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These boolean values are not necessarily uniformly true; some markers are optional. (if you notice any of these values incorrectly representing the language, feel free to change them to reflect the actual language in its use. This table is a bit confusing for me, which will make you laugh when you see how many tables are involved in Tsrul.)
| Name: Tsrul
Type: Agglutinating Fusional
Head Direction: Initial
Number of genders: 3
Tsrul, or more formally, The language of the Tsrul (naxam tsrulpul) is the lingua franca of the Tsrul race, a space-faring species of the genus Cosmanthropus in the distant future.The Tsrul evolutionary path has diverged radically from modern humans. Their primary mode of transportation is capable of manipulating time and space, resulting in their colonization of an enormous swath of space and time in the cosmos. Though there are some dialectical differences, the homogeneity of Tsrul culture as a result of their highly mobile lifestyle makes the language fairly uniform. It is not the only language spoken by the Tsrul, but it is the most common. One notable dialect, known as core speech (naxam yosizam/naxam yosi) lacks many of the grammatical markers in Standard Tsrul, instead having a more rigorous syntactic alignment.
The language was reformed twice before Standard Tsrul (the language described on this page) was finalized near the beginning of the Tsrul-Uthan Epoch. Some wordforms underwent mutations from the first reform to the second, so there are a few irregular forms and idiosyncrasies within the language. Tsrul is written using the Second Reform Script (ḋinim guṡaʻzam i solzam).
Tsrul-Uthan Culture is based largely on the fact that the Tsrul are primarily a time-travelling, space-faring race, spending very little time on the surface of planets. They are particularly non-violent compared to other human-derived species, as they must maintain peaceful living environments for extended periods of time.
Tsrul is composed of 27 consonants and 9 vowels.
All of the Nasal, Approximant, Trill/tap, Lateral, and Glottal consonants are phonemically sonorant in Tsrul.
* when preceding i, ĭ, e, and ĕ, (below) or y, the uvular consonants are pronounced as velars. (e.g.: ṅi [ŋi], qĭ [kɪ], ge [ge], and xĕ [xɛ])
|Front||Near front||Central||Near back||Back|
|Near-close||ɪ (ĭ)||ʊ (ŏ)|
|Open-mid||ɛ (ĕ)||ʌ (ŭ)|
The possible Tsrul syllable structure is of the form (Cᴏɴs.(Fʀɪᴄ.))(Sᴏɴᴏʀ.)V(V)(Sᴏɴᴏʀ.)(Sᴏɴᴏʀ.)
Sound change rulesEdit
- nasal consonants undergo place assimilation before non-sonorants. [n+p] → [mp]
- sonorants preceding the same sonorant (including vowels) due to word formation are deleted, not doubled. for instance, [m+m] → [m]
- word-initial [ʔ] is changed to [h]
- if [h] meets a sonorant due to word formation, [h] is deleted. [pinuh+nto] → [pinunto]
- epenthesis - when roots are combined in ways that could make non-sonorant consonants touch, [i] is inserted between them. (this is a rare occurance.) [oṫ+qa] → [oṫiqa]
- uvular consonants [ɴ,q,ɢ,χ] alternate freely with velar consonants [ŋ,k,g,x] when followed by the vowels [i,ɪ,e,ɛ] or palatal [j] (very few native Tsrul speakers notice the difference between uvular/velar sounds)
- Plosive Consonants can be affricated with their fricative counterparts, forming [p͡ɸ] [t͡θ] [q͡χ] [b͡β] [d͡ð] and [ʔ͡h].
- [p], [t], and [q] can all be combined with [s] and [ʂ], while [b] and [d] can be combined with [z] and [ʐ].
|beginning with||ya yo yu yĕ yĭ yŭ||wa wo wu wĕ wĭ wi wŭ|
|ending with||aĭ oĭ uĭ ĕĭ ŭĭ||aŏ oŏ ŭŏ|
- [hm], [hn], and [hṅ] are digraphs for the voiceless nasals, and act as single sonorant consonants in usage. Thus, letter clusters such as /hml/ can be formed in Tsrul syllables, despite the phonemic constraint of Tsrul syllable structure allowing only two sonorants at the end of a syllable.
The most important parts of Tsrul grammar are the lexemic cores. Somewhat like triliteral word roots in Semitic languages, Tsrul cores are modified by affixes to create the word forms of nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. Tsrul words are listed in dictionaries by their cores, and dozens of individual forms can be created from a single core. Stress exists on cores with multiple syllables, but is fluid and unpredictable.
For declarative sentences and dependent clauses, the word order is typically (Subject)(Object)Verb. However, a comprehensive case system allows for some variation without a loss in listener/reader comprehension. Since verbs usually have a subject marker included in their circumfix, the Subject does not necessarily need to be overtly stated. As not all sentences include Objects, it is entirely possible to create many whole sentences using a single word.
questions which elicit a yes/no response generally have the form Verb (Subject)(Object).
One of the most notable aspects of Tsrul is its complete lack of the verb "to be." Native Tsrul speakers have some difficulty grasping the concept of its usage, and many never learn how to use it correctly in their auxiliary languages. The closest verb in meaning to it is "to exist," which itself is very restricted in its usage. It is used only to refer to the 'action' of Existence, the abstract concept. As such, many statements which would use "to be" in English or other languages must be rephrased in terms of frame of reference when translated into Tsrul. For instance, a Tsrul speaker would say "I see the apple as red," rather than "The apple is Red."
Parts of SpeechEdit
Tsrul has nine cases. these case infixes are appended directly after the core.
* can be merged into the form -yeĭ- for the “locative temporal,” showing space/time relationships, i.e. “where and when Gene is.”
- The Agentive case (unmarked) is used with the agent of an active verb, as in the sentence “Gene went outside.”
- The Patientive case is used with the patient of a passive verb, as in the sentence “Gene was hit by a car.”
- The Accusative case is used for the direct object of a transitive verb, as in the sentences “Gene ate an apple,” or “Gene gave a car to Alice.”
- The Dative case is used for the indirect object of a ditransitive verb, as in the sentence “Gene gave a car to Alice.” It is also used to denote the agent in passive ditransitive constructions, such as “Alice was given a car by Gene.”
- The Commitative case is used for ‘with’ relationships, as in the sentence “Gene walked with Alice.” It is also used to describe relationships of possession, with the possessor in the Commitative case, which requires some rephrasing to accurately translate into English; e.g. “The apple Gene had with him was red,” or to rephrase into a more common possessive phrase, “The apple of Gene was red.” Possessive English phrases of the form “X’s Y,” will translate as [Y] [X.ᴄᴏᴍ].
- The Locative case is used to show static location. it holds a similar meaning to the English prepositions “on,” “near,” “in,” or “at.” with motion verbs (to go, to come, to walk, etc.), it means “to.” with prepositions, it shows motion in relation to the word. prepositions would be placed after the locative word to which they refer, such as ṗayem rela, lit. "the door [ʟᴏᴄ] behind" for "behind the door"
- The Temporal case is used to indicate a moment in time. it mirrors the locative case, but with time. However, it is important to note that it can be used in ways such as “During the rule of Charlemagne” or “the place in time that Gene is”, which can be far-removed from the current time. the tonal tense markers provide the objectʻs temporal location in relation to the speaker.
- The Instrumental case shows the relationship of the tool to the user, as in the sentence “Gene drove the nail using a hammer.” It is also used to denote the logical agent in monotransitive passive constructions, such as “The apple was eaten by Gene.”
