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Tyrlian

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Tyrlian
Vallum de Tur
Type
Agglutinating
Alignment
Nominative–accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Stop p b t d tʃ dʒ k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ç x h
Approximant ɹ j w
Lateral l

[ŋ] is an allophone of [n] occurring before [k] and [g].

[v, ð, z] are allophones of /f, θ, s/ respectively, occurring between vowels or voiced consonants.

[ç] is an allophone of [h] before a back vowel

[ɫ] is an allophone of [l] occurring before another consonant

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i iː u uː
Close-mid e eː o oː
Open-mid ɛ ɛː
Near-open æ æː
Open ɑ ɑː

AlphabetEdit

Letter Normal Pronunciation Alternate Pronunciation
A [ɑ] or [ɑː]
Æ [æ] or [æː]
B [b]
C [tʃ] [dʒ] between vowels
Ch [x]
D [d]
E [ə]

[e] or [eː] in a long syllable

[ɛ] or [ɛː] in a short syllable

F [f] [v] between vowels
G [g]
H [h] [ç] before a back vowel
I [i] or [iː] [i] before another vowel
J [j]
K [k]
L [l] [ɫ] before another consonant
M [m]
N [n] [ŋ] before [k] or [g]
O [o] or [oː] [w] before another vowel
P [p]
Qu [k]
R [ɹ]
S [s]

[z] between vowels

Ss [s]
Sc [ʃ]
T [t]
Th [θ] [ð] between vowels

U

[u] or [uː] [w] before another vowel
Z [ts] [dz] between vowels


PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Classification of WordsEdit

Tyrlian grammarians have been classifying words of speech for centuries, but the modern standard is the one taught in public schools, chosen by the Tyrlian Board of Education in the year 3E31 (equivalent to the human year 1962). This is the 9Asc system, which divides words into nine categories called Asc.

The Asc themselves grouped together according to the following chart.

  • Content words
    • Substantives
      • Nouns
      • Pronouns
      • Number words
    • Verbs (broadly speaking)
      • Action verbs
      • Description verbs
    • Modifiers
      • Determiners, prenouns or indeclinable adjectives
      • Adverbs
    • Other content words
      • Interjections or exclamations
  • Function words
    • Particles or postpositions

Both cardinal and ordinal numbers are grouped into their own part of speech. Descriptive verbs and action verbs are classified separately despite sharing essentially the same conjugation. Verb endings constitute a large and rich class of morphemes, indicating such things in a sentence as tense, mood, aspect, speech level, and honorifics. Prefixes and suffixes are numerous, partly because Tyrlian is an agglutinative language.

There are also various other important classes of words and morphemes that are not generally classified among the Asc. 5 other major classes of words or morphemes are:

  • Verb endings
  • Demonstratives
  • Conjunctions
  • Prefixes
  • Suffixes

PostpositionsEdit

Tyrlian postpositions are also known as case markers. Examples include é, the topic marker, and sa, the direct object marker. Postpositions come after substantives and are used to indicate the role of a noun in a sentence or clause.

Case CliticsEdit

Both nouns and pronouns take case clitics. Pronouns are somewhat irregular. As with many clitics and suffixes in Korean, for many case clitics different forms are used with nouns ending in consonants and nouns ending in vowels. The most extreme example of this is in the nominative (subject), where the historical clitic on is now restricted to appearing after consonants, and a completely unrelated (suppletive) form -ne appears after vowels.

Case After V After C
Nominative -ne -on
Accusative -sa -a
Genitive -oi*

Dative

(also destination)

-ell (inanimate)

-erra (animate)

Locative

(place of event)

-ellso (inanimate)

-erraso (animate)

Instrumental -rum* -arum
Comitative -buna
-ia -nia
-sem -esem

1. The stem -oi is a morphophonemic spelling, which is pronounced the same as oa or ua.

2. The stem -rum is also used when the attached noun ends with an r.

Informational cliticsEdit

Type After V After C
Topic* -ié
Additive* -mo
And (and so on) -na -ina

NounsEdit

Tyrlian nouns do not have grammatical gender and though they can be made plural by adding the suffix -an to the end of a word, in general the suffix is not used when the plurality of the noun is clear from context. For example, while the English sentence "there are three apples" would use the plural "apples" instead of the singular "apple", the Tyrlian sentence "Unbane kom sín hueo" (apple[subject] three things exists) keeps the word unba in its unmarked form, as the numeral makes the plural marker redundant.

