The phoneme inventory of Ughonic consists of nine vowel monophthongs and 21 consonants. Peculiarities of Ughonic include the numerous central vowel phonemes and the absence of any diphthongs. Occasionally, interjections and recently borrowed loanwords may contain unusual sounds.
There are nine vowel phonemes in Ughonic. Unusually, the language contrasts a number of central vowels, ones which are unusual as phonemes. There are three front vowels, two back vowels and four central vowels. The schwa, a severely reduced central vowel /ə/ is a phoneme in its own right, whereas in English it is usually found as an allophone of various vowels in unstressed positions.
|/ɞ/||Like the non-rhotic pronunciation of bird said with rounded lips.|
|/ɨ/||Like bit, just slightly reduced.|
|/ʉ/||Like book, just slightly reduced.|
There are no proper diphthongs in Ughonic, however each vowel can be combined with a glide to form what some may consider a diphthong. For example bejkh meaning "horse" is pronounced /bɛjx/.
The standard language has 21 consonant phonemes.
|Ploisive||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||x ɣ|
The consonant inventory is fairly regular, and similar to that of many other languages. Only three sounds appear in Ughonic that do not appear in English. These are /ɲ/, /x/ and /ɣ/. /ɲ/ is like the sound in onion before a /j/ sound. /x/ is the sound in the scottish pronunciation of loch, and /ɣ/ is the voiced counterpart of this sound.
The alphabet is completely standard, following a one-to-one correspondence between phonemes and letters.
|Â â||/ɨ/||roses||Similar to the pronunciation of unstressed 'i' in English.|
|Ç ç||/tʃ/||chalk||Can be represented by the digraph 'ch' in systems where putting in 'ç' could be difficult.|
|GH Gh gh||/ɣ/||Like the pronunciation of Scottish 'loch' with voice.|
|H h||-||-||The phoneme /h/ is not native to Ughonic, so the letter <h> is found only in the digraphs <gh>, <kh>, <sh> and <zh>.|
|I i||/i/||sea||Y represents /i/ at the end of words, whereas 'I' represents it elsewhere.|
|KH Kh kh||/x/||Like the pronunciation of Scottish 'loch'.|
|NJ Nj nj||/ɲ/||Like the pronunciation of union.|
|Õ õ||/ɞ/||Rounded form of bird|
|Q q||/k/||cat||Q q is not found in native Ughonic words, and foreign words that contain this are usually quickly replaced with more Ughonic-friendly letters, for example aqueduct > akvëdukt, quasar > kvazar.|
|R r||/ɾ/||Like the intervocalic GA pronunciation of better||Because of the non-rhotic nature of Ughonic, 'r' is silent after vowels, instead it lengthens the preceding vowel.|
|SH Sh sh||/ʃ/||shout|
|Û û||/ʉ/||Similar to good|
|W w||/v/||very||W is not found in native Ughonic words, and is usually replaced with 'v' in natuaralised foreign words.|
|X x||/ks/||tax||X is not found in native Ughonic words, and is usually replaced with 'ks' in naturalised foreign words.|
|Y y||/i/||see||Y represents /i/ at the end of words, whereas 'I' represents it elsewhere.|
|ZH Zh zh||/ʒ/||vision|
Verbs in Ughonic come in four tenses: Past, Present, Present Participle and Future. There is also a gerund form of most verbs.
In the following table there is an example of the verb tense system, using the verb venë meaning "to say".
The usual verb word order is SOV (Subject-Object-Verb).
|Umek dukhon venëkh.||"I said to you"||(I+nom. you+dat. said).|
|Gõrek gõrim maçek.||"Dog eat dog"||(Dog+nom. dog+acc. to eat)|
The Verb 'To Be'Edit
The verb 'to be' in Ughonic is quite troublesome in that often it is used in a different way from how it is in English, and sometimes even different than other verbs in Ughonic. It is also, in many cases, left out altogether.
'To Be' as a CopulaEdit
When 'to be' is a copula, the root shkë is used. It is then treated as just another verb, so follows the regular pattern of SOV, with nominative and accusative nouns. So for example in the sentence "Dogs are canines", it would be written "Gõrakek kaninakim shkë" (Dog+pl+nom. canine+pl+acc. to be).
'To Be' before adjectivesEdit
In Ughonic, when the verb 'to be' comes before an adjective, the root seti is used. So the sentence "That cat is ugly" becomes "Ptë nicën golzhënëm seti " (that cat+nom. is ugly), which literally means "that cat is ugly". The root "seti" is written after the noun and adjective.
'To Be' describing a locationEdit
When 'to be' is used before a location, as in "I am here", the root a is used. So the sentence "I am here" is written Umek a malgamat.