- The Similative case is used to indicate likeness or similarity, as in “Madonna is like a virgin.”
- A bare core signifies the (officially unrecognized) Vocative case. e.g., dżinm means ‘the truth,’ whereas dżin means ‘O, truth,’ ‘O, Gene,’ or simply ‘Gene.’
There are three grammatical numbers, Singular, Paucal, and Plural. Paucal is directly translated as "a few" or "several." In their simplest form, the number markers are appended directly after the case ending. singular is denoted by [-m], paucal [-l], and plural [-r]. The paucal/plural barrier is variable, typically between three and six, but can be very high, as in reference to extremely large groups.
However, both number and case are slightly more complicated with the addition of determiner suffixes on nouns. The suffixes take many varying forms depending on the determiner which is appended to the noun. For instance, the noun ṅanom means 'boat' or 'the boat', while ṅanomo means 'a boat.' When ṅanomo is declined into the dative case, it becomes ṅanonso (with the singular [m] changing to [n] due to nasal place assymilation.), meaning 'to a boat.' The varying forms of these determiner suffixes are shown below.
*essentially a further 'that,' similar to Spanish 'alli'. if the speaker cannot see the object, or if it is in another room/area, or not immediately present, this is used. 'yonder' or 'yon' are the translated forms.
Gender is entirely optional in Tsrul, and is rarely used unless either a distinction needs to be made or the gender of an entity is important information. The masculine infix [-ʻa-], the feminine [-ha-], and the neuter [-na-] are inserted before the number/determiner suffix.
Derivational prefixes attach directly to the core in a Tsrul word, regardless of other grammatical prefixes. The derivational prefixes which turn words into nouns are as follows:
|English Equivalent||Prefix||Acts on|
|One who does||musician, worker||la-||Nouns|
|Place of||apiary, library, bakery||nyu-||Nouns|
|Idea of||frendliness, pacifism||ṫo-||Adjectives|
|Abstraction, Gerund||vibration, swimming||qe-||Nouns|
|Synthetic||faux fur, pleather||zu-||Nouns|
Several classes of nouns always take the paucal number, regardless of their logical number.
- Ethnonyms, such as 'Tsrul,' 'American,' or 'East Asian.'
- Mass nouns, such as 'rice' or 'honey.' These nouns are easily predictable in Tsrul: If the texture of the entity in its current state is either granular or fluid, it will almost always be considered a mass noun. notable exceptions include nouns like ṡuyam - 'teardrop,' qṡuarm - 'atmosphere' and ŏṅmaṡoyr - 'pebbles.'
Other nouns are always singular, such as ṫum - 'time,' mĕnm - 'the universe/space' and gobam - 'humanity.' this class can be viewed as "non-stative mass entities," which change slowly over time as constituent parts are created, change, and die.
Finally, a second declension of composite nouns sets itself apart by having a merged-number [-n] ending. These are nouns which are either
- always physically present in a relatively small group which cannot separately maintain stasis, or
- are abstractions such as emotions or nonphysical entities, or
- are widely varied categories of similarly purposed items, such as food.
nouns like horn - 'quarks,' ĭnten - 'happiness,' and tanyan - 'music' belong to this declension.
The diminutive marker, which fits between the core and the number ending, is -tṡoy- or -ṡoy-, as in ŏṅmaṡoyr above (ŏṅma [ᴍɪɴᴇʀᴀʟ] + ṡoy [ᴅɪᴍ] + r [ᴘʟᴜ]). Whether it takes the form of -ṡoy- or -tṡoy- is based almost entirely on speaker preference, though there are some words which uniformly use one form or the other.
Adjectives in Tsrul are shown with suffixes, and are declined for number to match the noun they are modifying.
|Eng. Equivalent||bright||brighter than||brightest||as bright as|
When adjectives are used in comparison to nouns, the similative case is used on the noun being compared to the antecedent. For instance, zĕgim eqaḋaŏ uṫazom ṗelaṅżam eqaḋaŏ, ʻ[The sun (ᴀɢᴇ)] [brighter than] [the moon (sɪᴍ)] [shines].'
As with nouns, Derivational prefixes are prefixed to the cores.
|English Equivalent||Prefix||Acts on|
|weakened||safeish, kinda fun||haŏ-||Adverbs|
|strengthened||extreme to the max||ya-||Adjectives|
*not used with species, such as ‘Tsrul’ or 'Uthan,' only races or nationalities, such as 'Senegalese' or 'Italian'
Verbs are arguably the most salient and complex part of the Tsrul Language. They have the most features of any part of speech in Tsrul, and are capable of conveying a huge amount of information. The verbal circumfix is very complex, and will be broken down into several parts for this explanation.
Person and number prefix Edit
The prefix which conveys the information of person and number on Tsrul verbs is inflected into varying forms. They are inflected for the singular, paucal and plural numbers as well as the active, middle, and passive voices in four persons. The first, second, and third persons function as expected in relation to many other languages. The middle voice is used for actions whose agents are also their patients, as well as with reflexive verbs. For instance, 'the door opened,' 'the man shot himself,' 'we met one another,' and 'you slapped your own face' would all use the middle voice in Tsrul. The fourth person functions much the same way "one" or "they" is used in some English constructions: as an unspecific, general entity. It is important to note that the paucal first person functions as an exclusive first person; indicating that the speaker and another party, but not the listener, were involved in the action. The plural first person functions as an inclusive first person, where the listener is included.
These prefixes are not necessarily attached to every verb. If the subject remains the same through an entire statement, these prefixes are entirely optional on all but the main verb (usually the final verb in a sentence), and they are frequently dropped by Tsrul speakers. In fact, entire stories can be related with only a single verb having its person and number explicitly stated, provided that the subject remains the same through the story. It is only in formal discourse that every verb is expected to have these prefixes. This is one of the few honorific features of Tsrul; providing all of the prefixes on verbs suggests that the speaker views the conversation as a formal encounter, and holds the listener in high esteem.
However, the usage of these prefixes is not entirely limited to verbs. A possessive construction such as 'my pet' or 'their cars' will use the active prefixes attached to a declined noun to show this relationship. For instance, since 'pet' is qsim in Tsrul, 'my pet' would be ḋoqsim.
Similarly, object pronouns (e.g. I gave them to you.) are the active prefixes with case endings attached. Since the prefixes are already inflected for number, the m/l/r number endings are not added. For instance, 'I gave them to you (paucal)' is hoso sato ḋoʻalḋáŏ́ in Tsrul.
mo (the number zero) can also be used as a personal prefix to indicate forbidden, taboo, or incredibly undesired actions, roughly translating as 'nobody does [action].' mo used as a prefix is not inflected for number.
The suffix of verbs provides evidential information, letting the listener know how certain the speaker is that the action happened. There are four levels of this evidentiality: The speaker experiences the event (sensory), The event is relayed to the speaker by another party (reportative), the speaker assumes or infers that the event takes place (inferential), and the speaker refers to a hypothetical or common-knowledge event (indeterminant). These suffixes are inflected in discrete (I eat) and continuous (I am eating) forms, as well as in the indicative and subjunctive moods.
Tense is shown on the evidential suffix with tone curves. the tones fall on the [aŏ],[oŏ],[aĭ],[oĭ],[wa],[wo],[wĕ], and [wi] segments of the suffixes shown above. There are seven tenses in Tsrul: the infinite past, The distant past, the near past, the present, the near future, the distant future, and the infinite future. This great number of tenses is a reflection of the Tsrul ability to easily travel through time; any given speaker can experience an enormous time frame, and as such the language has grown to allow speakers to more easily express these time frames.