PronounsEdit

Tyrlian pronouns are highly influenced by the honorifics in the language. Pronouns change forms depending on the social status of the person or persons spoken to, e.g. the pronoun for "I" there is both the informal Kum and the honorific/humble born. In general second person singular pronouns are avoided, especially when using honorific forms.

NumeralsEdit

Tyrlian numerals include two regularly used sets: a native Tyrlian set and a Guaro-Tyrlian set. The Guaro-Tyrlian system is nearly entirely based on the Guarian numerals. The distinction between the two numeral systems is very important. Everything that can be counted will use one of the two systems, but seldom both. The grouping of large numbers in Tyrlian follow the Guarian tradition of myriads (10,000) rather than thousands.

VerbsEdit

Action VerbsEdit

Tyrlian "action verbs", which include assem (to write) and gom (to go), are usually called, simply, "verbs." However, they can also be called "action verbs" or "dynamic verbs," because they describe an action, process, or movement. This distinguishes them from descriptive verbs.

Korean verb conjugation depends upon the tense, aspect, mood, and the social relation between the speaker, the subject(s), and the listener(s). Different endings are used depending on the speaker's relation with their subject or audience. Politeness is a critical part of Tyrlian language and Tyrlian culture; the correct verb ending must be chosen to indicate the proper degree of respect or familiarity for the situation.

Descriptive VerbsEdit

Descriptive verbs sometimes translated as "adjectives" but also known as "descriptive verbs" or "stative verbs," are verbs such as akkaom (to be pretty) or thestrom (to be red), English does not have an identical grammatical category, and the English translation of a Tyrlian descriptive verb is usually a linking verb + an English adjective. However, some Tyrlian words which do not match that formula, such as bekkum, a transitive verb which means to "to lack" or "to want for", are still considered descriptive verbs in Tyrlian because they don't involve an action.

Copulative and existential verbsEdit

The copula clitic -onem may be historically related to the nominative case clitic -on. Regardless, nouns do not take the case clitic -ne when followed by the copula. The copula inflects like any verb, except that it has a special honorific form.

The copula takes the negative prefix -ser, but the result is written as if it were a single morpheme: seron. Nouns do take the nominative clitic -on/-ne before the negative copula.

The copula is only for "to be" in the sense of "A is B". For existence, Tyrlian uses the existential verbs huem "to be, to exist" and bollem "to not be, to not exist." The honorific existential verb for huem is guesom.

ModifiersEdit

DeterminersEdit

Tyrlian determiners are known in English as "determiners," "determinatives," "pre-nouns," "adnouns," "attributives," "unconjugated adjectives," and "indeclinable adjectives." Determiners come before and modify or specify nouns, much like attributive adjectives or articles in English. Examples include bak (each).

AdverbsEdit

Tyrlian adverbs include scom (also, again) and bié (fully). Like in English, adverbs modify verbs.

Verb ConjugationEdit

Tyrlian verb conjugation can be shocking for first time learners, but it actually follows a strict system. Most verbs have regular conjugations and once you learn the rules for these conjugations, you can conjugate most verbs. There are still a few verbs that remain irregular. 

For this example we will use the following verb: huem.

Sentence-final forms

FNP INP IP FP
Indicative huem hueo hué huemin
Interrogative huesa

m

huesa huesé huesanio
Hortative huenom hueno huené hueninka
Imeperative huefam huefa huefé huefor
Assertive huege

m

huege huegé hueginor

Connective Forms

FNP INP IP FP
Cause huekko huenia huenir
Contrast huende
Conjuction huemí
Condition huesc
Motive huenga

Noun and determiner forms

Verbal nouns huema hueó
Past tense verbal nouns huesama huesaó
Determiners huen hueko huella

VocabularyEdit


No. English Tyrlian
1Iín
2you (singular)ge
3heæ
4weasa
5you (plural)geth
6theythai
7thiste
8thatuo
9herescin
10therebascin
11whohen
12whatmo
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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