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Ubell

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Ubell is a constructed language, classified by its creator as a Romano-Slavic. It draws influence from Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, Galician, Italian, French), Slavic languages (Croatian, Russian, Polish, Czech), K'iche' (a Mayan language), and Finnish.

  • NB This website is written about the Standard Dialect (colloquially known as Góvórski)

Writing SystemEdit

Ubell uses a total of three different alphabets.

    Latin Script (modified)
    Cyrillic Script (modified)
    Ubell Script

The latin script is used for the purposes of this website

OrthographyEdit

BasicsEdit

Vowels

Letter IPA sound ex. Ubell ex. IPA
a [a] father a [a]
e [e] mate prehoh [prexox]
i [i] beet adin [adin]
o [o] doe qko [t͡ɕko]
u [u] boot gru [gru]
á [æ] hat
é [ɛ] bet
í [ɨ] bit
ó [ɔ] long
ú [ə] uh


Consonants

Letter IPA Sound ex. Ubell ex IPA
b [b] brother bahrt [bax'rt]
c [ʦ] cats icam [iʦam]
d [d] dog prdlog [prɛdlog]
f [f] father ftos [ftos]
g [g] dog
h [x] hat, bach
j [j] yam, boy
k [k] car
l [l] leather
m [m] yam
n [n] can
p [p] open
q [t͡ɕ] church
r [r] reed
s [s] song
t [t] cat
v [v] van
w [w] wait
x [ʂ] show xto [ʂto]
z [z] zebra zadna [zadna]
č [k] car basč [bask]
đ / dž [dʒ] judge đija / ija [dʒija]
ĵ /Vj jV/
ķ [q]
ń / ñ [ŋ]
r / ŕ / ř [rɛ] red Rrŕt [rɛrɛrɛt]
ß / š [ss]
ŧ [θ] or [ð] eth, theta
ž [ʒ] pleasure
y [ʔ]

Orthographic Spelling ChangesEdit

    t + s => c
    t + x => q
    n + g => ñ
    d + ž => đ
    a + a => ä
    e + e => ë
    i + i => ï
    o + o => ö
    u + u => ü
    s + s ~> ß
    s + s ~> š
    t + d => ŧ

GrammarEdit

Ubell grammar is the study of the rules governing the use of the Ubell language, a constructed Indo-European language. It is in the composite sub-family of Romano-slavic.

MorphologyEdit

NounsEdit

NumberEdit

All Ubell nouns are inflected to show 1 of 2 numbers, singular or plural. There are 3 suffixes to show the nouns number:

-s, used with most nouns. Ex.: qko - qkos,

-es

-úx, used where -, cannot be used. Ex: Ovisarj - Ovisarjúx (Though some dialects may use Ovisarjes.)

NB - When a noun ending in /m/ is pluralized, /m/ => /n/

-rj NounsEdit
  • NB - this rule applies to all nouns ending with a consonant followed by j

-rj nouns are pluralized by adding -úx to the end of the noun. However, Ruxqèvíqski (a sub-dialect of Jevóxlovski) maintains the -es plural marker from Middle Ubell. The reason the 'new' plural marker -úx came to be is the ambiguity of the spoken language.

In Old and Middle Ubell, the word-final 's' was pronounced as the 'x' is (a feature of which majority of the Ariqkian branch of dialects has maintained). With using this feature, speaking of certain nouns would bring about much ambiguity, for example:

Ovisarjes (while pronouncing the 's' as a 'x') would be misconstrued as "ovisar jex"

Where Ovisarjes is the plural for sheep, Ovisar jex meaning "the sound you make, caused by the act of herding"

Body Parts and a Few Random NounsEdit

This group of nouns have special forms when possessed and pluralized.

Body PartsEdit

These nouns do not decline like other nouns. Instead of the -irú ending, they utilize a prefix system, which denotes who the possessor is. Most body part words end in -äj, this suffix is dropped when possessed. And some gain a suffix (-ël, -ïl) when possessed.

There are two groups to this system: consonantal prefixes and vocalic prefixes

example:

Is - Body Hair
wis ŧis
awis iwis
ris kis
Waqäj - Face
nuwaq ŧawaq
awaq iwaq
uwaq kiwaq
Kik - Blood
nukikël ŧakikël
akikël ikikël
ukikël kikikël
Iboq - Vein
wiboqïl ŧiboqïl
awiboqïl iwiboqïl
riboqïl kiboqïl
Random NounsEdit
Iha - Husband
wiha ŧiha
awiha iwiha
riha kiha
Kxïra - Water
nukxïra ŧakxïra
akxïra ikxïra
ukxïra kikxïra
Äkäxa - sky
wäkäxa ŧäkäxa
awäkäxa iwäkäxa
räkäxa käkäxa
Patnï - Wife
nupatnï ŧapatnï
apatnï ipatnï
upatnï kipatnï
PluralsEdit

Plurals are formed by placing the noun in question between two particles: áŧ (insert noun) taŧ

example:

    My hand hurts.
    lit. 'It hurts me my hand.'
    Mja danje nuŧab
    My Hands hurt.
    lit. 'They hurt me my hands.'
    Mja danjut áŧ nuŧab taŧ.

