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Tumata is an inflectional agglutinative language. This means that, nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are inflected to show grammar, but these inflections, as well as derivation, are shown by the addition of affixes. Tumata is nominative-accusative, which means that it uses those two noun cases to signify the subject and the object. Tumata has two numbers and four persons.


PronounsEdit

There are many different pronouns in Tumata. Below are given the singular and nominative plural forms. (For an explanation of the different plurals, see Plurals.

Personal Pronouns Edit

Because Tumata is an inflected language, the personal pronouns are essentially unneeded unless used to clarify or emphasize.

Sg Pl
1st Te I Le We (in)
Re We (ex)
2nd Se You Θe You
3rd Ne He/She Me They
Ke It Pe They
4th Fe One


Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives Edit

Demonstrative adjectives will decline in the same form as the noun they qualify, as though they were normal adjectives.

Timi This Timim These
Timpi That Timbim Those


Interrogative Pronouns/Pro-adverbs/Determiners Edit

Interrogative words are declined in the same way as nouns and adjectives.

Two Person (who, which)
Kwo Object (what, which)
Fwo Time (when)
Pwo Reason (why)
Lo Location (where)
No Manner (how)


Relative Pronouns Edit

Relative pronouns are inflected for number, but no other cases.

Tümä Refers to the preceeding word
Sümä Refers to the preceeding clause/sentence


Reflexive Pronouns Edit

To form a reflexive pronoun, simply add the suffix -ne to the end of the personal pronoun.

Examples: Tene = Myself, Mene = Themselves

Reciprocal Pronoun Edit

The reciprocal pronoun in Tumata is Nedem, which translates to the English phrases "each other" or "one another."

Indefinite Pronouns Edit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.

NounsEdit

Nouns are declined into one of sixteen different cases, and can be made plural.

Case Edit

There are sixteen inflected cases for nouns.

Nominative/Vocative Edit

This denotes the subject or agent of a verb./This names the addressee.

The Nominative/Vocative form (henceforth known simply as the nominative form) is the base, "dictionary" form, and thus no suffixes are added.

Example: Sonna = House

Accusative Edit

This denotes the direct object or patient of a verb.

The accusative form is formed by adding the suffix -t.

Example: Sonnat = House

Dative Edit

This denotes the indirect object or recipient of a verb.

The dative form is formed by adding the suffix -s.

Example: Sonnas = To/For the/a house.

Genitive Edit

This shows relationship and posession.

The genitive form is formed by adding the suffix -n.

Example: Sonnan = Of the/a house, House's

Partitive Edit

This is used for amounts.

The partitive form is formed by adding the suffix -sa.

Example: Loira sonnasa = Six houses.

Loirani sonnasa = With six houses.

Loiramti tin sonnasa = Into six houses.

Instrumental Edit

by means of, with the aid of

The instrumental form is formed by adding the suffix -lu.

Example: Sonnalu = By means of the/a house, With the aid of the/a house, With the/a house.

Benefactive Edit

for, for the benefit of, intended for

The benefactive form is formed by adding the suffix -sta.

Example: Sonnasta = For the/a house, For the benefit of the/a house.

Causal Edit

because, because of, due to

The causal form is formed by adding the suffix -pje.

Example: Sonnapje = Because of the/a house, Due to the/a house.

Comitative Edit

in company of, with

The comitative form is formed by adding the suffix -ni.

Example: Sonnani = With the/a house, In company with the/a house.

Privative Edit

lacking, without

The privative form is formed by adding the suffix -fi.

Example: Sonnafi = Lacking the/a house, Without the/a house.

Locative Edit

location (in/on/at/between/etc.)

The locative form is formed by adding the suffix -pi followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "at."

Examples: Sonnapi = At the/a house.

Sonnapi tin = In the/a house.

Sonnapi kin = On the/a house.

(Sonnapi ʃwin = Between the/a house.) Sonnampi ʃwin = Between the houses.

Sonnapi kyan = Over/above the/a house.

Sonnapi kwan = Under the/a house.

Lative Edit

motion to (into/onto/to/etc.)

The lative form is formed by adding the suffix -ti followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "to."

Examples: Sonnati = To the/a house.

Sonnati tin = Into the/a house.

Sonnati kin = Onto the/a house.

(Sonnati ʃwin = Into between the/a house.) Sonnamti ʃwin = Into between the houses.

Sonnati kyan = To over/above the/a house.

Sonnati kwan = To under the/a house.

Ablative Edit

motion from (from in/from on/from/etc.)

The lative form is formed by adding the suffix -ki followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "from."

Examples: Sonnaki = From the/a house.

Sonnaki tin = From in the/a house.

Sonnaki kin = From on the/a house.

(Sonnaki ʃwin = From between the/a house.) Sonnamki ʃwin = From between the houses.

Sonnaki kyan = From over/above the/a house.

Sonnaki kwan = From under the/a house.