However, the tenses are not divided by specific time scales. For instance, when speaking of the year 1992 (CE), one would generally default to using the distant past. It is a point in time that speakers alive today would be able to remember with certainty, but it is far-removed from the present year. However, when speaking of the year 1992 in comparison to the year 20,000 BCE, the recent past would be used: it is much, much closer to the present than the year 20,000 BCE. Alternatively, 20,000 BCE would be in the infinite past in relation to the present, but would be the infinite future if the speaker was referencing that date 1 billion years ago.
But in general, the default barriers of these tenses are broken down in the following manner: anywhere from 2 months to a year from the speaker's present time would usually be considered the near tenses. Beyond that, up until the points in time where no currently-present person would be expected to experience the event (i.e., they were not yet/would no longer be alive), the distant tenses would typically be used. This provides a time frame of approximately 200 years into the past and future. However, cultural epochs or other 'temporal landmarks' are also some of the intuitive timescales used to divide these tenses. Finally, anything beyond the limits of the distant tenses would be referenced with the infinite tenses.
There are three tones in Tsrul: the high tone [◌́], the low tone [◌̀], and the middle tone [◌]. To create the tenses in Tsrul, the tones are used as follows:
|Inf. Past||Dist. Past||Rec. Past||Present||Near Fut.||Dist. Fut.||Inf. Fut.|
Additionally, there are two other 'tense-like' tones in Tsrul.
- The momentative, which functions much like the english word 'just' (as in, 'I just washed my car, and now itʻs raining.' ). When used with a continuous evidential marker, it functions like the english phrase 'about to.' Its tone curve is [◌́◌̀].
- The frequentative, which indicates that the action is habitual or regularly recurring. When used with a continuous Evidential suffix, it indicates that the action occurs occasionally or unpredictably, but still repetitively. Its tone curve is [◌̀◌́]. When the frequentative tone curve is used with the perfective particle, it signifies that the action was done repetitively in the past, but no longer happens.
All of these tones can be used on nouns in the temporal case to show the noun's relative position in time compared to the speaker.
Aspectual markers fall into two categories in Tsrul: suffixed markers, or proclitic particles.
The suffixed markers include the following, which are attached after the evidential suffix. When all of the suffixes are present, they are added in the following order.
- Many languages ask questions by modifying the intonation of statements. Since tone is used to show tense in Tsrul, the suffix [-r] signifies that the verb is a question.
- The suffix [-m] (or [-mi]) signifies that the verb is causitive. For instance, ṡoquxom ḋoŏmḋàŏ̀ ʻI tripped over the root' vs. ṡoquxom ḋoŏmḋàŏ̀m 'I was caused to trip over the root.' The grammatical agent stays the same, but the agency of the verb is shifted. The form [-mi] is used only when the perfective marker is also present.
- The perfective marker [-n] signifies completion of the action as a whole, rather than as an ongoing event. Since English lacks a true perfective, it is somewhat difficult to convey the difference in meaning. However, the difference can be illustrated with the following example: glum soṡenḋàŏ̀ 'The wood burned' vs. glum soṡenḋàŏ̀n 'The wood burned up.'
The proclitic particles also have a specific order, and are written as separate words before the verb.
- [ŭ] is used to make the verb perfect. It is important to note that this is not the same effect as the perfective marker above. To use the same example, glum soṡenḋàŏ̀n means 'The wood burned up,' while glum ŭ soṡenḋàŏ̀n means 'The wood had burned up.'
- [u] makes the verb dynamic. This changes the verb from a simple action to an action that involves change, imparts motion to the verb, or otherwise strengthens the effect of the verb. For instance, nuqumyoŏ means 'to apply pressure,' while u nuqumyoŏ means 'to rub'
- [e] adds the mode of capability to the verb. It functions in essentially the same manner as the English verb 'can.' For Example, ḋoyupaḋaŏ 'I sing' vs. e ḋoyupaḋaŏ 'I can sing'
- [o] changes the verb to the supine, meaning 'for the purpose of...' or 'in order to...' For example, hunam o impożoʻḋoŏ 'food is for eating' (lit. for being eaten). although there is no infinitive to speak of in Tsrul, the supine can be used to convey the meaning. For example, o ṗonaxaḋaŏ 'to speak' (for the purpose of one speaking). generally, when the fourth person is used, or especially if the personal prefix is dropped, this infinitival aspect is more apparent.
Auxiliary verbs in Tsrul are conjugated to provide the information that the sentence is meant to convey. The verbs they modify are always in the subjunctive, and are connected to the auxiliary verbs with the particle [i]. This particle provides no added meaning, and serves only to show that the two verbs are logically connected. The verbs can be ordered in any fashion, so long as they are all connected in the sentence, and joined with the [i] particle.
yalṡoyĕm ḋoulyaḋaŏ i qonḋwa - 'I want to walk to the river'
There are five irregular verbs in standard Tsrul, which are irregular only in their evidential forms. All other verbal prefixes and aspectual markers attach to the verbs as would be expected.
Two ways to show imperatives exist in Tsrul. either the speaker can use the imperative cores iṅqo (request), into (imploration), or impo (demand) as auxiliary verbs, or the appended forms of these cores (-ṅqo, -nto, and -mpo, respectively) can be suffixed directly to the core of the imperative verb. in the auxiliary format, a marginal level of formality can be maintained, even while demanding forcefully that someone do something, and can also be used to specify who is demanding action from whom. The appended forms are usually used when efficiency of phrasing or timing are important factors, especially in emergencies or when formality is not an issue.
Adverbs are arguably the simplest part of the Tsrul Language. If a core starts with a consonant, it is prefixed with [pi-] to make it an adverb. If the core starts with a vowel, it is prefixed with [py-]. As it is inflected using a prefix, the other parts of speech (which are shown with suffixes) can generally be changed into adverbs.
the only derivational affix used with adverbs is the negative suffix [-xal], which has the same meaning as English 'un-.' This suffix is placed after any other suffixes that may be attached to the core.
Conjunctions in Tsrul are particles which are placed between the items they join. However, there are also proclitic prefixed forms which can be connected to the second (and consecutive) items in a series.
|not only...but also||dĕṅ...dĕṅ||...dĕ-|
This list is incomplete, and will be expanded as needed.
|pṗo - although||yam - so that||pito - even though||żŏṅ - in order to|
|azi - which||yan - because||aŏl - how||żuqa - lest|
|nun - except||ḃaŏ - before||qaxa - if||braŏ - since|
|upa - after||oṫi -where||eyo - inasmuch||ĕdzin - provided that|
|żuna - whenever||oṫĕn - wherever||byĕ - until||qayo - for some time|
|poĭ - that||ini - still|
This (admittedly large) table shows the various correlative pronouns available in Tsrul, as well as their translations. These pronouns are declined for case and number in the sentence when applicable. final vowels on these pronouns are usually deleted when declined suffixes begin with vowels. for instance, "at this time" would be declined as [ożiḋo]+[eĭ]+[m] and would have the form ożiḋeĭm.
|who...?||this one||that one||yon one||someone||no one||everyone|
|what...?||this thing||that thing||yon thing||something||nothing||everything|
|how...?||thus||in that way||in a way||somehow||in no way||in every way|
|why...?||for this reason||for that reason||therefore||for some reason||for no reason||for every reason|
Tsrul has the unique ability to blend parts of speech, such as nouns and verbs, verbs and adjectives, etc., to create nuanced expression, as well as densely-packed meaning in a small number of words. Since verbs are so integral to the formation of Tsrul sentences, part-mixing happens mostly on verbs, but there is no rule against creating words that are, for instance, adjectival nouns or adverbial adjectives.