GenderEdit

Ubell nouns are not generally marked for gender. Gender is divided into 2 categories: Animate and Inanimate.

The Animate contains: masculine (m), feminine (f), and animate neuter (am). The Inanimate contains: inanimate neuter (in).

Nouns are generally IN, unless they are living. If the noun is male then it's M, the same goes for female.

AN is used normally for plants and animals, unless the sex of the plant or animal is known. It is also used in cases where sex of the noun is irrelevant or unknown.

ex: Jane's having a baby. - Jana darexje luciensoge ki qku.

We know Jane's is having a baby, but the sex of the baby is unknown, thus ki = to a(AN) is used.

DeclensionEdit

(*) - indicates that the case has historically retained it's gender markers throughout the case's declension

- Also, nouns can be inflected for more than one case.

Ubell cases
casesuffixEnglish prep.exampletranslation
Grammatical
nominackim ...kazzahouse
  • akkusackim
-og...kazzogehouse
dackim-uto, for, atkazzufor the house
đenackim-irúof (possession)kazzirúof the house, the house's
Locative
lokkackim 1-jevòat, from, ofkazzajevòfrom the house
lokkackim 2-(é)nat, from, ofkazzanfrom the house
Locative (internal)
ineßkim-(é)ßainkazzaßain the house
elackim-(é)stafrom (inside)kazzastafrom the house
  • illackim
  • -(é)žnóintokazzažneinto the house
    Locative (external)
    adeßkim-(é)llaat, onkazzallaat the house
    avlackim-(é)ltafromkazzaltafrom the house
    allackim-(é)lletokazzalleto the house
    Marginal
    eßkim-(é)naas (temporary state)kazzanaas the house
    translackim-(é)ksibecoming (change of state)kazzaksibecoming the house
    instruqkim-áltiwith (the aid of)kazzáltiwith the house
  • instrumentaliqxkim
  • -omwith, bykazzomewith the house
    abeßkim-(é)ttawithoutkazzattawithout the house
    Comparative
    ekwackim-(é)đìnsuperlative, iskazzađìnis the house
    komparackim-(é)lúcomparative, likekazzalúlike the house
    Evaluative
    benefaqkim-alaķfor, for the benefit ofkazzalaķfor the house
    averskim-(é)lanavoided or fearedkazzalanhouse
    Other
    temporaliqxkim-tat, in, on, time phrases(kazzat)(at house o'clock) - used with numbers, months, yrs, people
  • vokackim
  • -ojexclamationkazzej!house!

    ArticlesEdit

    Ubell does not utilize definite and indefinite articles.

    There are four historical definite articles that represent article and gender, that are now used only for contractions with prepositions when needed.

        o - masculine
        a - feminine
        i - animate neuter
        e - inanimate neuter
    

    PronounsEdit

    PersonalEdit

    Singular Personal Pronoun Declension

    1st Per 2nd Per 3rd Per
    You (inf) You (inf/for) You (for) Masc Fem A.Neut. I.Neut.
    Nominackim Ja Iqi Vos Kos
    Akkusackim Mja Tje Vja Kja On Ona Oni Ono
    Dackim Menja Tebja Vosu Kosu Jevo Jeva Jevi Jeve
    Đenackim Mne Trb Vrb Krb Oñrb Añrb Iñrb Eñrb
    Lokackim-a Meh Teh Veh Keh Pan Pana Panu Pane
    Lokackim-b Jan Iqin Vosén Kosén Oñén Añén Iñén Eñén
    Ineßkim Jaßa Iqißa Voséßa Koséßa Oñéßa Añéßa Iñéßa Eñéßa
    Elackim Jasta Iqista Vosésta Kosésta Oñsta Añsta Iñsta Eñsta
    Illackim Jažnó Iqižnó Voséžnó Koséžnó Oñžnó Añžna Iñžni Eñžne
    Adeßkim Jalla Iqilla Vosélla Kosélla Oñélla Añélla Iñélla Eñélla
    Avlackim Jalta Iqilta Vosélta Kosélta Oñélta Añélta Iñélta Eñélta
    Allackim Jalle Iqille Vosélle Kosélle Oñélle Añélle Iñélle Eñélle
    Eßkim Jana Iqina Vosna Kosna Oñna Añna Iñna Eñna
    Translackim Jaksi Iqiksi Voséksi Koséksi Oñéksi Añéksi Iñéksi Eñéksi
    Instruqkim Jálti Iqálti Vosálti Kosálti Oñálti Añálti Iñálti Eñálti
    Instrumentaliqxkim Jom Iqom Vosom Kosom Oñom Añoma Iñomi Eñome
    Abeßkim Jatta Iqitta Vosétta Kosétta Oñétta Añétta Iñétta Eñétta
    Ekwackim Jađìn Iqiđìn Vosđìn Kosđìn Oñđìn Añđìn Iñđìn Eñđìn
    Komparackim Jalú Iqilú Voslú Koslú Oñlú Añlú Iñlú Eñlú
    Benefaqkim Jalaķ Iqalaķ Vosalaķ Kosalaķ Oñalaķ Añalaķ Iñalaķ Eñalaķ
    Averskim Jalan Iqilan Voslan Koslan Oñén Añén Iñén Eñén
    Temporaliqxkim Jat Iqit Vost Kost Oñét Añét Iñét Eñét
    Vokackim Mnoj Toboj Voj Koj Onoj Anaj Inij Enej