Prolative Edit

motion via (by way of, through)

The lative form is formed by adding the suffix -pa followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "via."

Examples: Sonnapa = Via the/a house.

Sonnapa tin = Through the/a house.

Sonnapa kin = Around the/a house.

(Sonnapa ʃwin = Between the/a house.) Sonnampa ʃwin = Between the houses.

Sonnapa kyan = Over/above the/a house.

Sonnapa kwan = Under the/a house.

Temporal Edit

time (before/during/after/at)

The temporal form is formed by adding the suffix -re followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "at."

Example: Kojare = At the/a time.

Kojare tin = During the/a time.

Kojare kwan = Before the/a time.

Kojare kyan = After the/a time.

Stative Edit

state (into being/while being/from being/as being)

The stative form is formed by adding the suffix -lo followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "as/as being."

Example: Sonnalo = As a house.

Sonnalo tin = While being a house.

Sonnalo kwan = Into being a house.

Sonnalo kyan = From being a house.

Plurals Edit

There are three types of plurals in Tumata.

Nominative Plural - This is used when the noun is in the nominative case, and is formed by adding the suffix -m.

Inflected Plural - This is used when the noun is in a case other than the nominative, and is formed by adding the suffix -i-.

Numerical Plural - This is used when the noun follows a number. In this case, the number takes the inflected form and the noun takes the partitive case.

Overview Edit

Inflected

Ending

Singular

Example

Translation

Inflected

Ending

Plural

Example

Translation Numerical Plural Translation

Nominative

Vocative

--

--

Sonna

Sonna

house

O, house

-m

-m

Sonnam

Sonnam

houses

O, houses

Nosta sonnasa one house
Accusative -t Sonnat house -it Sonnait houses Nostat sonnasa one houses
Dative -s Sonnas to the/a house -is Sonnais to (the) houses Nostas sonnasa to one house
Genitive -n Sonnan of the/a house -in Sonnain of (the) houses Tirstan sonnaisa of two houses
Partitive -sa Nosta sonnasa one house -isa Tirsta sonnaisa two houses Kwella sonnasa zero houses

Instrumental

-lu Sonnalu

with (the aid of)

the/a house

-ilu Sonnailu

with (the aid of)

(the) houses

Tirstalu sonnaisa

with (the aid of)

two houses

Benefactive -sta Sonnasta for the/a house -ista Sonnaista for (the) houses Tirstasta sonnaisa for two houses
Causal -pje Sonnapje due to the/a house -ipje Sonnaipje due to (the) houses Jistapje sonnaisa due to four houses

Comitative

-ni Sonnani with the/a house -ini Sonnaini with (the) houses Jistani sonnaisa with four houses
Privative -fi Sonnafi without the/a house -fi Sonnaifi without (the) houses Purafi sonnaisa without five houses
Locative -pi Sonnapi at the/a house -ipi Sonnaipi at (the) houses Purapi sonnaisa at five houses
Lative -ti Sonnati to the/a house -iti Sonnaiti to (the) houses Loirati sonnaisa to six houses
Ablative -ki Sonnaki from the/a house -iki Sonnaiki from (the) houses Nahtuki sonnaisa from eight houses
Prolative -pa Sonnapa via the/a house -ipa Sonnaipa via (the) houses Nahtunostapa sonnaisa via nine houses
Temporal -re Kojare at the/a time -ire Kojaire at (the) times Nahtatirstare kojaisa at ten times
Stative -lo Sonnalo as the/a house -ilo Sonnailo as (the) houses Tahtujistalo sonnaisa as twenty houses


AdjectivesEdit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.

Adjectives are inflected in the same way as nouns, by case and by number. They can also inflect to show comparison in the same way that adverbs do.

  • Sublative - i.e. "Least fast." -usu-
  • Negative - i.e. "Less fast." -u-
  • Positive - i.e. "Fast." -
  • Comparative - i.e. "Faster" -i-
  • Superlative - i.e. "Fastest" -isi-

VerbsEdit

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It will be done soon.

Tumata verbs are inflected into numerous forms. The most basic inflection is that of adding the personal suffixes to the end of the stem of the word. These are as follows:

Sg Pl
1st -t- I -l- We (in)
-r- We (ex)
2nd -s- You -θ- You
3rd -n- He/She -m- They
-k- It -p- They
4th -f- One


Tense Edit

There are five inflected tenses for verbs.

Present Edit

An action which is happening or happens. This is the base form of a verb, just like the nominative form is the base form of a noun. Therefore, no suffixes are added to make this conjugation.

Example: Taunnat = I carry

Future Edit

An action which will take place in the future. This is formed by adding the suffix -(e)si, where the optional vowel is used only if the preceeding consonant is doubled.

Example: Taunnatsi = I will carry.

Past Edit

An action which happened in the past. This is formed by adding the suffix -(e)so, where the optional vowel is used only if the preceeding consonant is doubled.

Example: Taunnatso = I carried.

