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Tuuma

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Tuuma
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 48%
Statistics
Nouns 50%
Verbs 17%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 33%
Words 0 of 1500
Creator narghargs


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Allophones listed in parentheses.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m (ɱ)1 n (ɲ)2 ŋ ɴ
Plosive p pʼ t tʼ k kʼ q qʼ
Fricative f s ɬ h
Affricate ts tsʼ tɬ tɬʼ
Approximant w l j ʁ
  1. /m/ is realized as [ɱ] before /f/.
  2. /n/ is realized as [ɲ] before /j/.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close (ɪ)2 (ʊ)3
Open-mid (ɛ)2 (ɔ)3
Open a (ä)1 (ɑ)1
  1. /a/ is velarized to [ä] and uvularized to [ɑ].
  2. /i/ is velarized to [ɪ] and uvularized to [ɛ].
  3. /u/ is velarized to [ʊ] and uvularized to [ɔ].

NotesEdit

  • [a] , [ä], and [ɑ] are in free variation.
  • /l/ is often realized as [ɮ] in careful speech.
  • /ʁ/ is often realized as [ʀ] and sometimes [χ] in careful speech.

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllable structure is (C)V(C), where:

  • Vowels can be long but consonants cannot be geminated.
  • A syllable must contain any single long or short vowel.
  • A syllable can begin with any single consonant.
  • A syllable can end with any single consonant except for /j/ or /w/.

StressEdit

Stress is always on the first syllable.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter Aa Cc Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn
Name ah inc if ing hats ih jut ka il im in
IPA a f h i j k l m n
Letter Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Ww
Name pi qu ra is ti uh wa
IPA p q ʁ s t u w
Letter k' ll nc ng p' q' t' tl tl' ts ts'
IPA ɬ ɴ ŋ tɬʼ ts tsʼ

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

PersonalEdit

Person Number Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Prepositional
1 singular mu mut' min muhta musa
plural nu nut' nin nuhta nusa
2 singular su sut' sin suhta susa
plural ju jut' jin juhta jusa
3 singular u ut' win uhta usa
plural hu hut' hin huhta husa

ReflexiveEdit

Person Number Accusative Genitive Dative Prepositional
1 singular musit' misin musihta musisa
plural nusit' nisin nusihta nusisa
2 singular susit' sisin susihta susisa
plural jusit' jisin jusihta jusisa
3 singular usit' wisin usihta usisa
plural husit' hisin husihta husisa

DemonstrativeEdit

Person Number Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Prepositional
1 singular fu fut' fin fuhta fusa
plural func funcat' funcin funcahta funcsa
2 singular llu llut' llin lluhta llusa
plural llunc lluncat' lluncin lluncahta lluncsa
3 singular q'u q'ut' q'in q'uhta q'usa
plural q'unc q'uncat' q'uncin q'uncahta q'uncsa

InterrogativeEdit

Nominative Accusative Genitive Dative Prepositional
What, which ncuua ncuut' ncuuin ncuuhta ncuusa
Who, whom qami qamit' qamin qamihta qamisa
Where ku kut' kin kuhta kusa
When ncunis ncunisat' ngunisin ngunisahta ngunisa
How ncujutl ncujutlat' ncujutlin ncujutlahta ncujutlasa
How much, how many p'atsun p'atsunat' p'atsunin p'atsunahta p'atsunsa
Why aau aaut' aain aauhta aausa
Whether ngitu ngitut' ngitin ngituhta ngitusa

RelativeEdit

Singular Plural
ncu ncinc

IndefiniteEdit

Proximal Medial Distal Negative Universal Existential
Elective Assertive
Root fu

this ...

llu

that ...

q'u

that ... over there

ngu

no(t) ...

qai

each/every ...

mit

any ...

jut

some ...

Object fu

this

llu

that

q'u

that over there

ngua

nothing

qaja

everything

mita

anything

juta

something

Being fuqam

this person

lluqam

that person

q'uqam

that person over there

nguqam

nobody/no one

qaqam

everybody/everyone

mitqam

anybody/anyone

jutqam

somebody/someone

Location futa

here

lluta

there

q'uta

over there

nguta

nowhere

qata

everywhere

mit'a

anywhere

jut'a

somewhere

Amount fup'all

this many/much

llup'all

that many/much

q'up'all

that other amount

ngup'all

none/not any

mitp'all

any amount

jutp'all

some amount

Method fujutl

this way

llujutl

that way

q'ujutl

that other way

ngujutl

no way

qajutl

every way

mitjutl

anyhow

jutjutl

somehow

Time funis

now

llunis

then

q'unis

that other time

ngunis

never

qanis

everytime

mitnis

anytime

jutnis

sometime

Type funcii

like this

lluncii

like that

q'uncii

like that other type

NounsEdit

Tuuma nouns decline by using suffixes according to number and case. They can also change to take the form of an noun adjunct.

