Wikia

Conlang

Ukikū

3,217articles on
this wiki
Talk8
Progress 82%
Ukikū
Ukikū
Type
Nominative-Accusative
Alignment
Agglutinative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
none
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

​Ukikū (or Ukiku, in English often called "Basic Speak", in German "Basissprache") is one of the 28th World's proto languages. It was spoken hundreds of years ago. All other languages spoken in that world, except Radän and Proto-Dondorhin, are based on Ukikū in different ways.

It also is the only language in all worlds that is not learnt by listening and speaking. The whole vocabulary, grammar and so on are in your mind when you are born in 28th World, even if it is passive at first. Ukikū becomes active by speaking or writing it.

For that reason, it seemed impossible for the language to evolve. Every generation was put the same vocabulary etc. in their minds. The only way Ukikū could evolve was when the Ukikū speaking people met the Dondorhin who spoke Proto-Dondorhin. This two languages mixed, and after ten or twenty years the "magic" that put vocabularies in the people's minds, disappeared. In this way the languages Tongeb, Yesdril and Jatgul could be developed.

This may sound mad, but it is exactly what is written in the tradition.

But Ukikū is not dead. It is still spoken in a small province in Naburia where people try to keep it alive.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z h
Approximant r j w
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open a

Note: As you can see, Ukikū has a rather small phoneme inventory, so you have to pronounce every phoneme precisely.

PhonotacticsEdit

Ukikū syllables can be of one of three types: CVC, CV and VC. The most frequent of those types is CV. Only /k/, /t/, /m/ and /n/ are permitted as final consonants.

A syllable can't contain any diphthongs or consonant clusters.

TonesEdit

1. entwurf

There are four tones in Ukikū: Atyum (Engl.: neutral), Tagán (Engl.: rising), Konbā (Engl.: high) and Sumzâyu (Engl.: rising and falling). They are written like: a (Atyum), á (Tagán), ā (Konbā) and â (Sumzâyu).

GrammarEdit

Being an agglutinative language, Ukikū uses affixes to show inflections.

NounsEdit

The nouns are divided into classes using infixes. There are three noun classes: abstract, inanimate and animate. Only words with up to three syllables can have class infixes.

Abstract words' infixes (abgónde): -gón-, -kâm-, -suk-, -tēm-, -yan-

Things' infixes (somrēke): -rēk-, -dôn-, -yim-, -zut-, -sōn-, -tan-

Humans' and animals' infixes (yufuma): -fum-, -bōm-, -hat-, -zúm-, -tūn-

NumbersEdit

There are three numbers: Singular, Dual and Plural.

Singular Dual Plural
Particles none -la -ni

CasesEdit

There are six to seven cases.

Nominative Accusative Dative Allative Ablative Inessive
Particles none -m -k -su -yi -we

Titles Titles are suffix particles which mostly appear at the end of a name. Here is a list of the most used titles:

Title Meaning
-zunu title of a male adult
-karū title of a female adult
-tú title of a child (mostly used by parents)
-fazá title of a person in an inferior position
-gutsu title of an outclass person
-gatyu honorative title of an old person

Agglutination orderEdit

The particles that can be added to a noun have a certain order that looks like this:

Root Number Case
(every noun can be added here) Sg. / Dl. / Pl. Nom. / Acc. / Dat. / All. / Abl. / Ine.

PronounsEdit

There are four pronouns in Ukikū. They never appear as nominative but as any other case. Pronouns cannot declense into inessive but vocative instead.

No. Accusative/Dative Allative Ablative Vocative Verb suffix
1 di -e
2 -sa
3 so -wú
4 -nun

The first person is the same as English "I" and the second one "you" (singular). The third and fourth person have genders: common (third) and neuter (forth).

VerbsEdit

Ukikū verbs can be intransitive, transitive and ditransitive.

Nearly all verbs end with a consonant. There are only few which do not. In this case, the suffix particle -e changes to -de.

