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Tyrlian

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Tyrlian
Vallum de Tur
Type
Agglutinating
Alignment
Nominative–accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Stop p b t d tʃ dʒ k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ç x h
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral l

[ŋ] is an allophone of [n] occurring before [k] and [g].

[v, ð, z] are allophones of /f, θ, s/ respectively, occurring between vowels or voiced consonants.

[ç] is an allophone of [h] before a back vowel

[ɫ] is an allophone of [l] occurring before another consonant

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i iː u uː
Close-mid e eː o oː
Open-mid ɛ ɛː
Near-open æ æː
Open ɑ ɑː

AlphabetEdit

Letter Normal Pronunciation Alternate Pronunciation
A [ɑ] or [ɑː]
Æ [æ] or [æː]
B [b]
C [tʃ] [dʒ] between vowels
Ch [x]
D [d]
E [ə]

[e] or [eː] in a long syllable

[ɛ] or [ɛː] in a short syllable

F [f] [v] between vowels
G [g]
H [h] [ç] before a back vowel
I [i] or [iː] [i] before another vowel
J [j]
K [k]
L [l] [ɫ] before another consonant
M [m]
N [n] [ŋ] before [k] or [g]
O [o] or [oː] [w] before another vowel
P [p]
Qu [k]
R [ɹ]
S [s]

[z] between vowels

Ss [s]
Sc [ʃ]
T [t]
Th [θ] [ð] between vowels

U

[u] or [uː] [w] before another vowel
Z [ts] [dz] between vowels


PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Classification of WordsEdit

Tyrlian grammarians have been classifying words of speech for centuries, but the modern standard is the one taught in public schools, chosen by the Tyrlian Board of Education in the year 3E31 (equivalent to the human year 1962). This is the 9Asc system, which divides words into nine categories called Asc.

The Asc themselves grouped together according to the following chart.

  • Content words
    • Substantives
      • Nouns
      • Pronouns
      • Number words
    • Verbs (broadly speaking)
      • Action verbs
      • Description verbs
    • Modifiers
      • Determiners, prenouns or indeclinable adjectives
      • Adverbs
    • Other content words
      • Interjections or exclamations
  • Function words
    • Particles or postpositions

Both cardinal and ordinal numbers are grouped into their own part of speech. Descriptive verbs and action verbs are classified separately despite sharing essentially the same conjugation. Verb endings constitute a large and rich class of morphemes, indicating such things in a sentence as tense, mood, aspect, speech level, and honorifics. Prefixes and suffixes are numerous, partly because Tyrlian is an agglutinative language.

There are also various other important classes of words and morphemes that are not generally classified among the Asc. 5 other major classes of words or morphemes are:

  • Verb endings
  • Demonstratives
  • Conjunctions
  • Prefixes
  • Suffixes

PostpositionsEdit

Tyrlian postpositions are also known as case markers. Examples include é, the topic marker, and sa, the direct object marker. Postpositions come after substantives and are used to indicate the role of a noun in a sentence or clause.

Case CliticsEdit

Both nouns and pronouns take case clitics. Pronouns are somewhat irregular. As with many clitics and suffixes in Korean, for many case clitics different forms are used with nouns ending in consonants and nouns ending in vowels. The most extreme example of this is in the nominative (subject), where the historical clitic on is now restricted to appearing after consonants, and a completely unrelated (suppletive) form -ne appears after vowels.

Case After V After C
Nominative -ne -on
Accusative -sa -a
Genitive -oi*

Dative

(also destination)

-ell (inanimate)

-erra (animate)

Locative

(place of event)

-ellso (inanimate)

-erraso (animate)

Instrumental -rum* -arum
Comitative -buna
-ia -nia
-sem -esem

1. The stem -oi is a morphophonemic spelling, which is pronounced the same as oa or ua.

2. The stem -rum is also used when the attached noun ends with an r.

Informational cliticsEdit

Type After V After C
Topic* -ié
Additive* -mo
And (and so on) -na -ina

NounsEdit

Tyrlian nouns do not have grammatical gender and though they can be made plural by adding the suffix -an to the end of a word, in general the suffix is not used when the plurality of the noun is clear from context. For example, while the English sentence "there are three apples" would use the plural "apples" instead of the singular "apple", the Tyrlian sentence "Unbane kom sín hueo" (apple[subject] three things exists) keeps the word unba in its unmarked form, as the numeral makes the plural marker redundant.