Part-mixing is demonstrated with the following example (words are directly parsed in brackets):
qaxa gyatom hoqaṅqroḋaŏ, hoyaonjozayáĭ.
[IF] [WAY.ᴀᴄᴄ] [2sɢ.KNOWLEDGE.NONE.sᴇɴs-ᴀᴄᴛ-ᴅɪsᴄ] [2sɢ.sᴛʀᴏɴɢ.LOST.ᴀᴅᴊ.ɪɴFᴇʀ-ᴀᴄᴛ-ᴄᴏɴᴛ-ɪɴFFᴜᴛ]
“If you have no knowledge of the way, I assume you will forever be throughly lost.”
If, however, the verb is a simple negative like hoxalqanḋaŏ rather than hoqaṅqroḋaŏ, the meaning changes slightly to “If you don’t know the way [...] ,” which shifts the perspective from the subject’s knowledge to the subject.
As stated, part-mixing can create very nuanced distinctions, but can also be very confusing for Tsrul beginners. It is recommended that learners of Tsrul ensure that they have thoroughly learned the basics of the language before attempting to master part-mixing.
pinunto - 'a greeting [ᴀᴄᴄ]' (shortened from 'I give you a greeting') - hello (declines for number of people being greeted)
ṫolapum - 'of the error' (shortened from 'this results from my error.') - I'm sorry
ṗogudżoyoŏ pibŭĭtan - 'to laugh widely' - to laugh heartily
ṗonaxayoŏ piḋomlĕĭn - 'to speak crookedly' - to be drunk
uṫanżam ṗonaxayoŏ - 'to speak like an uthan' - to paint or create visual art
ṅŭĭltom ṗoŭtoŏṅyoŏ - 'to drink the ocean(/lake/river/etc)' - to drown (the body of water the person drowns in is used in the idiom)
giqatom yotsoyoŏ [ᴄᴏᴍ] - 'to steal the ear [of someone]' - to scream at/berate [someone]
Tsrul numbers are base 60, with a sub-base at 10, much like Babylonian numerals. Zero, which is grammatically handled in a different manner than the other numbers, is mo (or om, if it repeats after mo.) If the number zero is used as a noun, it takes the composite -n noun ending, as do any of the words modifying it. verbs pertaining to the number zero only use the fourth person.
numbers in the ones place in the Tsrul numeral system are im (1), sol (2), bil (3), hĕl (4), nol (5), nyar (6), myĕr (7), zyĕr (8), and or (9)
numbers in the tens place are il (10), sor (20), bir (30), hĕr (40), and nor (50). ir can sometimes be used as 60 (only when two consecutive digits of a number are 01:00).
The following examples are provided to show the form of written Tsrul numerals, as well as their numeric base-60 forms and converted base-10 forms.
sorim bil = 21:03 = 1,260
sorim mo bil mo om = 21:00:03:00:00 = 272,170,800
sorim hĕrnol im sorsol hĕl = 21:45:01:22:04 = 281,884,924
ir nornyar / im mo nornyar = 60:56 / 01:00:56 = 3,656
When there is a certain number of things referenced (i.e. two eyes, five fingers), The noun and the number are connected noun-first with the conjunctive particle i. though the grammatical numbers typically match, there is no rule that states that they need to. (e.g. yibur i sol, ḋihal i nol)
Tsrul mathematics is slightly different from modern popular mathematics. Rather than using separate operators for adding, multiplying, exponentiating, etc., the same operator is repeated. For example, the ascending operations of addition, multiplication, and exponentiation would be written in our mathematical system as 2+4, 2×4 (also written 2+2+2+2), and 24 (also written 2×2×2×2) respectively. further extending this system, we get tetration, or 42, which is equivalent to 2222. Although these operators quickly become confusing to modern everyday math users, the Tsrul system of mathematics would simply write these formulas as 2+2 for addition, 2++2 for multiplication, 2+++2 for exponentiation, and 2++++2 for tetration. Although for many Tsrul mathematicians these higher-order fucntions are rarely used, their availability in the Tsrul system makes the concepts better understood by the general populace. These concepts are also extended to the subtraction/division/nth root/super-root functions, using 2−2, 2−−2, 2−−−2, and 2−−−−2, respectively.
However, one aspect of Tsrul mathematics is a bit more foreign to modern math users. This is the concept of "operations into X" rather than "operations by X". With operations by X, we have functions such as "2 multiplied by 6," which yields the answer of 12. With operations into X, we have the function "2 multiplied into 6," which yields the answer of 3. this can be rephrased as "two goes into six three times." Since, mathematically, the concept of adding into X and adding by X yield the same numbers, addition into X is rarely used. The operators for these "into+" and "into-" operations are stylistically represented by "×" and "÷" (respectively) in the romanization of the Second Reform Script. Although "multiplying into" is very similar to "division by," the operations are held distinct in Tsrul mathematical usage. They can be used, for instance, in simplifying the calculation of percentage totals. as an example, say a person buys two meals at a restaurant in the United States which costs $10.62 each, and needs to know if the twenty-five dollars in their wallet is enough for a 15% tip. In Tsrul mathematics, the equation would be 10.62++2 = 21.24, 21.24÷÷25.00 = 1.17 (17% tip). the usage of division into X is here used to simplify the equation, negating the need to change any of the operands (as one would need to order the operands in the second part as 25/21.24 in modern the mathematical system, replacing 21.24 as the operand being modified). This is especially useful when using a calculator.
The first three lines of oʻal i sol (The Two Gifts), the Tsrul creation myth.Edit
1iṡo ḋun ramye raxazam, ożi ṅoqalyàŏ i iṅwo, u soṡomyàŏ.
2iṡo, upa u ṡomyàŏ, aṗasor tam nyepàŏ i e iṡoḋàĭ, sonaxayàŏ. “ḋoso litatom żŏṅ hoʻalẁé, hoiṡoḋáĭ́!” soṫusiṅyàŏ.
1Existence awoke from a dream-filled sleep when it decided that it must.
2After Existence awoke, It spoke to all that It saw could be. it said, “Yᴏᴜ sʜᴀʟʟ ᴇxɪsᴛ, ᴛᴏ ɢɪᴠᴇ ᴍᴇ ᴊᴏʏ!”
3Thus it happened.
Article 1 of The Universal Declaration of Human RightsEdit
ṫotaro uyumpur apalmpur ahŭyompur sebabaḋaŏ piżum. ṡelutom aṫimatom inteoʻalḋaŏ, a goyażar teyĕmwi.
All human beings are born equally with dignities, freedoms, and rights. They are given reason and conscience and should act towards one another as siblings.
The North Wind and the SunEdit
ḃuhah a zĕgim hiya sixazożam saĭnaṅyàŏ. dżimaéĭ̀m lagyampu oŏ siyantom solanoyóŏ, inzam oŏ soto u e soxalanoẃam sixatom maẃa, sarĕṅowayàŏ. ḃuhah ḃuhahaxom ḃuhayàŏ, oṗa lagyam dĕṅ soxalyàŏ i u intoxalanoẁam dĕṅ siyantom toŭdżaṅyàŏ pyŏsazom. ḃuhah ożiḋéĭ̀m soṫesayàŏ. upa, uṫéĭ̀m zĕgimpum uṫayàŏ pyŭmwo, lagyam u toxalanoyàŏ. unsom ḃuhah sixatom zĕgimpum tolĕtayàŏ.