    Plural Personal Pronoun Declension

    1st Per 2nd Per 3rd Per
    You (inf) You (inf/for) You (for) Masc Fem A.Neut. I.Neut.
    Nominackim San Xi Vúj Kúj Oñs Añs Iñs Eñs
    Akkusackim Sja Xbja Vsja Ksja Cu Cjej Cho Cego
    Dackim Senja Xbas Vas Kas Cuh Cjeh Choh Cegoh
    Đenackim Nam Bam Vam Kam Mu Jej Mho Mego
    Lokackim-a Nax Beh Vah Kah Nim Niej Nijo Nhim
    Lokackim-b Sanén Xin Vén Kén Oñsén Añén Iñén Eñén
    Ineßkim Sanßa Xißa Vußa Kußa Oñséßa Añséßa Iñséßa Eñséßa
    Elackim Sansta Xista Vusta Kusta Oñsésta Añsésta Iñsésta Eñsésta
    Illackim Sanžnó Xižnó Vžnó Kžnó Oñséžnó Añséžna Iñséžni Eñsžne
    Adeßkim Sanélla Xilla Vulla Kulla Oñsélla Añsélla Iñsella Eñsélla
    Avlackim Sanélta Xilta Vulta Kulta Oñsélta Añsélta Iñselta Eñsélta
    Allackim Sanélle Xille Vulle Kulle Oñsélle Añsélle Iñselle Eñsélle
    Eßkim Sanna Xina Vuna Kuna Oñsna Añsna Iñsna Eñsna
    Translackim Sanksi Xiksi Vuksi Kuksi Oñséksi Añséksi Iñséksi Eñséksi
    Instruqkim Sanálti Xálti Válti Kálti Oñsálti Añsálti Iñsálti Eñsálti
    Instrumentaliqxkim Sanom Xom Vom Kom Oñsom Añsoma Iñsomi Eñsome
    Abeßkim Sanétta Xitta Vutta Kutta Oñsétta Añsétta Iñsétta Eñsétta
    Ekwackim Sanđìn Xiđìn Vuđìn Kuđìn Oñsđìn Añsđìn Iñsđìn Eñsđìn
    Komparackim Sanlú Xilú Vulú Kulú Oñslú Añslú Iñslú Eñslú
    Benefaqkim Sanalaķ Xalaķ Valaķ Kalaķ Oñsalaķ Añsalaķ Iñsalaķ Eñsalaķ
    Averskim Sanlan Xilan Vulan Kulan Oñslan Añslan Iñslan Eñslan
    Temporaliqxkim Sant Xit Vut Kut Oñst Añst Iñst Eñst
    Vokackim Namoj Xamoj Vamoj Kamoj Oñsoj Añsaj Iñsij Eñsej

    PossessiveEdit

    See Đenackim above.

    DemonstrativeEdit

    Demonstrative pronouns
    Ubell English
    Singular
    tämä this
    ŧuo that
    le that (far away, over there)
    Plural
    nämä these
    ñuo those
    ljec those (far away, over there)

    InterrogativeEdit

    English Ubell
    How Kako
    What Xto
    Why Zaxto
    When Kana
    Where Gdje
    Who Kva, Kto
    Which Qmale
    How much/many Ckolkó

    RelativeEdit

    English Ubell
    How Jak
    What Xta
    Why Poqëmu
    When Kwan
    Where Kudah
    Who Kem
    Which Icam
    How much/many Kuiñka

    ReciprocalEdit

    Reciprocal pronouns
    Pronoun Example English
    esi " amajut s'esomi" "they love each other" (plural)
    ođi " amajut ođogi" "they love one another" (double singular)

    ReflexiveEdit

    Reflexive pronouns
    Pronoun Suffix Example English
    ice plus corresponding prepositional prefix and declensional suffix "Prpare p'icu teogi" "(I) made myself some tea"

    PassiveEdit

    Reflexive pronouns
    Pronoun Suffix Example English
    ipo "Manžu ipo kocinalo" "The food was cooked"

    IndefiniteEdit

    A large group that entails all of the pronouns that do not fall into any of the categories above. Notice that there are no negative pronouns, such as "nobody", but the positive pronoun has to be negated in the same manner as verbs, suffixed "-ma." It may also be preceded by "nó."