PronounsEdit

Tyrlian pronouns are highly influenced by the honorifics in the language. Pronouns change forms depending on the social status of the person or persons spoken to, e.g. the pronoun for "I" there is both the informal Kum and the honorific/humble born. In general second person singular pronouns are avoided, especially when using honorific forms.

NumeralsEdit

Tyrlian numerals include two regularly used sets: a native Tyrlian set and a Guaro-Tyrlian set. The Guaro-Tyrlian system is nearly entirely based on the Guarian numerals. The distinction between the two numeral systems is very important. Everything that can be counted will use one of the two systems, but seldom both. The grouping of large numbers in Tyrlian follow the Guarian tradition of myriads (10,000) rather than thousands.

VerbsEdit

Action VerbsEdit

Tyrlian "action verbs", which include assem (to write) and gom (to go), are usually called, simply, "verbs." However, they can also be called "action verbs" or "dynamic verbs," because they describe an action, process, or movement. This distinguishes them from descriptive verbs.

Korean verb conjugation depends upon the tense, aspect, mood, and the social relation between the speaker, the subject(s), and the listener(s). Different endings are used depending on the speaker's relation with their subject or audience. Politeness is a critical part of Tyrlian language and Tyrlian culture; the correct verb ending must be chosen to indicate the proper degree of respect or familiarity for the situation.

Descriptive VerbsEdit

Descriptive verbs sometimes translated as "adjectives" but also known as "descriptive verbs" or "stative verbs," are verbs such as akkaom (to be pretty) or thestrom (to be red), English does not have an identical grammatical category, and the English translation of a Tyrlian descriptive verb is usually a linking verb + an English adjective. However, some Tyrlian words which do not match that formula, such as bekkum, a transitive verb which means to "to lack" or "to want for", are still considered descriptive verbs in Tyrlian because they don't involve an action.

Copulative and existential verbsEdit

The copula clitic -onem may be historically related to the nominative case clitic -on. Regardless, nouns do not take the case clitic -ne when followed by the copula. The copula inflects like any verb, except that it has a special honorific form.

The copula takes the negative prefix -ser, but the result is written as if it were a single morpheme: seron. Nouns do take the nominative clitic -on/-ne before the negative copula.

The copula is only for "to be" in the sense of "A is B". For existence, Tyrlian uses the existential verbs huem "to be, to exist" and bollem "to not be, to not exist." The honorific existential verb for huem is guesom.

ModifiersEdit

DeterminersEdit

Tyrlian determiners are known in English as "determiners," "determinatives," "pre-nouns," "adnouns," "attributives," "unconjugated adjectives," and "indeclinable adjectives." Determiners come before and modify or specify nouns, much like attributive adjectives or articles in English. Examples include bak (each).

AdverbsEdit

Tyrlian adverbs include scom (also, again) and bié (fully). Like in English, adverbs modify verbs.

Verb ConjugationEdit

Tyrlian verb conjugation can be shocking for first time learners, but it actually follows a strict system. Most verbs have regular conjugations and once you learn the rules for these conjugations, you can conjugate most verbs. There are still a few verbs that remain irregular. 

For this example we will use the following verb: huem.

Sentence-final forms

FNP INP IP FP
Indicative huem hueo hué huemin
Interrogative huesa

m

huesa huesé huesanio
Hortative huenom hueno huené hueninka
Imeperative huefam huefa huefé huefor
Assertive huege

m

huege huegé hueginor

Connective Forms

FNP INP IP FP
Cause huekko huenia huenir
Contrast huende
Conjuction huemí
Condition huesc
Motive huenga

Noun and determiner forms

Verbal nouns huema hueó
Past tense verbal nouns huesama huesaó
Determiners huen hueko huella

VocabularyEdit


No. English Tyrlian
1Iín
2you (singular)ge
3heæ
4weasa
5you (plural)geth
6theythai
7thiste
8thatuo
9herescin
10therebascin
11whohen
12whatmo
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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