Recentive Edit

An action which just took place. This is formed by adding the suffix -(e)lo, where the optional vowel is used only if the preceeding consonant is doubled.

Example: Taunnatlo = I just carried.

Prospective Edit

An action which is about to take place. This is formed by adding the suffix -(e)le, where the optional vowel is used only if the preceeding consonant is doubled.

Example: Taunnatle = I am about to carry.

Aspect Edit

There are five inflected aspects for verbs.

Telic Edit

An action which is complete. This is the base form of a verb, just like the nominative form is the base form of a noun. Therefore, no suffixes are added to make this conjugation.

Example: Ʃünöt = I jump

Ʃünötsö = I jump

Atelic Edit

An action which is incomplete. This is formed by adding the suffix -ira-.

Example: Ʃünötirä = I am jumping

Ʃünötiräsö = I was jumping.

Frequentative Edit

An action which is repeated. This is formed by adding the suffix -ine-.

Example: Taunnatine = I jump (many times).

Taunnatineso = I used to jump.

Momentane Edit

An action which is single or short lived. This is formed by doubling the letter that has been added for the personal ending and adding an e if it would otherwise be the last letter.

Example: Taunnatte = I jump once (quickly).

Taunnatteso = I jumped once (quickly).

This can be combined with the frequentative for an added meaning of many short, individual actions.

Example: Taunnattine = I jump many quick, individual jumps.

Mood Edit

There are nine inflected moods for verbs.

Realis Moods:

  • Indicative - A statement of fact.
  • Generic - A generic statement of fact. The difference between this and the indicative is the difference between saying "A/The rabit is fast" as opposed to "Rabits are fast"
  • Energetic - A statement which the speaker strongly believes or wishes to emphasize.

Irrealis Moods:

  • Dubitative - A statement which the speaker doubts, or of which the speaker is uncertain.
  • Potential - A statement which the speaker considers likely or probable.
  • Conditional - A statement whose realization is dependent upon another condition.
  • Desiderative - A statement which expresses the speaker's wishes or desires.
  • Imperative - A statement expressing direct commands, requests, and prohibitions.
  • Interrogative - A yes or no question.

Causativity Edit

  • Anticausative - Forces an object to lose its subject (i.e. The vase broke vs. John broke the vase. The first is an anticausative)

Polarity Edit

  • Negative - Expresses the fact that the verb is not taking place.

Number Edit

  • Singular - One
  • Plural - More than one

Person Edit

  • First Person - I/We
  • Second Person - You/You
  • Third Person - He/She/It/They
  • Fourth Person- One (It is also used to form passive-voice-like statements)

AdverbsEdit

This article or section requires fix up.
It will be done soon.

Adverbs inflect to show comparison in the same way that adjectives do.

  • Sublative - i.e. "Least quickly." -usu-
  • Negative - i.e. "Less quickly." -u-
  • Positive - i.e. "Quickly." -
  • Comparative - i.e. "More quickly." -i-
  • Superlative - i.e. "Most quickly." -isi-


NumeralsEdit

Tumata numerals are in base eight. This means that they use numerals which correspond to the Latin numerals 0-7, and then start over, which means that the number 10 actually means 8, and 20 actually means 16.

The following are the nominative forms of the cardinal numerals, which all can be inflected in the same way as nouns.

Tumata

Tumata

Numeral

English

English

Numeral

Kwella 0 Zero 0
Nosta 1 One 1
Tirsta 2 Two 2
Θrosta 3 Three 3
Jista 4 Four 4
Pura 5 Five 5
Loira 6 Six 6
Fora 7 Seven 7
Nahtu 10 Eight 8
Nahtunosta 11 Nine 9
Nahtutirsta 12 Ten 10
Tahtu 20 Sixteen 16
Θihtu 30 Twenty-four 24
Jihtu 40 Thirty-two 32
Pahtu 50 Forty 40
Lohtu 60 Forty-eight 48
Fihtu 70 Fifty-six 56
Namke 100 Sixty-four 64
Tamke 200 One hundred twenty-eight 124
Jimkepahtufora 457 Three hundred and three 303
Nostatuli 1,000 Five hundred and twelve 512
Tirstatuli 2,000 One thousand twenty-four 1,024
Nahtutuli 10,000 Four thousand ninety-six 4,096
Namketuli 100,000 Thirty-two thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight 32,768
Nostanupki 1,000,000 Two hundred sixty-two thousand one hundred and forty-four 262,144
Tirstanupki 2,000,000 Five hundred twenty-four thousand two hundred and eighty-eight 524,288
Nostatupki 1,000,000,000 Two million ninety-seven thousand one hundred and fifty-two 2,097,152

Numerals, when written out, are separated by a hyphen after every three digits.

For example: 462,753,104 would be written as jimkelohtutirstanupki-famkepahtuθrostatuli-namkejista.

To break that down: Jimke Lohtu Tirsta Nupki - Famke Pahtu Θrosta Tuli - Namke Jista

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