Tumata is an inflectional agglutinative language. This means that, nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are inflected to show grammar, but these inflections, as well as derivation, are shown by the addition of affixes. Tumata is nominative-accusative, which means that it uses those two noun cases to signify the subject and the object. Tumata has two numbers and four persons.
There are many different pronouns in Tumata. Below are given the singular and nominative plural forms. (For an explanation of the different plurals, see Plurals.
Personal Pronouns Edit
Because Tumata is an inflected language, the personal pronouns are essentially unneeded unless used to clarify or emphasize.
Demonstrative Pronouns/Adjectives Edit
Demonstrative adjectives will decline in the same form as the noun they qualify, as though they were normal adjectives.
Interrogative Pronouns/Pro-adverbs/Determiners Edit
Interrogative words are declined in the same way as nouns and adjectives.
|Two||Person (who, which)|
|Kwo||Object (what, which)|
Relative Pronouns Edit
Relative pronouns are inflected for number, but no other cases.
|Tümä||Refers to the preceeding word|
|Sümä||Refers to the preceeding clause/sentence|
Reflexive Pronouns Edit
To form a reflexive pronoun, simply add the suffix -ne to the end of the personal pronoun.
Examples: Tene = Myself, Mene = Themselves
Reciprocal Pronoun Edit
The reciprocal pronoun in Tumata is Nedem, which translates to the English phrases "each other" or "one another."
Indefinite Pronouns Edit
Nouns are declined into one of sixteen different cases, and can be made plural.
There are sixteen inflected cases for nouns.
This denotes the subject or agent of a verb./This names the addressee.
The Nominative/Vocative form (henceforth known simply as the nominative form) is the base, "dictionary" form, and thus no suffixes are added.
Example: Sonna = House
This denotes the direct object or patient of a verb.
The accusative form is formed by adding the suffix -t.
Example: Sonnat = House
This denotes the indirect object or recipient of a verb.
The dative form is formed by adding the suffix -s.
Example: Sonnas = To/For the/a house.
This shows relationship and posession.
The genitive form is formed by adding the suffix -n.
Example: Sonnan = Of the/a house, House's
This is used for amounts.
The partitive form is formed by adding the suffix -sa.
Example: Loira sonnasa = Six houses.
Loirani sonnasa = With six houses.
Loiramti tin sonnasa = Into six houses.
by means of, with the aid of
The instrumental form is formed by adding the suffix -lu.
Example: Sonnalu = By means of the/a house, With the aid of the/a house, With the/a house.
for, for the benefit of, intended for
The benefactive form is formed by adding the suffix -sta.
Example: Sonnasta = For the/a house, For the benefit of the/a house.
because, because of, due to
The causal form is formed by adding the suffix -pje.
Example: Sonnapje = Because of the/a house, Due to the/a house.
in company of, with
The comitative form is formed by adding the suffix -ni.
Example: Sonnani = With the/a house, In company with the/a house.
The privative form is formed by adding the suffix -fi.
Example: Sonnafi = Lacking the/a house, Without the/a house.
The locative form is formed by adding the suffix -pi followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "at."
Examples: Sonnapi = At the/a house.
Sonnapi tin = In the/a house.
Sonnapi kin = On the/a house.
(Sonnapi ʃwin = Between the/a house.) Sonnampi ʃwin = Between the houses.
Sonnapi kyan = Over/above the/a house.
Sonnapi kwan = Under the/a house.
motion to (into/onto/to/etc.)
The lative form is formed by adding the suffix -ti followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "to."
Examples: Sonnati = To the/a house.
Sonnati tin = Into the/a house.
Sonnati kin = Onto the/a house.
(Sonnati ʃwin = Into between the/a house.) Sonnamti ʃwin = Into between the houses.
Sonnati kyan = To over/above the/a house.
Sonnati kwan = To under the/a house.
motion from (from in/from on/from/etc.)
The lative form is formed by adding the suffix -ki followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "from."
Examples: Sonnaki = From the/a house.
Sonnaki tin = From in the/a house.
Sonnaki kin = From on the/a house.
(Sonnaki ʃwin = From between the/a house.) Sonnamki ʃwin = From between the houses.
Sonnaki kyan = From over/above the/a house.
