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Tu-gehena

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Tu-gehena is a SVO language and an Ergative-Absolute language. Case is declined as prefixes while number is declined in the article. Verbs are also conjugated for person and mood as prefixes, but voice is inflected as article.

Name: Tu-Gehena

Type: Inflected

Alignment: Ergative-Absolute

Head Direction: Verb

Number of genders: 4

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

Tu-gehena literally translates "the tongue" (but in the abstract gender). It is the language of the (fictional) Du-Zhenu people; a tribe that lived in Europe before the Indo-European invasion. It had no alphabet but one is listed here based on the Latin alphabet.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labiode. Dental Alveol. Postalve. Retrofl. Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn. Epiglot. Glottal
Plosives b /b/ p /p/ d /d/ t /t/ g k
Affricates ts' /tʃ/ g'h k'h
Fricatives f v d' /ð/ s /s/ z /z/ s' zh h /ħ/
Lateral Fricatives
Lateral Affricates
Nasals m /m/ n /n/ gn /ŋ/
Trills r /r/
Flaps / taps
Glides Approxim. w /w/ y /j/
Lateral Appr. l /l/
Co-art. approx.

VowelsEdit

Front Near front Central Near back Back
Close i' u'
Near-close u
Close-mid e'
Mid
Open-mid e
Near-open aa
Open a' a

The diphthongs are oy /oj/, ay /aj/, ey /ej/, ao /aw/ and uy /wi:/.

PhonotacticsEdit

Every letter is pronouned phonetically and only represent one sound. Long vowels are indicated by an apostrophe. A word cannot begin in an vowel. Most words are a simple C(C)V(C)(C) system. Stress falls on the penultimate sylable.


Basic GrammarEdit

Nouns:

Tu-gehena has four genders: masculine, feminine, neuter, and abstract, whose nominative endings are u, e, o, and a, respectively. Every noun in Tu-gehena is precieded by an article which determines its number and definativeness. A noun apears as an article, hyphon, then the noun. These are the six articles:

Singular Dual Plural
Definate Tu- D'u- Du-
Indefinate Su- Zhu- Zu-


Nouns are also declined by case. The seven cases in Tu-gehena are nominative, vocative, genitive, accusative, dative, instrumental, and locative. A plurality of mixed gendered people defaults to the masculine. Here is how they are declined:

Masculine Feminine Neuter Abstract
Abs -u -e -o -a
Erg -u' -e' -o' -aa
Gen -us -es -os -as
Voc -un -en -on -an
Dat -uy -ey -oy -ay
Ins -ut -et -ot -at
Loc -u'm -e'm -o'm -a'm


Adjectives:

Adjectives agree with their noun in gender, number, and case. They are declined as such:

Masculine Feminine Neuter Abstract
Abs -ben -men -den -zhen
Erg -bi' -mi' -di' -zhi'
Gen -bis -mis -dis -zhis
Voc -bin -min -din -zhin
Dat -biy -miy -diy -zhiy
Ins -bit -mit -dit -zhit
Loc -bi'm -mi'm -dim -zhi'm


Comparatives + Superlatives:

More Fi'
Most Fehe
Less Mi'
Least Mehe
As/Than Ye


Adverbs:

Adverbs can be formed from adjectives' absract case and "-a".

Example:

New: Fe'zhen

Newly: Fe'zhia


Verbs:

Verbs have two articles which represent the active and passive moods. They are ro- and gno-, respectively. Verbs also inflect for tense (Perfect, Imperfect, present, and future), represented by -i'-, -e'-, -a'-, and -o'-. Verbs can also take a habitual aspect by placing the auxiliary word "ye" before or after the verb. They also inflect for person as shown below:


Perfect:

Singular Dual Plural
First -i'g -i'k'h -i'k
Second -i's -i'zh -i'z
Third -i't -i'd' -i'd


Imperfect:

Singular Dual Plural
First -e'g -e'k'h -e'k
Second -e's -e'zh -e'z
Third -e't -e'd'h -e'd


Present:

Singular Dual Plural
First -a'g -a'k'h -a'k
Second -a's -a'zh -a'z
Third -a't -a'd' -a'd



Future:

Singular Dual Plural
First -o'g -o'k'h -o'k
Second -o's -o'zh -o'z
Third -o't -o'd' -o'd


Conditional:

Singular Dual Plural
First -u'g -u'k'h -u'k
Second -u's -u'zh -u'z
Third -u't -u'd' -u'd


Infinatives:


Infinatives can be formed by ending a verb in "-oy"

Example of a verb: Ro-maaloy-to love, Ro-maala'g-I love.