    Indefinite pronouns
    Ubell English
    joka every, each
    jokpsoa every, everyone
    adnipsoa some, someone (person)
    -> nódnipsoa nobody
    jompkumi either one
    -> jompkum-ma neither one
    jokkozza(i) some, something (animal, thing)
    kuken each one
    ampk both
    ambul both
    kakerpsoa anyone
    -> kakerpsoa-ma no one
    kakerkozza(i) anything -> nó-kakerkozza(i)-ma = nothing

    NumeralsEdit

    This chart is just an example of Ubell numbers (0-10). For further details, please see Ubell Numbers

    Cardinal numbers and key inflected forms
    Number Cardinal Ordinal Adverbial Temporal Name
    0 zro jerž ser zro bado
    1 mek ixtën bal ena and
    2 jerkou xena tel doj hulät
    3 jerek xalax kil trej sast
    4 qors erbe fol patru arat
    5 hiñ hamix lul qinq ammúst
    6 vec xixxu mäl xase súddúst
    7 jot sebe vel xapte säbat
    8 ut samäne jöl opt súmmúnt
    9 inó tixe zül nowú zätäñ
    10 tahsz exer deg zeqe asúr

    AdjectivesEdit

    Types of AdjectivesEdit

    IndefiniteEdit

    Some indefinite adjectives are often perceived as indefinite pronouns. These include:

    Indefinite adjectives
    Ubell English
    hano only
    eräs some, certain, one
    harva few
    itseh (non-reflexive) self
    kajkij all, everyone, everything
    molemmat both
    moni many
    other
    mütama some, a few
    sama same
    tonenj (non-reciprocal, non-numeral use) another
    TrueEdit

    True adjectives are what Ubell considers to be natural adjectives. They (generally) do not evolve from other types of words.

    ex. - fast, slow, weird, black, blue, purple

    VerbalEdit

    Ubell, like many other languages, have special verb forms that act as adjectives. Though in structure, these are special verb forms, they ARE NOT considered as such. They are adjectives. There are two types of the adjective class: Infinitive, and Participle.

    InfinitiveEdit

    Infinitive phrases (as in English "pizza to die for"), are viewed in an adjectival light. To die for is formed by taking the infinitive of the verb and stripping it of its verb marker (leave the root vowel of the marker) (morirti => mori. Then add -smogij.

    Morirti => Mori => Morismogij

    Now that pesky preposition in our adj. to die for, add the appropriate prepositional prefix.


    Picza bjetú premorismogij - The pizza is to die for

    ParticipleEdit

    Many languages have special verbal forms called participles that can act as noun modifiers. In some languages, including English, there is a strong tendency for participles to evolve into adjectives. English examples of this include relieved (the past participle of the verb relieve, used as an adjective in sentences (such as "I am so relieved to see you"), spoken (as in "the spoken word"), and going (the present participle of the verb go, used as an adjective in sentences such as "Ten dollars per hour is the going rate").

    To form this construction, take the consonant stem of the verb, and add -ivjaxij

    Vadivjaxi palä - The spoken word

    Comparative formationEdit

    When forming comparatives, add -alni

    Blue => Bluer

    Albastro => Albastralni

    Superlative formationEdit

    When forming superaltives, add - ilàn

    Blue => Bluer => Bluest

    Albastro => Albastralni => Albastrilàn

    VerbsEdit

    Ubell has 5 verb classes.

        (i) verbs end in -arti, Vadarti to speak
        (ii) verbs end in -erti, Komerti to eat
        (iii) verbs end in -irti, Vivirti to live, exist
        (iv) verbs end in -[consonant]ti, Pixti, to write
        (v) verbs are irregular verbs, Jesti to be
        (v.#) verbs that irregular, in the fact that they appear to be (iv),
              but conjugate in which ever class as determined by it's radical stem change,
              Müßenti(v.iii), to have to do (something)
    


    InfinitiveEdit

    The infinitive of a verb is its basic form. They are not inflected to agree with any subject, and their subject.

    PersonalEdit

    The personal infinitive, a non-finite form which does not show tense, but is inflected for person and number. Used with the subjunctive mood (see below) when the subject of the dependent is the same as the independent clause. This form is also used when auxiliary verbs are used.

    TenseEdit

    Grammatical tense is a temporal linguistic quality expressing the time at, during, or over which a state or action denoted by a verb occurs.

    Tense is one of at least five qualities, along with mood, voice, aspect, and person, which verb forms may express.

    Tenses cannot always be translated from one language to another. While verbs in all languages have typical forms by which they are identified and indexed in dictionaries, usually the most common present tense or an infinitive, their meanings vary among languages.