- pul ṗopsĕḋoŏ pilŏwŏw. pŭwl lŏwŏwḋoŏ pipsĕ.
Wind and Sun were arguing about [who was] the stronger. Upon the arrival of a traveller who wore a coat, they wagered that the first to make him disrobe had all the strength. Wind blew with all of the gusts, but not only was the traveller not disrobed, he also wrapped himself tighter in the coat. At this, Wind gave up. Then, as the Sun's light brightened warmly, the traveler disrobed. for that reason, Wind admitted the strength of the Sun.
- The foolish apply impactfully. The wise impact applicably.
The Tower of BabelEdit
1 senaqem aṅgozam naxatom i im maĭḃàŏ.
2 ḋun ṗuyayem segyaeĭmyàŏ, nŏyṗĕnto ṡinaryem semŭĭyàŏ, a oṫiṗoyem u seṫisiyayàŏ.
3 "sulr ṡeṅxol ḋeloẃó, a ḋeṡenẃón." teṫusinyàŏ. sultor o ṡilyoŏ a ḃlitol o ĕgamyoŏ, semaĭḃàŏ.
4 "ĭsantom a ṅiqetom ĭyimpum palozaĭm xumŭżam ḋeṡilẃŏ́." teṫusinyàŏ, "deṫŏṅẃó, yam ḋun oṫiḋoyem dexaldirẃó." teṫusinyàŏ.
5 sezum seso soyibuyàŏ. ĭsantom aṅiqetom, oŏ zoĭr gobampur seṡilyàĭ, sonyepàŏ.
6 "we! seyaŏrḋaŏ! naxaxom i im senaxaḋaŏ! soto ŭ separtṫuḋaŏ!" sezum toṫusinyàŏ. "xanson e sexalĕmaŏ, qaxa xaḋaŏ i ĕmaŏ." toṫusinyàŏ.
7 "ḋożupeḋwa. senaxam ḋobwanaḋáŏ́ o texalżreĭlẃí." toṫusinyàŏ.
8 aŏḋom, sezum tiwṅarm poh ḋĕleyem sopsanyàŏ, a ĭsantom seṅaqayàŏ i ṡilyàŏ.
9 umṗom, oṫiṗom "babel" seżwemyàŏ, yan sea naxapum oṫiṗoyem sezuxom intobwanayàŏ, a sea ḋun oṫiṗoyem poh ḋĕleyem sezuxo intopsanyàŏ.
1 Their whole homeworld had one language.
2 As they traveled out from the east, they found a field in Shinar, and they began to live there.
3 "We should make bricks using fire, and burn them toroughly," They said to each other. They had bricks for building and tar for binding.
4 "Let's build a city and a tower whose top is as high as the sky," they said to each other. "We should name ourselves, so that we do not leave from this place," they said to each other.
5 Their god looked at them. he saw the city and the tower, which the children of humanity were building.
6 "Look! They're working together! They speak using one language! They've started to do this!" Their god said to himself. "They are unable to do nothing, if they imagine that they can do it," He said to himself.
7 "I should go down. I will confuse their language, so that they cannot understand one another," he said to himself.
8 thus, their god sowed them all over the planet, and they forgot about building the city.
9 Therefore, that place was called Babel. Because they, with their language, were there confused by their god, and from there they were sown all over the planet by their god.
Cores are listed in the form “core - noun form, verb form.”
Cores typically do not exceed 3 syllables, though there are exceptions, mostly compounds and borrowings.
† irregulars are marked with a dagger
* non-core words (prepositions, particles, etc.) are marked with an asterisk
Stress is marked with ◌̄ for tsrul beginners. in practice, this is never done in tsrul writing
ʻaḃĭ̄n - wrist, to gesticulate
‘āha - thickness, to make thicker
ʻaṫān - a slithering animal (snake), to slither
ʻetūṅ - trouble, to trouble
ʻhĭ̄ṅgŭ - vomit/dry-heaving, to vomit/dry-heave
ʻĭṅōma - coilgun
ʻŏ - backwards motion, to back up/reverse (dyn: to turn around)
ʻŏr - basic unit (quark, electron), to break down
ʻun - food, to prepare food
ʻuqān - complexity (a type of beauty), to be complex
ʻurtabŏ̄r - useful skill, to be skilled
ʻuwō - circle, to encircle
a* - and (takes the form [al] when preceding [a])
ahnā - nostril/nose, to sniff
aĭ - colonization, to colonize
am - parent, to be a parent
āṅgo - total, to be whole
āpa - dirt, to get dirty
aqāl - perception, to perceive
aŏl* - how (as in “I know how you feel.”)
aŏtān - glory, to make glorious
aṗō - shin, to kneel
ar - idea, to have an idea
aṡŭ̄ - correction, to correct
aya - ascent, to bring up/lift/pick up
baĭ - conquest, to conquer
bāba - baby, to be born (passive is “to give birth/lay an egg,” depending on species)
bāḃa - quantum entanglement, to entangle quantum states
baḃān - quantum entanglement-converter, to travel via superconverter tsrul power core
balu - shadow/reflection, to shade/reflect
ḃĕhan - change, to change (middle voice: to become)
biḋān - achievement, to achieve
bir - thirty, to multiply by thirty (transitive)
bil - three, to triple (transitive)
bīṫi - triangle, to triangulate
byĕ* - until
bo* - even
bōsu - end point, to finish
brāyen - mentorship, to mentor
braŏ* - since
bŭ† - conversation, to converse
būla - Near UV (380nm), to make Near UV (transitive)
būsu - learning, to learn
bwāna - bewilderment, to make bewildered (transitive)
bżaŏ - element, to react (chemically)
bżon - manslaughter, to kill (accidentally)
ḃāḋŭ - domestic animal, to train
ḃanān - lie, to lie (as a liar would)
ḃaŏ* - before
ḃĕ̄ṅqu - epoch, to span an epoch (dyn: to change epochs)
ḃidi - shout, to yell
ḃli - goop/tar, to secrete (mass)
ḃon - thoroughness, to be thorough
ḃonaqāl - comprehension, to comprehend
ḃuhāh - wind, to blow
ḃuqī - leg, to kick
ḃun - key, to lock
ḃuṡŭ̄m - fat, to fatten
bŭĭtān - wide, to make wider
daʻ* - hey!/stop!/wait!/look out! (usually repeated three times as “daʻdaʻdaʻ!”)