Imperative:

Imperative commands end in -i'k'haa


Participles:

Participles end with the appropriate vowel for the tense followed by: -ba- and the appropriate adjective ending.

Gerunds:

Gerunds can be formed by replacing the verbal article with a noun article and adding an abstract ending. Example: Ro-maaloy becomes Tu-maala.

Supines:

The supine is made by conneting the main verb and the infinative of the supine verb and placing -g'hu-, "for", in between them. Example: I love to be loved: Ro-maala'g-g'hu-gno-maaloy.


Pronouns:

Singular Dual Plural
First Gi' K'hi' Ki'
Second Si' Zhi' Zi'
Third Ti' D'i' Di'


Reflective: Li'

Indefinate: Wi'


Declining Pronouns

Pronouns are declined simply by adding the appropriate ending: -s, -n, -y, -t, and -m for genitive, vocative, dative, instrumental, and locative, respectively. Ergative and Absolute are identical for pronouns so word order is necessary. Pronouns have no article because their number is obvious.


Copula:

The copula ye'toy "to be" has no article.

Infinative ye'toy

Perfect:

Singular Dual Plural
First ye'ti'g ye'ti'k'h ye'ti'k
Second ye'ti's ye'ti'zh ye'ti'z
Third ye'ti't ye'ti'd' ye'tid

Imperfect:

Singular Dual Plural
First ye'te'g ye'te'k'h ye'te'k
Second ye'te's ye'te'zh ye'te'z
Third ye'te't ye'te'd' ye'te'd

Present:

Singular Dual Plural
First ye'ta'g ye'ta'k'h ye'ta'k
Second ye'ta's ye'ta'zh ye'ta'z
Third ye'ta's ye'ta'd' ye'ta'd

Future:

Singular Dual Plural
First ye'to'g ye'to'k'h ye'to'k
Second ye'to's ye'to'zh ye'to'z
Third ye'to's ye'to'd' ye'to'd

Conditional:

Singular Dual Plural
First ye'tu'g ye'tu'k'h ye'tu'k
Second ye'tu's ye'tu'zh ye'tu'z
Third ye'tu's ye'tu'd' ye'tu'd