    There are languages (such as isolating languages, like Chinese) in which tense is not used, but implied in temporal adverbs when needed, and some (such as Japanese) in which temporal information appears in the inflection of adjectives, lending them a verb-like quality. In some languages (such as Russian) a simple verb may indicate aspect and tense.

    The number of tenses in a language may be controversial, since its verbs may indicate qualities of uncertainty, frequency, completion, duration, possibility, and even whether information derives from experience or hearsay.

    Ubell has 5 tenses:

    • Present
    • Preterite (Simple Past)
    • Imperfect (Complex Past)
    • Future
    • Conditional
    PresentEdit

    The present tense is the tense (that is, the form of the verb) that may be used to express:

       * action at the present
       * a state of being;
       * a habitual action;
       * an occurrence in the (very) near future; or
       * an action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present.
    
    PreteriteEdit

    The preterite (also praeterite, in American English also preterit, simple past, or past historic) is the grammatical tense expressing actions that took place in the past. It is similar to the aorist in languages such as Greek.

    The preterite is a verb tense that indicates that an action taken once in the past was completed at a specific point in time in the past. Usually, a definite start time or end time for the action is stated. This is opposed to the imperfect tense, which refers to any repeated, continuous, or habitual past action. Thus, "I ran five miles yesterday" would use the first-person preterite form of ran, corrí, whereas "I ran five miles every morning" would use the first-person imperfect tense form, corría. This distinction is actually one of perfective vs. imperfective aspect.

    ImperfectEdit

    The imperfect tense, in the classical grammar of several Indo-European languages, denotes a past tense with an imperfective aspect. In English, it is referred to as the past continuous tense.

    The term originated with the Latin language because "imperfect" refers to an uncompleted or abandoned action.

    the imperfect is generally a past tense. Its uses include representing:

       * An action that was happening, used to happen, or happened regularly in the past and ongoing
       * People, things, or conditions of the past
       * A time in the past
       * A situation that was in progress in the past when another isolated and important event occurred (the former using the imperfect, while the latter uses the preterite).
       * A physical or mental state or condition in progress in the past. Often used with verbs of being, emotion, capability, or conscience.
    
    FutureEdit

    In grammar, the future tense is a verb form that marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future (in an absolute tense system), or to happen subsequent to some other event, whether that is past, present, or future (in a relative tense system).

    ConditionalEdit

    The conditional tense is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. This tense is thus similar to the subjunctive mood, although languages that have distinct verb forms for the two use them in distinct ways.

    Conditional verb forms can also have temporal uses, often for expressing "future in the past" tense.

    MoodEdit

    Grammatical mood is one of a set of distinctive verb forms that are used to signal modality.[1] It is distinct from grammatical tense or grammatical aspect, although these concepts are conflated to some degree in many languages, including English and most other modern Indo-European languages, insofar as the same word patterns are used to express more than one of these concepts at the same time.

    Ubell has 3 moods:

        *Indicative
        *Subjunctive
        *Imperative
    
    IndicativeEdit

    The indicative mood or evidential mood is used for factual statements and positive beliefs. All intentions that a particular language does not categorize as another mood are classified as indicative. In English, questions are considered indicative. It is the most commonly used mood and is found in all languages. Example: "Paul is eating an apple" or "John eats apples".

    The indicative mood is for statements of actuality or strong probability: The spine-tailed swift flies faster than any other bird in the world.

    The following Ubell verb tenses occur in the indicative mood:

        *Present
        *Preterite
        *Imperfect
        *Future
        *Conditional
    
    SubjunctiveEdit

    n grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood, as it often follows a conjunction) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. It is typically used in dependent clauses to express wishes, commands, emotion, possibility, judgment, necessity, or statements that are contrary to fact at present. The details of subjunctive use vary from language to language.

    The following Ubell verb tenses occur in the subjunctive mood:

        *Present
        *Imperfect
        *Future
    
    ImperativeEdit

    The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that expresses direct commands or requests. It is also used to signal a prohibition, permission or any other kind of exhortation.

    The following Ubell verb tenses occur in the imperative mood:

        *Present
        *Future
    

    The imperative mood in Ubell is also used as a vocative or exclamatory verb form, In this instance, the following verb tenses occur:

        *Present
        *Preterite
        *Imperfect
        *Future
        *Conditional
    

    VoiceEdit

    In grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.


    Active vs PassiveEdit

    In grammar, the voice (also called gender or diathesis) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or actor of the verb, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.

    For example, in the sentence:

       The cat ate the mouse.
    

    the verb "ate" is in the active voice, but in the sentence:

       The mouse was eaten by the cat.
    

    the verbal phrase "was eaten" is passive.

    Aspect: Verbal PairsEdit

    Ubell utilizes what appears to be two grammatical aspects: Normalevsk and Kausolevsk.

    Every Ubell verb comes paired with another verb, essencially meanign the exact same thing. The first verb being classified as Normalevsk, and the other as Kausolevsk. They are used in different situations, and are not necessarily in the same verb class.