Verbs can be conjugated into mood, person and case. Tenses have to be shown by adverbs.

IndicativeEdit

To create an indicative verb, you just have to put the personal suffix to the verb's root.

ImperativeEdit

To create the imperative, the person particle has to be added at first, after that, the imperative suffix particle -go. There are two imperatives: The neutral one, which is created like already explained and the polite one. To create the polite one you have to use the particle -zi instead of -go.

OptativeEdit

The optative is used to express wishes.

It is created the same way as the imperative. The only difference is that you have to use -lin instead of -go or -zi. The polite optative is created with -lun. But this construct only makes sense if you add a noun or a pronoun ending.

Ex.: *toksalin is incorrect, and literally means "You wish go". It only does by adding a noun or pronoun: "Toksalinsa" literally means "You wish you go" (so actually "you wish you would go"). Or, with a noun: "Toksalin tahatya", that means "You wish that the/a deer would go".

SubjunctiveEdit

The subjunctive in Ukikū is used to express something that probably happens. It has a distinct negative form.

To create a plain subjunctive, you use the personal verb suffix and the suffix -pu.

To create a negative subjunctive, you use the personal verb suffix and the suffix -hi.

Ex.: "Toksahi" means "You probably do not go". "Toksapu" means "You probably go."

NegativeEdit

The negative is created with the particle -run.

VoicesEdit

There are 3 voices: active, medium and passive. The passive is created with -wan. To make medium voice, take the passive verb and add pá- plus a noun or pronoun.

Ex.: "Tatkansawan" means "You are hit". "Tatkansawan pádi" means "You are hit by me".

Agglutination orderEdit

The agglutination order is following:

Root Person Number Voice Mood Negative
(every verb can be added here) 1st / 2nd / 3rd / 4th Sg. / Dl. / Pl. Active / Passive Indicative/Imperative/Optative/Subjunctive (add negative particle)

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives always are circumflexing a noun (or a verb as an adverb). So every adjective has to have two or more syllables and a "-" in it, example: si-yút ("small"). The first part of an adjective or adverb is called Gunâtso, and the second one is called Lanâtso.

Adjectives and adverbs have three comparisons.

Positive Comparative Superlative
ending: vowel none -gīm -futû
ending: consonant none -urá -ên

Examples: An adjective with a noun looks like this: wî-tána-ka "high mountain/hill" or wî-tána-kam if the noun is accusative

If there are two or more adjectives referring to the same noun, they are not longer written or spoken as circumflexes but as common words. For instance: wîka sômdot tána means "high, green mountain/hill". If the noun is not nominative, all of these adjectives carry the case particle. That looks like wîkam sômdotam tána if it is accusative.

In the same way, a row of adverbs belonging to the same verb is created. The only difference is that the adverbs do not carry the case particle but the person particle instead.

Agglutination orderEdit

Just like nouns and verbs, adjectives and adverbs possess an agglutination order depending on whether they appear as single or as two or more.

A single adverb/adjective looks like this:

Gunâtso Noun/Verb Lanâtso Comparison Case/Person

A row looks like this:

Adjective/Adverb Comparison Case/Person Adjective/Adverb Comparison Case/Person Noun

AdverbsEdit

As already mentioned, there have to be different adverbs to express the tense and the aspect. They all can be easily devided from adjectives because they do not circumfigate them but appear in front of the verb they refer to. Here is a list of those which are used the most. (coming soon)

SyntaxEdit

Ukikū has mainly a POS syntax but it is also based on the verb's transitivity and on the sentence's main clause.

Ex.: "The man eats an apple" (stress on (an) apple) means that the man eats an apple but nothing else. In Ukikū this meaning cannot be expressed with stress but with word order and sometimes with the particle -tâm.

In the following table, short forms will be used. Here is an explanation: S = subject, A = accusative, D = dative, P = predicate and T is the particle -tâm.