DictionaryEdit


No. English Tu-Gehena
1IGi
2you (singular)Si
3heTi
4weKi
5you (plural)Zi
6theyDi
7thisHen
8thatK'hen
9herehe'bo'r
10therek'ebo'r
11whoYed'an
12whatYedo'
13whereYebo'r
14whenYeva
15howYezha
16notMe'
17allNaoben
18manyGnaoben
19somezho'ben
20fewMe'gnaoben
21otherk'hoyben
22ones'u'
23twozu'
24threeku'
25fourhu'
26fivemu'
27bigGo'ben
28longGo'vi'ben
29wideGnayben
30thickGle'ben
31heavyDyaaben
32smallPo'ben
33shortPo'vi'ben
34narrowMe'gle'ben
35thinMe'gnayben
36womanSu-Me'he
37man (adult male)Su-Be'hu
38man (human being)Su-D'anu
39childSu-Ki'ku
40wifeSu-Ed'e
41husbandSu-Ed'u
42motherSu-Me'ne
43fatherSu-Bu'nu
44animalSu-Raohu
45fishSu-Lu'raohe
46birdSu-Faavhe
47dogRohu
48louseKaavo
49snakeSu-Sni's'u
50wormSu-po'phu
51treeSu-Vayhe
52forestSu-Vayhebo'ro
53stickSu-Vayti'nto
54fruitSu-Gle'mno
55seedSu-zti'nu
56leafSu-Ts'eto
57rootSu-gudho
58barkSu-Kruhanyo
59flowerSu-He've'ne
60grassZu-Ts'es'e
61ropeSu-zhurvo
62skinSu-zi'tmo
63meatSu-u'mu'nu
64bloodSu-Hu'he'ye
65boneSu-D'aa'nku
66fatSu-Gne'no
67eggSu-ko'pe
68hornSu-Ayzto
69tailSu-Havru
70featherSu-ts'i'faave
71hairSu-ts'i'
72headSu'ku'gnto
73earSu-hayhe
74eyeSu-zoyhu
75noseSu-hi'ts'u
76mouthSu-zhu'mo
77toothSu-ki'nto
78tongueSu-geheno
79fingernailSu-vi'fo
80footSu-tropu
81legSu-Greko
82kneeSu-Gre'gnyo
83handSu-Pli'pe
84wingSu-pli'faave
85bellySu-bli'gu
86gutsZu-Gne'rhego
87neckSu-kilmno
88backSu-Zhi'gu
89breastSu-Mes'i'ne
90heartSu-Gne'rno
91liverSu-Gne'repu
92drinkRo-gne'hoy
93eatRo-Me'noy
94biteRo-I'me'noy
95suckRo-Mezhek'hoy
96spitRo-fi'zhi'toy
97vomitRo-go'ro'oy
98blowRo-hu'hoy
99breatheRo-hyaahoy
100laughRo-ke'hoy
101seeRo-Zhe'moy
102hearRo-hayhoy
103knowRo-zhe'menoy
104thinkRo-zehoy
105smellRo-fyemoy
106fearRo-kri'loy
107sleepRo-Zhu's'y
108liveRo-Hayvoy
109dieGno-Ke'koy
110killRo-Ke'koy
111fightTi'hi'koy
112huntRo-raoke'koy
113hitRo-Te'k'hoy
114cutRo-Ti'toy
115splitRo-Ti'toy
116stabRo-Ti'toy
117scratchRo-G'havoy
118digRo-Ergezhoy
119swimRo-lu'noy
120flyRo-faavhoy
121walkRo-vi'hoy
122comeRo-erhi'koy
123lieRo-Aaperoy
124sitRo-Hoperoy
125standRo-E'ntoy
126turnRo-Kwi'ntoy
127fallRo-Pog'hoy
128giveRo-daatoy
129holdRo-Kaarkoy
130squeezeRo-G'harkoy
131rubRo-Zhu'mpoy
132washRo-Zhaavoy
133wipeRo-Zhu'mpoy
134pullRo-erhoy
135pushRo-Me'hoy
136throwRo-ye'toy
137tieRo-zhurvoy
138sewRo-Zifs'oy
139countRo-su'zoy
140sayRo-zhumoy
141singRo-Haand'oy
142playRo-bu'goy
143floatRo-Lu'weroy
144flowRo-Luwadoy
145freezeRo-zi'koy
146swellRo-gn
147sunTu-Hei'ka
148moonTu-S'u'la
149starSu-Zi'na
150waterSu-Lu'we
151rainSu-He'lu'we
152riverSu-Ze'vlu'ho
153lakeSu-Lu'bi'to
154seaTu-Lu'bre
155saltTu-s'aad'ho
156stoneTu-g'ho'do
157sandTu-Hare'ko
158dustSu-ts'e'to
159earthTu-Gezhe
160cloudSu-G'haho
161fogSu-G'hoho
162skySu-He'le
163windSu-Hi's'e
164snowSu-Ze's'e
165iceSu-Zi'to
166smokeSu-K'ho'ro
167fireSu-Hoynto
168ashSu-Ts'es'o
169burnRo-Hoyntoy
170roadSu-Ze'vo
171mountainSu-Korbo
172redLi'ri'ben
173greenGe'ben
174yellowKe'leben
175whiteVayaben
176blackKoyaben
177nightKoya
178dayvaya
179yearZhe'na
180warmK'ho'rnoben
181coldzi'taben
182fullTs'e'noben
183newFe'ben
184oldHo'kreben
185goodHazhaben
186badNe'heben
187rottenFre'teben
188dirtyG'he'neben
189straightVi'taben
190roundZhirkaben
191sharpZi'ti'ben
192dullTs'eben
193smoothGli'zaben
194wetLuwaben
195dryK'hrukaben
196correctYe'heben
197nearaapben
198farnehe'r
199rightTu-Kre'ta
200leftTu-zhu'ta
201ataap
202iner
203withhu'n
204andK'haa
205ifS'aa
206becauseTraa
207namewo'ka


Example textEdit

This is a simple daily Du-Zhenu prayer to one of their gods, He'fnu.

English Tu-Gehena

Greetings to you, Oh Father He'fu!

King of the Earth and the cattle hear me!

I am your child, bless me with your abundance on this day!

Du-We'ha si'y, Tu-Bu'nu' Tu-He'fnun!

Tu-Kayd'hanu Tu-ge'zhes, k'haa Du-Gwe'hi'ne, Ro-hayhi'k'haa!

Su-Ki'ku si's ye'ta'g, Ro-hazhi'k'haa gi' Du-ts'entat si's Tu-he'lam!

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