sirazma n daughter

borog n desert

sobka n dog

tenla prep down

skelma adj dry, arid

zhurji n duck

lagje n eagle

kung n ear

zhinyavaba adv earlier

zhinya adj early

zhinyava adv early

sorid n Earth

orva adv even, indeed

elyes / as / os pron everyone

elya adj everyone's

eltos pron everything

miki eltoko dem everywhere

migo n eye

misanza n face

siruna adj fast, quick, rapid [movement]

harbisho n father

tsalavyo n fear, dread

zomin adj female

linyena adj few

pyangik n finger

nyaji n fish

tsulog n flood, torrent

zalzas n food

zhabs n foot

fara prep for

dorju prep for, on behalf of, in order to, so that

mat n force

za zhinyaba quameko adv formerly, once, previously

prasik n fragment, part, bit

po prep from

pozava interr. from when ?

soridmedshavyo n geology

zomak n girl

simadava adv Trollishly

margoz n goat

zinda adj good

rigya adj great, eminent, important

rigyava adv greatly, mainly, chiefly, largely

sikra n hair

pyang n hand

asyes pron he, him

karid n head

po jintoko adv hence, from this place

asyasya adj her own

birramedshavyo n herpetology

asya adj His / her / its

asyesya adj his own

vu jintoku adv hither, to this place

retto n horse

ingviva interr. How ?

ingvi yoko adv how [relative], by which means

amyes / yas pron I, me

nyajimedshavyo n ichthyology

sirunava adv immediately, quickly

miki prep in, into

nagja n ink

mikiza prep inside, within

asyos pron it

asyosya adj its own

marjeb n king, ruler, monarch

pyima adj late

pyimava adv later

kangpa n leg

mazhavyo n life

zondu adv like, as

yalgo n limb, branch, bough

sengi n lion

mazhara adj live, living

thusrin adj long

bishta adj male

bishto n man, male

nyena adj many

imaskaba conj moreover, as well

zanzom n mother

zalo n mouth

amya adj my

nyeba adj near, about, by, beside, around, next to

nyebava adv nearly, almost

nyizo n nest

serpa adj new, young

liquanyos pron No-one

liquanya adj No-one's

sanya n nose

lizhire v not to be, not to do

liquantos pron nothing

za jiko adv now

miki liquantoko adv nowhere

beshin n oak tree

vanta adj of what ? Of which ?

prithas prep off

za nyenakozi adv often, frequently

gaska adj old

karu prep on, onto

diranga adj opposite, anti, counter, contra

dabjamedshavyo n ornithology

vivya adj our

payir prep out, from

payirza prep outside

hisha n owl

daspa adj past, former, previous

ramje n peacock

simada n person

dripavyo n question

krampa adj quick, short, brief [time]

tsarbab n rain

za linyenakozi adv rarely, infrequently

prasava adv rather, quite, slightly, somewhat, a little

pazhin adj rear, back

birra n reptile, lizard

grutpa n sailor, boatmen

vasyos pron Self [ reflexive ]

vasya adj of itself, own

kodpa n shape, form, pattern

asyas pron she, her

halug n sheep

thamik n shoe

zatsa adj short, low

mina n sister

anzomak n sister

namik n sky, heaven

prasa adj small, little

tuksi n smoke

quanta adj some

quanyes / as / os pron someone, anyone

quanya adj someone's, anyone's

quantos pron something, anything

za quameko adv sometime

miki quantoko n somewhere

sira n son

krampava adv soon, shortly

skari n star

slada n story, account, tale

falda adj stupid, foolish

sanya adj tall, high, lofty

thanes / as / os pron That [ near you ]

yantes / as /os pron That [ remote ]

sa art the

asta adj their

asta vasya adj their own

astyosya adj their own [ coll.]

astyasya adj their own [fem.]

astyesya adj their own [masc.]

yanos pron then

za yamako adv then, when [relative], at that time

miki yantoko adv there, in that place

fara yantoko adv therefore

astes / as / os pron they

jintes / as / os pron this

vu yantoko adv thither, to that place

fer prep through

Ingvi jintoko conj thus, and so, thusly, in this way

stig n tiger

skama n time

pozedare v To accept, receive

dangore v to accompany

smidare v to accuse, blame

damire v to advise, warn

nangare v to allow

ajire v to appear

tsavare v to approach, arrive

dripare v to ask, query, question, enquire

rashkare v to attack

sponire v to avoid

sobkare v to bark

kridare v to bathe

miskare v to be able, can

zhire v to be, do, act

zhaspore v to begin, start, commence

dodire v to believe

kumere v to bite, chew

nadimare v to blow, puff

morkare v to break, destroy

kyefire v to bring, carry, fetch

kolpare v to bubble, boil, churn

lebare v to come, arrive

tenilare v to descend, go down

tsalare v to fear, dread

vuvare v to go up, climb, ascend

kungare v to hear

yibire v to hide, conceal, shroud

nyamare v to injure, harm

mazhire v to live, exist

migare v to look, see

debansare v to rule

nyizire v to sleep

sanyare v to sniff, smell

zalire v to speak

soladire v to tell, relate

tigrimare v to twist, swirl

prulare v to walk, go

nagire v to write

vu prep to, towards

zhabsek n toe

kum n tooth, fang

yalgik n twig

vuzava interr. until when ?

vuyameko adv up until then

gyava adv very

nayid n void, emptiness, vacancy, vacuum

merekto n volcano

merektomedshavyo n vulcanology

tsab n water

vivyes / as / os pron we

vantos interr. What ? Which thing ?

zavako interr. When ?

pova interr. Whence ? From which place ?

mikiva interr. Where ? In which place ?

yes / as /os pron which, that [ relative ]

dikara adj white

vuvako interr. Whither ? To which place ?

vanyos interr. Who ?

vanyes / as / os pron Who ? Which person ?

vanya adj Whose ?

farava interr. Why ? For which reason ?

nadimat n wind

medshavyo n wisdom, science, knowledge

medsha adj wise

dango prep with [ together with, in company with ]

ingvi prep with, by means of

kronsaba n wolf

zoma n woman

nagivyo n writing, script

agyes / as / os pron you

agya adj your

sarogmedshavyo n zoology


Example textEdit

Sa Simadazi yos Mazhisti za Elmako

Zhes za yamako, sa sorid zhes serpa ima lidango kodpako. Skelmazi borogzi, ima nagyazi kolparazi merektizi zhesti yibishazi zatsan tigrimarazi prinakozi tuksim. Zhes sa skama sa rigya nayidam. Za yamako, payir sa gribazi namikozi, lebansassho tsulog tsarbabam, ima sorid zhasposas zhire prasave rangaba. Mazhavo zhasposassho.

The Ones that Live Always

It was at the time when the earth was new and without shape. Arid deserts and black bubbling volcanos were hidden under swirling clouds of smoke. It was the time of the great void. Then, from the dark skies, a flood of rain had arrived, and the earth began to be somewhat cooler. Life had begun.
Mazhisti

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