dāṡa - a collected/cool demeanor, to maintain a collected/cool demeanor
dampē - knee, to genuflect
dḋyūqa - fall, to fall
diʻ - brief, to cut short
dīru† - going, to go
domlēĭṅ - crookedness, to zig-zag
dran - simplicity, to simplify
dŭĭwār - handicap, to handicap
dzītu - cycle, to turn
dzyūqa - ground, to bury (dyn: to till)
dzwal - falsehood, to falsify
dżahōm - revenge, to avenge
dżin - truth, to tell the truth
dżīma - coming, to come
dżōṡa - other, to ostracize
ḋābu - attempt, to attempt/try
ḋaŏ - verb, to make a core into a verb (ḋoŏ, yaŏ, and yoŏ are alternate forms)
ḋĕ̄le - terrestrial planet, to make landfall (dyn: to slingshot)
ḋĕlēlu - gas planet, to pull with heavy gravity
ḋĕsōĭl - chest, to breathe (or break (like a wave). refers specifically to the motion of breathing)
ḋihā - finger, to poke
ḋīme - blue (495nm), to make blue (transitive)
ḋīni - writing, to write/type
ḋiṗīm - fingernail, to scratch
ḋnāme - back, to lie down
ḋŏ - electricity, to electrify
ḋrŏṅ - supposition, to suppose
ḋūyam - swelling, to swell
ḋun* - out of/from
ḋuta - overwealming stimuli (any sense, i.e. pain, hearing, taste, smell, etc.), to be overly loud/smelly/bright
e* - modal clitic of capability
ēbuṡi - fight/battle, to fight using weapons
eyēm - wish, to wish
eyūṅ -wipe, to wipe
elgām - unnaturalness, to be unnatural
ēlu - cloud, to be cloudy (dyn: to fog up, as glasses do coming from the cold)
elxō - unnatural/untimely death, to die unnaturally
em* - through (as in, to move through a doorway)
embḃŭ̄ĭr - gathering/party, to socialize
ēnu* - over
ēqa - shine, to shine
eṡōl - half, to halve
ezīm - sword, to slash
ĕḃrīn - shame, to shame
ĕdēmo - clothing, to clothe
ĕdzīn* - provided that
ĕgām - cement, to cement
ĕgmān - lake, to float
ĕha - statue, to erect
ĕyō - part/piece, to split apart
ĕldiō - bifurcation, to split
ĕpṗīn - favorite, to feel favoritism for (transitive, positive connotation)
ĕm† - action, to do
ĕṅqāŏ - dark mass-energy (composite), to convert energy to dark matter (dyn: DM to energy)
ĕ̄no - leaf, to whisper
ĕqō - west, to go westward (dyn: to turn westward)
ga* - from (location; e.g. from Earth)
gahṡān - heaviness/weight, to make heavier
gāmpo - blindness, to blind (transitive)
gāṡa - brawl, to brawl/fight hand-to-hand
gażōh - sacredness, to be sanctified
gĕ̄xan - frustration, to frustrate (transitive)
giqā - ear, to hear (dyn: to listen)
gya - way/path, to travel on a path
gyuqṡā - honor/face/pride, to respect
gyutum - answer, to answer/respond
glu - wood, to do carpentry (to [object])
gōbam† - humanity, to be humane
gaqāl - flying animal (bird), to fly
go - breakfast, to prepare breakfast
gōya - (step)sibling, to be born as a sibling
gōno - resignation, to give up
gopāĭl - iron drum, to play an iron drum (dyn: to strike an iron drum)
gru - an awkward tension caused by withholding information, to cause grum.
gudżō - laughter, to laugh
gūyu - heart/pump, to pump
gupān - , cleaning, to clean
guṡāʻ - reform, to reform
gŭl* - oy/jeez
gżum - pull, to pull
ha* - from when (from the time of...)
hāhṅa - snow, to snow
hāṡĕ - breath, to breathe
hĕl - four, to quadruple (transitive)
hĕmūn - far IR (15μm), to make far IR (transitive)
hĕr - forty, to multiply by forty (transitive)
hĕ̄tsi - tree, to grow (in age)
hĕṫi - quadrilateral (includes squares, rhombi, trapezoids, etc.), to look in all different directions
hiyā* - on the subject of/about (+[SIM])
hīme - diving, to dive
hin - platonic love, to love platonically
hna - shadow/shade/darkness, to shade
hnazām - (exact) same thing, to use again
hinūsu - pleasure, to please
hiūqa - brief attack, to attack/strike
hogōm - suction, to suck
hner - torture, to torture
hŭyoṅ - right/privilege, to have the right (to...)
i* - conjunctive clitic/numeric clitic/partitive clitic
iṗā - opening, to be open (dyn: to open)
īpe - thinness, to make thinner
īho - pain, to cause pain
il - ten, to multiply by ten (transitive)
im - one, to count
in - prohibition, DON’T!
ini* - still
iṅ - necessity, you must!
iṅwār - decimal point, to calculate accurately
imsōl - mathematics, to calculate
imān* - all at once/at one time
īmpo - demand, I demand that...
īnto - mandate, I respectfully mandate that...
īṅqo - request, I request that...
īpe - ease, to make something easy (transitive)
iqēni - Ikeni (species), to behave like an Ikeni
ir - multitude (or 60, as a number), to be many (or to multiply by sixty (transitive))
iṡō† - Existence (the deity), to be (mostly unused, in a trsul’s mind only Existence can be)
isā - city, to urbanize
īsŭ - spirit/soul, to embody
ĭ - thing, to stand/remain passively ĭḃām - spouse, to be married (transitive)
ĭgyan − hero/heroine, to protect/save/guard
ĭgmā - ambush, to ambush
ĭyīm - pinnacle, to summit (as in to summit a mountain) (transitive)
ĭl - toe, to balance/stabilize (dyn: to hold on to (transitive))
ĭ̄mba - curiosity (positive connotation; healthy curiosity) (composite), to be interested
ĭmyuwā - hunting, to hunt
ĭnāl - salt (mass), to salt
ĭnaṅ - argument, to argue
ĭ̄nte - happiness (composite), to be happy
ĭṅōṗu - mind, to think
iqam* - in front of
ĭsān - city, to urbanize
ĭṡŭ̄ - age, to age
ĭ̄zno - anger/rage, to cause anger/rage
la - vibrance, to be vibrant
larā - edible plant/vegetable, to prepare/harvest vegetables
lam - fruit, to prepare/harvest fruit
lano - outfit, to wear (dyn: to put clothes on)
laqāŏ - mass-energy (composite), to convert energy to matter (dyn: matter to energy)
laŏyāŏ - cat, to accompany (transitive)
lēgŭm - rain, to rain down (weather is phrased as “rain falls outside,” not “it’s raining”)
lĕta - admission, to admit.
līni - sand (mass), to sift
lixā - genitals, to have intercourse with (dyn: to lose one’s virginity)
līta - joy, to be joyous
lo - creation/invention, to create/invent
losāŭ - wind, to blow
lŏwŏw - force, to impact
lumōn - dullness, to dull (a blade)
lun - good, to do well
lūṡo - orange (610nm), to make orange (transitive)
maʻ - that's it!/enough!/i've had it!