    NormalevskEdit

    All of the verbs in the Conjugation section are Normalevsk verbs.

    KausolevskEdit

    Kausolevsk verbs have a specific meaning and use. The Kausolevsk verbs essencially mean To cause to do....

    ex: Vadarti is a normalevsk verb that means to speak. It is paired with the kausolevsk verb, Hicti which means to cause to speak

    Top 20 Most Common Verb PairsEdit

    English - Normalevsk - Kausolevsk

        to walk - Caminarti - Ibilirti
        to learn - Aprenderti - Ikasirti
        to drink - Beberti - Edanti
        to look for - Buxkarti - Bilatuarti
        to sing - Kantarti - Ktarikti
        to run - Koherti - Lasterkarti
        to believe - Crërti - Sinecirti
        to listen - Eskuqarti - Entzunti
        to talk - Góvórti - Parlerti
        to make - Aserti - Fairti
        to put - Ponerti - Errunti
        to want - Kërti - Nahirti
        to know - Znarti - Gauzeirti
        to be - Birti / Jesti - Izanti / Bajanti
        to have - Terti - Edukirti
        to bring - Traerti - Ekarrirti
        to come - Venirti - Vendrerti
        to sell - Venderti - Salduarti
        to dress - Vestirti - Janzkerarti
        to live - Vivirti - Bizirti
    

    ConjugationEdit

    See Ubell Verb Conjugation

    AdverbsEdit

    Adverbs typically answer questions such as how?, when?, where?, why? and to what extent?. They often end in -ly.


    fast/rapid + ly = rapidly

    afet + mens = afetmens

    or

    afet + marú = afetmarú

    PrepositionsEdit

    Prepositions
    Ubell English
    t, et and
    k to, toward
    k-ma away (from)
    p, por to, for, in order to/for, by
    n, em in, on
    auf out, off
    z of, from
    s with
    s-ma without
    sobor over, above
    sobor-ma under, beneath
    v if
    c up
    c-ma down
    q in addition to, near, by
    cem upon
    nu but
    añet before
    ftos after
    l, ól even if
    d, ód although
    b, ób about, by
    kolj since
    tolj because (of)
    tilj until


    ConjunctionsEdit

    Preposition Article Conjuctions
    O A I E
    t, et to ta ti te
    k ko ka ki ke
    k-ma ko-ma ka-ma ki-ma ke-ma
    p, por pro pra pri pre
    n, em no na ni ne
    auf auf auf auf auf
    z zo za zi ze
    s so sa si se
    s-ma so-ma sa-ma si-ma se-ma
    sobor sobro sobra sobri sobre
    sobor-ma sobro-ma sobra-ma sobri-ma sobre-ma
    v vo va vi ve
    c co ca ci ce
    c-ma co-ma ca-ma ci-ma ce-ma
    q qo qa qi qe
    cem cno cna cni cne
    nu nuho nuha nuhi nuhe
    añet añto añta añti añte
    ftos fco fca fci fce
    l, ól lo la li le
    d, ód do da di de
    b, ób bo ba bi be
    kolj klo kla kli kle
    tolj tlo tla tli tle
    tilj ótlo ótla ótli ótle

    SyntaxEdit

    Ubell syntax is very similar to that of the languages in both families of which it is comprised. It's word order is SVO/SOV. Generally speaking it is SVO (Subject Verb Object); with the exception of when object pronouns are being used in place of the noun, then it shifts to SOV. The indirect object pronoun always precedes the direct object pronoun. Adjectives can either go before or after the noun they modify.

    QuestionsEdit

    English Ubell
    How Kako
    What Xto
    Why Zaxto
    When Kana
    Where Gdje
    Who Kva, Kto
    Which Qmale
    How much/many Ckolkó

    Dialectal variationEdit

    GóvórskiEdit

    Góvórski is deemed the standard. This website is written in Góvórskim Ubell.

    AriqkiEdit

    Ariqki has a series of “inconsistencies” between spelling and pronunciation, thus causing the break down into multiple sub-dialects.

    • A key clue to recognize Ariqki speakers is that they tend to drop the word final /ú/

    Verbal DifferentiationEdit

    Unlike Góvóorski, Ariqki does not use the copula 'be,' thus the present tense of 'jesti' is not used.

        I'm happy. Ja srtan.
        I'm from Ipps. Ja z Ippsjevò.
    

    Ariqki also does not make use of the verb 'birti.'It uses a special construction of 'jesti,' based upon the Vacroqki (a Middle Ubell language) verb 'asti'-'to be' in order to convey the same meaning as 'birti.'