Sonnaki kwan = From under the/a house.
motion via (by way of, through)
The lative form is formed by adding the suffix -pa followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "via."
Examples: Sonnapa = Via the/a house.
Sonnapa tin = Through the/a house.
Sonnapa kin = Around the/a house.
(Sonnapa ʃwin = Between the/a house.) Sonnampa ʃwin = Between the houses.
Sonnapa kyan = Over/above the/a house.
Sonnapa kwan = Under the/a house.
The temporal form is formed by adding the suffix -re followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "at."
Example: Kojare = At the/a time.
Kojare tin = During the/a time.
Kojare kwan = Before the/a time.
Kojare kyan = After the/a time.
state (into being/while being/from being/as being)
The stative form is formed by adding the suffix -lo followed by a postposition for any meaning other than "as/as being."
Example: Sonnalo = As a house.
Sonnalo tin = While being a house.
Sonnalo kwan = Into being a house.
Sonnalo kyan = From being a house.
There are three types of plurals in Tumata.
Nominative Plural - This is used when the noun is in the nominative case, and is formed by adding the suffix -m.
Inflected Plural - This is used when the noun is in a case other than the nominative, and is formed by adding the suffix -i-.
Numerical Plural - This is used when the noun follows a number. In this case, the number takes the inflected form and the noun takes the partitive case.
|Nosta sonnasa||one house|
|Accusative||-t||Sonnat||house||-it||Sonnait||houses||Nostat sonnasa||one houses|
|Dative||-s||Sonnas||to the/a house||-is||Sonnais||to (the) houses||Nostas sonnasa||to one house|
|Genitive||-n||Sonnan||of the/a house||-in||Sonnain||of (the) houses||Tirstan sonnaisa||of two houses|
|Partitive||-sa||Nosta sonnasa||one house||-isa||Tirsta sonnaisa||two houses||Kwella sonnasa||zero houses|
with (the aid of)
with (the aid of)
with (the aid of)
|Benefactive||-sta||Sonnasta||for the/a house||-ista||Sonnaista||for (the) houses||Tirstasta sonnaisa||for two houses|
|Causal||-pje||Sonnapje||due to the/a house||-ipje||Sonnaipje||due to (the) houses||Jistapje sonnaisa||due to four houses|
|-ni||Sonnani||with the/a house||-ini||Sonnaini||with (the) houses||Jistani sonnaisa||with four houses|
|Privative||-fi||Sonnafi||without the/a house||-fi||Sonnaifi||without (the) houses||Purafi sonnaisa||without five houses|
|Locative||-pi||Sonnapi||at the/a house||-ipi||Sonnaipi||at (the) houses||Purapi sonnaisa||at five houses|
|Lative||-ti||Sonnati||to the/a house||-iti||Sonnaiti||to (the) houses||Loirati sonnaisa||to six houses|
|Ablative||-ki||Sonnaki||from the/a house||-iki||Sonnaiki||from (the) houses||Nahtuki sonnaisa||from eight houses|
|Prolative||-pa||Sonnapa||via the/a house||-ipa||Sonnaipa||via (the) houses||Nahtunostapa sonnaisa||via nine houses|
|Temporal||-re||Kojare||at the/a time||-ire||Kojaire||at (the) times||Nahtatirstare kojaisa||at ten times|
|Stative||-lo||Sonnalo||as the/a house||-ilo||Sonnailo||as (the) houses||Tahtujistalo sonnaisa||as twenty houses|
Adjectives are inflected in the same way as nouns, by case and by number. They can also inflect to show comparison in the same way that adverbs do.
- Sublative - i.e. "Least fast." -usu-
- Negative - i.e. "Less fast." -u-
- Positive - i.e. "Fast." -
- Comparative - i.e. "Faster" -i-
- Superlative - i.e. "Fastest" -isi-
Tumata verbs are inflected into numerous forms. The most basic inflection is that of adding the personal suffixes to the end of the stem of the word. These are as follows:
There are five inflected tenses for verbs.
An action which is happening or happens. This is the base form of a verb, just like the nominative form is the base form of a noun. Therefore, no suffixes are added to make this conjugation.