maḃā† - possession, to have
mālaʻ - claw, to claw
manām - cold, to chill
mayām - Far UV (170nm), to make Far UV (transitive)
mem - shard, to shatter
mĕn - space, to space-travel
mĕ̄su - head (body part), to headbutt
mi - thumb, to vote (mitsoym -secondary thumb)
mizŭ̄ - safety, to provide safety for (transitive) (dyn: to protect)
miżīm - skin, to laminate
myĕr - seven, to septuple (transitive)
mo† - zero (takes the form [om] when following itself, thus mo om mo om = 00:00:00:00), to count zero (transitive)
moqṡā - white, to whiten (transitive)
mūmŭ - mouth, to kiss
mŭĭ - discovery, to discover
na* - so/accordingly/and so/well/uhh/um nar* - but
nal - beauty (holds a neutral, non-gender specific connotation), to be beautiful
nāqe - home planet, to live on one’s home planet (dyn: to return home)
naxā - language, to speak
ner - west, to go west (dyn: to turn westward)
nĕpō† - sight, to see
niqā - tooth, to bite
nīsi - myth/magic, to regale/cast spells
nyar - six, to sextuple (transitive)
nyaṫi - hexagon, to worship
nol - five, to quintuple (transitive)
nōqa* - only/just (can be made into adjectival noqaza- ‘alone’)
nor - fifty, to multiply by fifty (transitive)
noṫi - pentagon, to measure area
nŏyṗĕ - open expanse, to raze
nuqūm - palm (of the hand), to apply pressure (dyn: to rub)
nŭĭn - collective/union, to unite
ṅan - greatness, to succeed
ṅāno - ship/ocean vessel, to be on a ship (dyn: to get on a ship)
ṅaqā - cessation, to stop (intransitive)
ṅĕṡo - question, to ask
ṅiqe - tower, to stand out
ṅyōqa - throw, to throw
ṅoqāl - decision, to decide
ṅo* - whence (from where)
ṅoĭgĕ - story, to tell a story
ṅoʻīr - travel, to travel
ṅōnum - left/counter-clockwise, to go left/counterclockwise (dyn: to turn left/ccw)
ṅōṡah - swimming animal (fish), to swim
ṅūnu - wonder, to be wondrous
ṅŭĭl - ocean, to inundate
o* - supine clitic
oʻāl - gift, to give
ōgo - red (700nm), to redden (transitive)
ogŏ̄ - friendship, to be friends (dyn: to become friends)
oĭṅ - north, to go north (dyn: to turn northward)
ōyĕm - plant, to root oneself into something/stand one’s ground (dyn: to become stuck)
oŏ* - whose (can be applied to non-sentient entities, i.e. a rock whose surface is smooth)
oŏm - tripping, to trip (over something)
ōpa* - damn/alas/shit
ōnyo - being lost, to be lost
ōŏqi - a type of very hard liquor, to pour out a shot of oŏqi (dyn: to drink oŏqi)
or - nine, to nonuple (transitive)
oṫĕ̄n* - wherever
oṫī* - where (as in “I know where the city is)
ożī* - when (as in “I know when my plane leaves)
ożōʻ - taste, to taste (what the food does, not what the taster does)
ŏʻūĭl - south, to go south (dyn: to turn southward)
ŏḃōṅ - murder, to murder (purposefully)
ŏgnūy - sea, to rage
ŏnŭ̄ - relationship (romantic), to like/be invovled with romantically (transitive)
ŏṅmā - stone, to crush
ŏ̄pṡu - fear, to cause fear (pas: to fear)
ŏqṡā - line, to align
ŏqībe - warp nanite, to send data over the warp array
ŏ̄rtṡa - confusion, to confuse
ŏsa - proximity, to encroach
ŏtoŏ - sculpture, to carve/sculpt
ŏ̄tsi - person (masculine, male), to be masculine (different connotation compared to now
pa - away from, to go away from (dyn: to turn away from)
payō - up, to go upward (dyn: to turn upward)
pal - freedom, to free
pālo - height, to make taller (transitive)
pānya - power/ability, to be able
partṫu - beginning, to start
pāsa - tongue, to lick
pinūh - greeting, to greet (dyn: to meet for the first time)
pīso - novelty, to restore
pitō* - even though
poh* - all over the place/all around
poĭ* - that (as in, the man knew that the dog ate his food. )
pṗo* - although
psan - seed, to sow
psĕ - application, to apply.
pŭl - benign foolishness, to be a dunce
pŭw - wisdom, to be wise
ṗa - door, to close
ṗēlan - satellite (natural or man-made), to orbit (dyn: to be captured in orbit)
ṗamnŭ̄w - leather/pelt, to scalp
ṗināʻ - axe, to hew
ṗĭ - silk, to spin silk
ṗlōqa - smoke (composite), to produce smoke
ṗōla - smooth, to make smooth
ṗōma* - around (as in, to circle around)
ṗoṅ - bad, to be bad
ṗożyā - tail, to wag one’s tail
ṗūya - east, to go eastward (dyn: to turn eastward)
ṗūżŭ - term of endearment (exact meaning is unclear, somewhat derogatory but also flattering)
ṗŭlṫēĭn - advice, to advise
ṗŭsāl - ash, to turn to ash
qayō* - for some time
qalū - Pyrrhic victory (a technical win that is logistically a loss), to prevail in defeat
qam - glass, to shine/polish
qan - knowledge, to know
qasō - repossession, to repossess
qasōnal - the Kasona (race), to upload one's mind to a computer (dyn: to download into a body)
qaṡōʻ - size (specifically, largeness), to inflate or make larger
qāxa* - if
qażāno - mid IR (8μm), to make mid IR (transitive)
qērḋa - curiosity (has a negative connotation; nosy-curious), to be nosy
qēxo - machine, to mechanize
qih* - ouch! (usually completely voiceless, pronounced [ki̥h] or [qḁh])
qyaŏpō - thread, to sew
qon - footstep, to walk
qōpa - dark, to be dark
qsim - pet, to domesticate
qsĭn - iron, to smith/forge
qṡa - pigment, to dye
qṡibā - tug, to pull
qṡol - hole, to make a hole
qṡun - worm, to burrow
qṡūar - atmosphere, to fill a ship with atmosphere
qul - consumption, to eat
qulūn - an incredibly spicy rice-like dish with a thick sauce, to prepare qulun
quṡŭ̄n - expansion, to expand
qŭw - forgetting, to be unable to recall (dyn: to forget)
ra - sleep, to sleep
rāmo - purple (430nm), to make purple (transitive)
raṡāĭm - play (what kids do for fun), to play
rāxa - dream, to dream
remŭ̄ - dryness, to dessiccate
rela* - behind
rĕ - shell, to clamp shut
rĕl - face/countenance, to turn one's head towards... (transitive)
rĕṅōwa - bet, to wager
riyŭ̄n - day (composite), to spend the day
rinyīm - division into, to divide x into y (x=ɪɴsᴛ, y=ᴀɢᴇ)
riqōm - a predatory scaly animal, to stalk
rĭṅ - god, to be deified
roŏ - promiscuity, to be promiscuous
roti - hologram, to project
ruṫā - occurrence, to happen
rŭṡū - shortness, to make shorter
sahām - same thing/similar item, to duplicate/counterfeit sāĭqo - feather, to glide
sami - health, to maintain good health
saqāl - person (feminine, female), to be feminine (different connotation compared to now)
sen - egg, to ovulate
sēlŭ - fright, to frighten
sĕm - pitcher/bowl/container for liquid, to pour (PAS: to fill up with liquid)
siyam - coat, to bundle up
sixa - strength, to bear
syōma - sky, to jump
sol - two, to double (transitive)
sōṗi - breast, to breastfeed
sor - twenty , to multiply by twenty (transitive)
sōṡu - raod/railway (artificial path), to drive
sugā - flower, to bloom
sul - brick, to build up