NumberEdit

Nouns can be either singular or plural. Singular nouns in the nominative case take no suffixes, but a plural noun will generally take the -nc suffix if the stem ends in a vowel, and -inc if it ends in a consonant.

The mothers asked for one plate, not two.
Mother-PL request-PST-3PL one-ADJ plate-ACC, NEG-request-PST-3PL two-ACC.
Iipinc kuhtaruh piksit jaallitlat', ngukuhtaruh kikit'.

The plural suffix is considered the most important when it comes to declension, as it always comes first after the stem. Any other case suffix will come afterwards.

Dogs cannot read books.
Dog-PL NEG-read-3PL book-PL-ACC.
Qanjarinc nguhiistumah latlanuncat'.

Nominative CaseEdit

The first and simplest case in Tuuma is expressed without the use of any case suffixes. The nominative case portrays a noun as the subject of a sentence. A nominative noun is expressed using only the word stem, plus a plural suffix if applicable.

The child sings.
Child sing-3SG
Nawam uusa.

Accusative CaseEdit

The accusative case is used to portay a noun as the direct object of a sentence. It uses the suffix -t' after a vowel and -at' after a consonant.

The child sings a song.
Child sing-3SG song-ACC.
Nawam uusa uuskit'.

Genitive CaseEdit

The genitive case functions to portray a noun modifying another noun, ownership, or the preposition "of". It uses the suffix -in. The only genitive words that go before the noun that they modify are pronouns. All others follow the noun in question.

The child sings a love song.
Child sing-3SG song-ACC love-GEN.
Nawam uusa uuskit' uiin.

Dative CaseEdit

The dative case is used to portray an indirect object, or the prepositios "to", "towards" and "for". It uses the suffix -hta after a vowel or -ahta after a consonant.

The child sings a love song to the audience.
Child sing-3SG song-ACC love-GEN audience-DAT.
Nawam uusa uuskit' uiin ihamtalatahta.

Prepositional CaseEdit

The presositional case is the final case that is used to portray any other relationship a noun has to the sentence, usually accompanied by a preposition in front. It uses the suffix -sa.

The child sings a love song to the audience without a microphone.
Child sing-3SG song-ACC love-GEN audience-DAT NEG-with microphone-PREP.
Nawam uusa uuskit' uiin ihamtalatahta ngumi mikrufuunsa.

ModifiersEdit

Modifiers in Tuuma include both adjectives and adverbs, but are classified in the same group due to the fact that they behave identically. For the most part, all modifiers follow the word that they modify unless the modifier is a number. While genitive nouns and pronouns are often treated as modifiers as well, they don't have the freedom that modifiers have as they can only modify other nouns. Modifiers are also unique in that they do not follow nouns in declesion and will never change their form. Every modifying word in Tuuma takes the ending -it.

I walked quickly to the small house.
I walk-PST-1SG fast-ADV house-DAT small-ADJ.
Mu hasuum iskutit tl'ikahta llisit.

Noun AdjunctEdit

While most nouns usually take on the genitive form in order to modify another noun, it is just as correct for certain nouns to take the suffix turning it into a noun adjunct instead. This is done in regular nouns simply by taking the -it suffix rather than the genitive -in.

Blue is Alice's favorite color. She has a blue bag.
Blue be-3SG color-ACC soul-ADJ Alice-GEN. Alice have-3SG bag-ACC blue-ADJ.
Silum ulla warat' hiwalit Aalisin. Aalis inha uusak'at' silumit.

Noun adjuncts can also behave similarly to an adverb, acting like the phrase "like a _____" or "as a _____".

She is fast like a fox and runs like the wind.
She be-3SG fast-ADJ fox-ADV and run-3SG wind-ADV.
W'ulla iskutit ruupamit wa qaaira fuusnguuit.

VerbsEdit

All infinitive verbs end in -a. All verbs conjugate with suffixes, but the ending -a is also changed according to tense. The following suffixes are listen below in the order that they come after a word. Verbs conjugate according to person, number, tense, voice, mood, and aspect.