    Sub-DialectsEdit

    Vest GallözkiEdit

    The major sub-dialectal branch is 'Vest Gallözki'. Vest Gallözki is broken into 2 parts:

    VrazírßkiEdit
    • Final /o/ > [u]
    • Final /e/ > [i]
    • Final /l/ > [u]
    • Unstressed /e/ > [i]
    • Unstressed /e/ in /de/ > [dʒi]
    • Unstressed /e/ in /te/ > [t͡ɕi]
    • Word final /s/ > [ʂ]
    KaribßkiEdit
    • Final /s/ > ø; (final /s/, meaning syllable final and word final)
    • /b/ > [v] or [w]
    • /v/ > [b]
    • /f/ > [p]
    • /p/ > [f]
    • /ado/, /d/ > ø; /ado/ >[ao]
    • /gua/,/gue/, /gwa/, /gwe/ => /g/ > ø; /gua/ > [ua]

    JevóxlovskiEdit

    Jevóxlovski uses a modified Cyrillic script

    Jevóxlovski also does not make use of the verb 'birti.'It uses a special construction of 'jesti,' based upon the Vacroqki (a Middle Ubell language) verb 'asti'-'to be' in order to convey the same meaning as 'birti.'

    Jevóxlovski does not use some diacritics. The circumflex, acute, and grave accents above vowels are the only vowel accents permitted

    Verbs do not us the infixes to represent progressive, perfect, nor perfect progressive. The progressive particle hwa is used

    Góvórski group of verbs known as 'Kausolevsk', are not used in that manner in Jevóxlovski. In Jevóxlovski, there are known as 'Perfektlevsk' verbs (or perfect verbs). These verbs have the meaning "To have ..."

        ex: Góvórti means 'to talk'. It is paired with the verb Parlerti. 
        Parlerti's 'Kausolevsk' translation is 'To be caused to talk', 
        whereas its 'Perfektlevsk' translation is 'To have talked'.
    

    RuxqèvíqskiEdit

    • The pronunciation of some word final consonants change. The only way to stop this is gemination
      • Final /l/ > [u], /ll/ > [l]
      • Final /b/ > [p], /bb/ > [b]
      • Final /d/ > [t], /dd/ > [d]
      • Final /g/ > [k], /gg/ > [g]
      • Final /v/ > [f], /vv/ > [v]
      • Final /z/ > [s], /zz/ > [z]
    • Unlike Góvórski, Ruxqèvíqski does not use the copula 'be,' thus the present tense of 'jesti' is not used.
        I'm happy. Йа сртан.
        I'm from Ipps. Йа з Иппсйевъо.
    

    HrvbjelackiEdit

    • The pronunciation of some word final consonants change. The only way to stop this is gemination
      • Final /l/ > [u], /ll/ > [l]
      • Final /b/ > [p], /bb/ > [b]
      • Final /d/ > [t], /dd/ > [d]
      • Final /g/ > [k], /gg/ > [g]
      • Final /v/ > [f], /vv/ > [v]
      • Final /z/ > [s], /zz/ > [z]
    • Unlike Ruxqèvíqski, Hrvbjelacki does use the copula 'be'.
        I'm happy. Йем сртан.
        I'm from Ipps. Сам з Иппсйевъо.
    

    TalamàsčaskiEdit

    • A key clue to recognize Talamàsčaski speakers is that they tend to drop the word final /ú/
    • Final /o/ > [u]
    • Final /s/ > ø; (final /s/, meaning syllable final and word final)
    • /b/ > [v] or [w]
    • /v/ > [b]
    • Word final /s/ > [ʂ]
    • /f/ > [p]
    • /p/ > [f]
    • /ado/, /d/ > ø; /ado/ >[ao]
    • /gua/,/gue/, /gwa/, /gwe/ => /g/ > ø; /gua/ > [ua]
    • The pronunciation of some word final consonants change. The only way to stop this is gemination
      • Final /l/ > [u], /ll/ > [l]
      • Final /b/ > [p], /bb/ > [b]
      • Final /d/ > [t], /dd/ > [d]
      • Final /g/ > [k], /gg/ > [g]
      • Final /v/ > [f], /vv/ > [v]
      • Final /z/ > [s], /zz/ > [z]
      • Final /ž/ > [ʂ], /žž/ > [ʒ]
    • Unlike Góvórski, Talamàsčaski does not use the copula 'be,' thus the present tense of 'jesti' is not used.
        I'm happy. Ja srtan.
        I'm from Ipps. Ja z Ippsjevò.
    

    Talamàsčaski also does not make use of the verb 'birti.'It uses a special construction of 'jesti,' based upon the Vacroqki (a Middle Ubell language) verb 'asti'-'to be' in order to convey the same meaning as 'birti.'


    Verbs do not us the infixes to represent progressive, perfect, nor perfect progressive. The progressive particle hwa is used


    Góvórski group of verbs known as 'Kausolevsk', are not used in that manner in Talamàsčaski. In Talamàsčaski, there are known as 'Perfektlevsk' verbs (or perfect verbs). These verbs have the meaning "To have ..."

        ex: Góvórti means 'to talk'. It is paired with the verb Parlerti. 
        Parlerti's 'Kausolevsk' translation is 'To be caused to talk', 
        whereas its 'Perfektlevsk' translation is 'To have talked'.
    