sumpiṡe - visitor, to visit
ṡażā - hair, to braid
ṡāpa - wing, to fly
ṡelu - reason, to reason/think about
ṡen - fire, to burn
ṡīqi - spear, to stab
ṡīqṡiqa - evil, to be evil
ṡil - construction, to build
ṡmuy - grass/vegetation, to sod
ṡolṗŭ̄ - misfortune, to have bad luck
ṡom - consciousness, to be conscious
ṡōqu - root, to root in/hold fast
sor - speech, to speak/say
ṡubrē - Thermal IR (12μm), to make Thermal IR (dyn: to emit Thermal IR)
ṡuḃin - romantic partner, to marry
ṡubon - object, to have possession of (dyn: to carry)
ṡūya - tear, to cry (dyn: to sob)
ṡul - animal, to be feral
tam* - that/which/who (as in “Speak to everyone that can hear”)
tan - exodus, to escape en masse (dyn: to stampede)
tanya - music (composite), to make music
tāṅqo - stick, to use a stick for... (transitive)
taṡaṫo - patience, to wait/wait for/expect
te - limit, to limit
ti - dot, to dot (a letter, like i)/tap/poke
tīṫu - seed, to plant
tiwṅar - people/culture, to behave as one's culture dictates
toĭ - requirement, to need
trai - event, to plan an event
tsīsi - grip, to hold (dyn: to squeeze)
tsru - sapience, to be sapient
tsrul - tsrul people/culture, to behave like a true tsrul
tsuʻūṅqu - celebration, to celebrate
tṡyūṅṡa - return, to return (from an errand)
tṫyūqa - cord (or rope), to tie (transitive)
tṫo - placement, to put
tṫūpe - saliva, to spit
tupīh - fingertip/fingerpad, to tap
tur - chair/seat, to sit
ṫalyān - near IR (800nm), to make near IR (transitive)
ṫāṡo - rot, to rot
ṫaṫā - brown, to make brown (transitive)
ṫesa - surrender, to give up
ṫi - side/face, to orient
ṫīḋĕ - water, to wash (adj: watered-down)
ṫīma - conscience, to feel guilty
ṫisīya - life, to live
ṫīżi - closeness, to stay close to... (dyn: to snuggle up to...) (transitive)
ṫōla - error, to make a mistake
ṫōta - person (not limited to humans. ungendered), to behave like a person (used with animals)
ṫōŭ - lisp, to speak with a lisp (linguistic note: this word was once pronounced [sor])
ṫŏṅ - naming, to assign a name
ṫu - space/time, to travel through space/time
ṫuṅāno - spaceship, to travel on a spaceship (dyn: to get on a spaceship)
ṫuṅoʻĭ̄r - time travel, to travel only through time
ṫusīṅ - word, to say
ṫwoŏw - length, to go a long way
u* - dynamic verbal clitic
uāżŭm - cut, to cut
udōma - Mid UV (240nm), to make Mid UV (transitive)
uyū - wetness, to moisten
uyūn - dignity, to dignify
ūlya - wish/desire, to want
ūme* - soon/recently (depends on tense of sentence)
umriyun - yesterday/tomorrow (depends on tense of sentence), to time travel one day at a time
un - musical instrument, to play music
uṅ - time, to pass (as time passes)/to be in an undisturbed state
uṅāqṡo - knife, to chop
ūpa* - after (when followed by Temporal, means “as soon as”)
ūqa - member, to hold membership
uqyū - grey/black, to make grey/blacken (transitive)
usā - smallness, to make smaller
uṫā - light, to light up/brighten
uṫān - Uthan (alien life form), to communicate visually
ŭ - perfect verbal clitic
ŭyāl - turqoiuse (500nm), to make turqouise (transitive)
ŭ̄lmu - strike/hit, to strike/hit
ŭm - toy, to play with...
ŭmbān - stomach/belly, to sit up from a laying position
ŭmūti - ancestor, to beget
ŭmŭ̄n - back of the hand, to slap
ŭmwō - warmth, to warm
ŭnyo - representative, to represent
ŭryāṅ - ice, to freeze
ŭsmā - victory, to be victorious/defeat
ŭtōŏṅ - beverage, to drink
ŭtwām - louse, to infest
ŭdżāṅ - wrapper, to wrap/roll up
ŭ̄xo - blood, to bleed
wa - bone, to break a bone (dżinsom ḋowalḋàŏ̀ - I broke some of Gene’s bones)
waĭʻ - poison, to poison
wam - rough impact, to smash
wāwan - flight, to flee
we* - Oh!/Behold!/Look!
wēhnŭ - smell, to smell
wĕ̄qa - hip, to stand
witi - generation, to reproduce
woʻ* - yes/truly/thus (can also mean ‘ahhh,’ or ‘oh, i see.’)
woṅ - good, to be good
wŏr - conception, to impregnate
wōṡa - tree bark, to cover protectively
wūṅu - greenish-yellow (570nm), to make greenish-yellow (transitive)
wu - perfection, to perfect
wūxa - romantic love, to be in love with... (transitive)
xa - imagination, to imagine
xāgo - mountain, to rock-climb
xaĭ* - no
xayūqa - horn, to gore
xal† - negative, to not...(immediately followed by another core, then evidential ending)
xalīr - paucity, to make fewer/“cull the herd”
xan - nothing
xaṡŭ̄ - applause, to clap/to applaud
xetṡō - gut, to digest
xiqīr - ink/pigment, to ink/paint/color
xo - death (of any kind), to die
xŏm - teacher, to teach
xūmŭ - year/orbit/rotation (spacial relation, not time), to orbit or rotate around... (transitive)
xumŭ̄ - the observable horizon, to leave the Cosmos
xŭw - dog, to be a partner to... (in the “hetero-lifemate” sense)
za - message, to write a message (dyn: to send a message)
zĕgīm - sun/star, to fuse (as in nuclear fusion)
zīmi - foot, to step
ziṅān - faith, to pray
zĭ - sleet, to cover with sleet ("sleet falls" would be the weather term)
zyĕl - eight, to octuple (transitive)
zum - like, to like
zōdżŭ - cock/pussy, to fuck (transitive) (dyn: to pop one’s cherry)
zoĭ - child, to raise children
zōto - knuckle, to punch
zu - god/goddess, to be supernatural
zudżūn - meat, to prepare meat
zuwōn - night, to spend the night
ya - ought, to shall/should (never subjunctive)
yaʻŭṅ - burst sleep/seizure, to undergo burst sleep/seize (as in epilepsy)
yāĭdo - past, to precede
yālṡo - river, to flow
yan* - because
yāṅqo - color, to color/paint
yaŏr - togetherness, to act together
yaṗō - surreality, to be surreal
yasā - slope/hill/valley, to incline/unbalance
yeṡūr - nanofabric, to weave nanofabric
yĕm - narrowness, to make narrower
yību - eye, to look at
yibuqam - mirror, to reflect
yom - jumping, to jump (dyn: to jump over)
yosī - core (as in a grammatical core), to trim down
yotsō - theft, to steal
yōŏtṡo - galaxy, to travel from galaxy to galaxy
yunā* - under
yūpa - voice, to sing
yupīso - enjoyment, to enjoy
yūṡu - right/clockwise, to go right/clockwise (dyn: to turn right/cw)
ża* - from
żāyo - neck, to turn one’s head
żōna - a pure state of being, to be in a pure state/to be one (with everything)
żol - dust (mass), to float like dust (dyn: to gather dust)
żŏṅ* - in order to
żreĭl - comprehension, to understand
żun - capacity, to fill
żum - fairness/justice, to make equal through retribution (ditransitive - agent can be implicit obj. if only 1 obj. is stated)
żumī - forest, to camp in the forest
żūṅe - shovel, to dig
żupē - down, to go downward (dyn: to turn downward)
żūṡu - fate, to be affected by... (dyn: to have...happen to) (transitive)
żŭ̄ĭbi - liver, to purify
żwem - name, to call...(transitive)