Present TenseEdit

Person Singular Plural
1 -am -an
2 -as  -ai
3 -a -ah
I eat, you drink, and she sleeps.
I eat-1SG, you drink-2SG, and it sleep-3SG.
Mu tsaham, su pistas, wa w'islat'a.

Past TenseEdit

Person Singular Plural
1 -um -un
2 -us  -ui
3 -u -uh
I ate, you drank, and she slept.
I eat-PST-1SG, you drink-PST-2SG, and it sleep-PST-3SG.
Mu tsahum, su pistus, wa w'islat'u.

Future TenseEdit

Person Singular Plural
1 -im -in
2 -is  -ii
3 -i -ih
I will eat, you will drink, and she will sleep.
I eat-FUT-1SG, you drink-FUT-2SG, and it sleep-FUT-3SG.
Mu tsahim, su pistis, wa w'islat'i.

Other Verb SuffixesEdit

Person Present Past Future
Passive Voice -tsa -tsu -tsi
Progressive Aspect -la  -lu -li
Perfect Aspect -kah -kuh -kih
Conditional Mood -umas -umus -umis
The bread is eaten.
Bread eat-3SG-PASS.
Lliiang tsahatsa.
I am eating the bread.
I eat-1SG-PROG bread-ACC.
Mu tsahamla lliiangat'
I have eaten the bread.
I eat-1SG-PERF bread-ACC.
Mu tsahamkah lliiangat'.
I would eat the bread.
I eat-1SG-COND bread-ACC.
Mu tsahamumas lliiangat'.
The bread would have been being eaten.
Bread eat-3SG-PASS-PROG-PERF-COND.
Lliiang tsahatsalakahumas.

NegationEdit

Negation of a verb involves the only prefix that exists in Tuuma, ngu-.

I like to eat cherries, but my family doesn't like them.
I like-1SG eat cherry-PL, but I-GEN family NEG-like-3SG they-ACC.
Mu kistam tsaha qarsaanc, jai min kusahiminc ngukista hut'.

ContractionsEdit

It is quite common for a subject pronoun (personal or singular demonstratives) to be contracted to the following verb if said verb begins in a vowel sound. This is considered grammatically correct, but most stay away from using contractions in formal speech or writing. The following chart shows examples of contractions with the word ulla "to be".

Pronoun Non-contracted Contracted
Mu mu ullam m'ullam
Su su ullas s'ullas
U u ulla w'ulla
Nu nu ullan n'ullan
Ju ju ullai j'ullai
Hu hu ullah h'ullah
Fu fu ulla f'ulla
Llu llu ulla ll'ulla
Q'u q'u ulla q'ulla

SyntaxEdit

Sentence structure is SVO in most cases, although it it very common for writers or public speakers to play with word order, often using VSO.

VocabularyEdit

SayingsEdit

Example textEdit

The BibleEdit

"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters."

― Genesis 1:1-2

"Ni ncallasa, Jamall hitpu tiiwancat' wa karat'. Ihta kar ullu ngumi q'uqusa wa ngullit, uutl ullu jat'i nciiwangasa hajaq'in, wa rur Jamallin jahnulu jat'i wisincsa."

― Jinisis 1:1-2

[ni ɴɑɬasa, jamaɬ hitpu tiːwɑɴɑtʼ wa kɑʁɑtʼ. ihta kɑʁ uɬu ŋʊmi qʼɔqɔsa wa ŋʊɬit, uːtɬ uɬu jatʼi ɴɛːwäŋäsa hajɑqʼɛn, wa ʁɔʁ jamaɬin jahnulu jatʼi wisɛɴsa.]

[― jinisis pui : pui - käkɪ]

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1Edit

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Ihaminc jalitit p'utsahtsa inmanit wa sahkarit ni kallisatsa wa wanimansanc. Hu ts'inminahtsa mi atliqsa wa miillimusa, wa titahmas saa ihunruhta ni rursa q'iquutin.

[ihamɛɴ jalitit pʼutsahtsa inmanit wa sahkɑrɛt ni käɬisatsa wa wanimansɑɴ. hu tsʼinminahtsa mi atɬɛqsa wa miːɬimusa, wa titahmas saː ihɔɴʁɔhta ni ʁɔʁsa qʼɛqɔːtin.]

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