'To Be' before other verbsEdit
When 'to be' is needed before verbs, the root ndë is needed. It is put immediately after the noun and before the verbs. The nominative forms of verbs are used in these instances.
|I am going||Umek ndë sânelashek||I am going|
|The man was murdered||Omek ndënëkh krastanëkh||The man was murdered.|
Cancelling A VerbEdit
The word një can be used to cancel any verb. For example: Umek ndë sânelashek "I am going" can be altered to Umek një ndë sânelashek.
Nouns in Ughonic are highly declined for number, possession and case. Rather than having separate case forms for plural and singular (as in Latin), the plural suffix (-k) is added to the noun, with the case suffix added after.
There are -- cases in Ughonic, each of which is notified by a suffix. Unusually for a language, Ughonic marks both the nominative and accusative forms of nouns.
The following table shows noun declension using the noun õrçem meaning "house".
|Dative||-on||õrçemon||to (the) house|
|Genitive||-ûsh||õrçemûsh||of (the) house|
|Comitative||-ekh||õrçemekh||with (the) house|
|Adessive||-aly||õrçemaly||on (the) house|
|Inessive||-ân||õrçemân||in (the) house|
|Benefactive||-ep||õrçemep||for (the) house|
The posessor of a noun is indicated in the form of a short suffix added to the end of the word.
|1st P. Sing.||-ur||õrçemur||my house|
|2nd P. Sing.||-ud||õrçemud||your (sing.) house|
|3rd P. Sing.||-uk||õrçemuk||his/her/it's house|
|1st P. Plur.||-ërâk||õrçemërâk||our house|
|2nd P. Plur.||-ëdâk||õrçemëdâk||you (pl.) house|
|3rd P. Plur.||-ëkâk||õrçemëkâk||their house|
- Umek õrçemuron shâmbëkh. "I went to my house".
The plural of a noun is formed by the suffix -k. In the case of nouns that end in a consonant, the -k suffix is preceded by an a.
Plural vs Genitive SuffixEdit
The plural and genitive suffixes in Ughonic both revolve around the letter -k. However, the plural suffix is just a plain -k after vowels, and -ak after consonants, whereas the genitive suffix is -nek after vowels, and -ek after consonants.
Ughonic uses a moveable /n/, which is placed in between the word root ending in a vowel and a declining suffix that begins with a vowel. This is to prevent the collision of the two vowels, as vowels are never found adjacent to each other in Ughonic.
So for example, the word voleptu meaning "mother", becomes voleptunërâk, when the 1st person plural possessive suffix -ërâk is added.
There are no articles in Ughonic, so the word ptesh can mean "boy", "the boy" or "a boy".
Adjectives in Ughonic determine the quality of nouns and pronouns.
The first syntactical function of Ughonic adjectives is to define a noun. (For e.g. "The pretty woman is here": Mâram khntisa a malgamat).
Secondly, they describe a copula. (For e.g. "The woman is pretty": Mâram khntisa seti).
Interrogative words in Ughonic come a) as the opener to a question, and b) as a pronoun.
|what||ke|| ke lanzûlur?|
"what is your name?"
|e ke|| ndanek e ke lanzûlur shkë|
"this is what my name is"
|who||gavan|| gavan dukh?|
"who are you?"
|e gavan|| nda e gavan umek shkë|
"this is who I am"
|why||gaghnë|| gaghnë umek ndanon skhalâm?|
"why did you do this?"
|e gaghnë|| umek ndanon skhalâmëkh e gaghnë.|
"I did this because"
|when||kte|| kte dukhek devegënashek|
"when are you leaving?"
|e kte|| ndanek e ke umek devegënabal shkë|
"this is when I will leave"
|how||kazt|| kazt dukhek ndanon skhalâmëkh|
"how did you do this?"
|e kazt|| ndanek e kazt umek ndanon skhalâmëkh|
"this is how I did this!"
|English||A swamp is a wetland featuring temporary or permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water. A swamp generally has a substantial number of dry-land protrusions, covered by aquatic vegetation, or vegetation that tolerates periodical inundation. The two main types of swamp are "true" or forest swamps and "transitional" or shrub swamps. The water of a swamp may be fresh water, brackish water or seawater.|
|Ughonic||Grezhganek stabakim stalan sju mezgoshkerekashek sjujanshkân dënzandër usk zandër reveghak mezgõ stalanûsh sjuttkõlveshakali istrimë. Grezhganek molkhovesakim ërzt e stanastrak, e zta ndë khnshitëkh veghetashkânekh akvatishçë, usk veghetashkânek sjujanshkânim perijodikal udolërdë e zta. Spekunak grezhganûsh drajër jõ grezhganak "emed" (ukh grezhganak sekoj) khno grezhganak "tranzishkânisk" (ukh grezhganak veldezlejë). Sjutt grezhganekûsh sjuttshinë, sjuttdõleg ukh sjuttvejeb telbo shkë.|