Example: Taunnat = I carry
An action which will take place in the future. This is formed by adding the suffix -(e)si, where the optional vowel is used only if the preceeding consonant is doubled.
Example: Taunnatsi = I will carry.
An action which happened in the past. This is formed by adding the suffix -(e)so, where the optional vowel is used only if the preceeding consonant is doubled.
Example: Taunnatso = I carried.
An action which just took place. This is formed by adding the suffix -(e)lo, where the optional vowel is used only if the preceeding consonant is doubled.
Example: Taunnatlo = I just carried.
An action which is about to take place. This is formed by adding the suffix -(e)le, where the optional vowel is used only if the preceeding consonant is doubled.
Example: Taunnatle = I am about to carry.
There are five inflected aspects for verbs.
An action which is complete. This is the base form of a verb, just like the nominative form is the base form of a noun. Therefore, no suffixes are added to make this conjugation.
Example: Ʃünöt = I jump
Ʃünötsö = I jump
An action which is incomplete. This is formed by adding the suffix -ira-.
Example: Ʃünötirä = I am jumping
Ʃünötiräsö = I was jumping.
An action which is repeated. This is formed by adding the suffix -ine-.
Example: Taunnatine = I jump (many times).
Taunnatineso = I used to jump.
An action which is single or short lived. This is formed by doubling the letter that has been added for the personal ending and adding an e if it would otherwise be the last letter.
Example: Taunnatte = I jump once (quickly).
Taunnatteso = I jumped once (quickly).
This can be combined with the frequentative for an added meaning of many short, individual actions.
Example: Taunnattine = I jump many quick, individual jumps.
There are nine inflected moods for verbs.
- Indicative - A statement of fact.
- Generic - A generic statement of fact. The difference between this and the indicative is the difference between saying "A/The rabit is fast" as opposed to "Rabits are fast"
- Energetic - A statement which the speaker strongly believes or wishes to emphasize.
- Dubitative - A statement which the speaker doubts, or of which the speaker is uncertain.
- Potential - A statement which the speaker considers likely or probable.
- Conditional - A statement whose realization is dependent upon another condition.
- Desiderative - A statement which expresses the speaker's wishes or desires.
- Imperative - A statement expressing direct commands, requests, and prohibitions.
- Interrogative - A yes or no question.
- Anticausative - Forces an object to lose its subject (i.e. The vase broke vs. John broke the vase. The first is an anticausative)
- Negative - Expresses the fact that the verb is not taking place.
- Singular - One
- Plural - More than one
- First Person - I/We
- Second Person - You/You
- Third Person - He/She/It/They
- Fourth Person- One (It is also used to form passive-voice-like statements)
Adverbs inflect to show comparison in the same way that adjectives do.
- Sublative - i.e. "Least quickly." -usu-
- Negative - i.e. "Less quickly." -u-
- Positive - i.e. "Quickly." -
- Comparative - i.e. "More quickly." -i-
- Superlative - i.e. "Most quickly." -isi-
Tumata numerals are in base eight. This means that they use numerals which correspond to the Latin numerals 0-7, and then start over, which means that the number 10 actually means 8, and 20 actually means 16.
The following are the nominative forms of the cardinal numerals, which all can be inflected in the same way as nouns.
|Tamke||200||One hundred twenty-eight||124|
|Jimkepahtufora||457||Three hundred and three||303|
|Nostatuli||1,000||Five hundred and twelve||512|
|Tirstatuli||2,000||One thousand twenty-four||1,024|
|Nahtutuli||10,000||Four thousand ninety-six||4,096|
|Namketuli||100,000||Thirty-two thousand seven hundred and sixty-eight||32,768|
|Nostanupki||1,000,000||Two hundred sixty-two thousand one hundred and forty-four||262,144|
|Tirstanupki||2,000,000||Five hundred twenty-four thousand two hundred and eighty-eight||524,288|
|Nostatupki||1,000,000,000||Two million ninety-seven thousand one hundred and fifty-two||2,097,152|
Numerals, when written out, are separated by a hyphen after every three digits.
For example: 462,753,104 would be written as jimkelohtutirstanupki-famkepahtuθrostatuli-namkejista.
To break that down: Jimke Lohtu Tirsta Nupki - Famke Pahtu Θrosta Tuli - Namke Jista