    Sample VocabularyEdit

    (sing., pl - english) - (any text in red denotes spelling changes of all types)

    1. ovisarj, ovisarjúx - sheep
    2. qko, qkos - boy
      1. qka - girl
      2. qki - child
    3. gru, grus - group
    4. animal, animals - animal
      1. gru z animalogis - flock (lit. group of animals)
    5. vilja, viljas - village
      1. viljajer, viljajers - villager
    6. bromo, bromos - joke
      1. bromarti - to joke
      2. igu eqarti bromoges (z) [k] - to make fun (of) [at]...
    7. prto - black
    8. alb - white
    9. garje - gray
    10. rùbica - red
    11. albastro - blue
    12. galben - yellow
    13. virens - green
    14. portokalj - orange
    15. mov - purple
    16. maro - brown

    Example textEdit

    English A vacation is a countdown, t-minus your life and counting, time to drag your tongue across the sugar cube and hope you get a taste... isn't that sweet?-- stonesour
    Góvórski "Vakacja bjetú kontolú’ce-ma, temp miniaje krb vitogirú t kontexar, bjetú orat pre pasarx awaŧogi sobre zukarrepsélla et deseajstes xta recibjutjex saboroge...öy ŧuo bjetú dols?"
    Ariqki "Vakacja je kontolú’ce-ma, temp miniaje krb vitogirú t kontexar, je orat pre pasarx awaŧogi sobre zukarrepsélla et deseajstes xta recibjutjex saboroge...öy ŧuo je dols?"
    Ruxqèvíqski Вакацйа контольу'це-ма, темп миниайе крб витогирьу т контар хюа, таамаа орат пре пасарш аюатдоги собре зукаррепсьелла ет десеайстйеш шта рецибйутйеш сабороге...ооя тдуо долс?

    (Vakacja kontolú'ce-ma, temp miniaje krb vitogirú t kontar hwa, taamaa orat pre pasarx awatdogi sobre zukarrepsélla et deseajstjex xta recibjutjex saboroge...ooy tduo dols?)

    Hrvbjelacki Вакацйа йе контольу'це-ма, темп миниайе крб витогирьу т контар хюа, йе орат пре пасарш аюатдоги собре зукаррепсьелла ет десеайстйеш шта рецибйутйеш сабороге...ооя тдуо йе долс?

    (Vakacja je kontolú'ce-ma, temp miniaje krb vitogirú t kontar hwa, je orat pre pasarx awatdogi sobre zukarrepsélla et deseajstes xta recibjutjex saboroge...ooy tduo je dols?)

    Talamàsčaski "Vakacja kontolú’ce-ma, temp miniaje krb vitogirú t kontar hwa, tämä orat pre pasarx awaŧogi sobre zukarrepsélla et deseajstes xta recibjutjex saboroge...öy ŧuo dols?"

    Excerpt Song Lyrics: Soular Flares, by The Ready Set

    This is to show how Perfect verbs (and Perfect constructions) occur in the different dialects, as well as the Causatives.


    English "so darling do you know how you got so lovely?

    was it self-taught, learned from life? you've got skills making boys go crazy, and i've been running down the stairs again, i think you're in my head girl, i think i'm freaking out girl. sometimes i wonder if you're even real, if not it's cool, i don't wanna go back to the way that it was, i don't wanna go back 'cause i think i may be (in love) "

    Góvórski "Ik, carinja, öy znajex jak venabil birtirx mu belŧä? Öy xtú k’icu ensenjar, öy aprender z vitén? Tejex znartijakoges xta b iqoma terjale kiholömogi qkos, t kohoheju c-ma ekolern tonenjét tempt, pensaju xta jutex n nuholöméša qkinja, pensaju xta perdohautju nuholömogi qkinja. Jokkozza-temps ice preokupaju ól bidàs hryal, v ma tóh je hós, žvlagju-ma hrgrsarm k ŧü maneru sidelo, žvlagju-ma hrgrsarm tolj pensaju xta bio amarm jedd."
    Ariqki ""
    Ruxqèvíqski ""

    ()

    Hrvbjelacki ""

    ()

    Talamàsčaski ""

    Imperfektlevsk Verb BookEdit

    Ubellskin-Añlesku (Ubell-English)Edit

    ex entry in order to read properly. The primary verbs listed are the imperfektlevsk verbs, and their pair is written with them.

    true infinitive (imperfektlevsk) / true infinitive (kausolevsk/perfektlevsk)Edit

    english meaningEdit

    differential meaning differential meaning
    verb class verb class
    radical vowel change radical vowel change
    radical stem change radical stem change
    translation of "I (verb)" translation of "I (verb)"


    Ubell

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