Intransitive sentencesEdit

Order Meaning
PS neutral statement
SP stress on predicate
PST stress on subject

Transitive sentencesEdit

Order Meaning
PAS neutral statement
ASP stress on predicate
PSA stress on accusative object
PAST stress on subject

Ditransitive sentencesEdit

Order Meaning
PADS/PDAS neutral statement
ADSP/DASP stress on predicate
PDSA stress on accusative object
PASD stress on dative object
PADST/PDAST stress on subject

QuestionsEdit

To create a question that can be answered with yes or no, simply put the word "támna" in front of the sentence.

If you want to ask for something certain, make a sentence and replace the word you ask for with a question word. These are:

Word Ask for...
yugâ predicate
yutyâm accusative object
yutyák dative object
yusō allative
yanyûyi ablative
yomwe inessive
yaná subject
yiyīt location
yunon time
anyóm reason
gotru way (how)

If the clause you ask for has not appeared in the sentence yet put the question word where the syntax allows it.

NumbersEdit

Ukikū uses a decimal number system. The numbers from 0 to eighteen are mostly irregular. All others are created with the first syllable of the Amkutínta (multiplier of ten) and the number particles (if none, it is 0). Ordinals are created by replacing the Atyum tone of the second syllable with a Tagán tone.

No. Cardinal Ordinal
0 sosaka sosáka
1 gun gūn
2 la
3 sūta
4 lalā
5 zīko kóko
6 ha han
7 ku kuno
8 yayu yayú
9 pet pen
10 amkut amkút
11 ukzem uku
12 yuzi yuzî
13 amkutsū amkútsū
14 kutlā katlā
15 amko amkó
16 ama amya
17 amkuku amkūku
18 amkuyu amkuyú
19 amkupet amkupen
20 sunka sunká
21 sungun sungún
22 sunla sunlá
23 sunsu sunsú
24 sunfi sunfí
25 sunkū sunkú
26 sunya sunyá
27 suno sunó
28 sunwo sunwó
29 sunpe sunpé
30 umyut umyút
40 zuksan zuksán
50 yotok yotók
60 simfu simfú
70 yenun yenún
80 yumze yumzé
90 foyumti foyúmti
100 yekti yektí

Word formationEdit

(will be added soon)

VocabularyEdit


No. English Ukikū
1Idi/e
2you (singular)má/sa
3heso/wú
4wedini/eni
5you (plural)máni/sani
6theysoni/wúni
7thisukyâ
8thatukyot
9hereyit
10therewit
11whoyaná
12whatyaná (ask for thing)/yugâ (ask for predicate)
13whereyityīt
14whenyunon
15howgotru
16notrun
17allzánti
18manyni
19some
20fewvam
21othervatūt
22onegun
23twola
24threesūta
25fourlalā
26fivezīko
27bigwî-ka
28longton-gó
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickza-sayâ
31heavyyun-kôzu
32smallsi-yút
33shortet-yéya
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinun-yīn
36womanabōma
37man (adult male)uzúma
38man (human being)unsa
39childkuyō
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motheratsāzi
43fatherimânzi
44animalsiyut
45fishláyak
46birdsatyī
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeyizîsan
50wormfûnza
51treetamyū
52forestyūla
53stickfudônza
54fruityitánku
55seedsorēksa
56leafkinsan
57rootsasígi
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerturū
60grassdadôna
61ropetesōndu
62skinfasuk
63meatutgûko
64bloodyazē
65boneyívut
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggyōm
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailkikē
70feathertedū
71hairyatún
72headenva
73earanyá
74eyezuyó
75noseyêda
76mouthsúzo
77toothzankê
78tonguedatsū
79fingernailtōka
80footâmse
81legzáda
82kneekûse
83handsúya
84wingkasā
85bellytîsa
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckyisen
88backyāya
89breasttutsīt
90heartsaru
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hittatkan
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140saysonrū
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudazuta
161fogContionary_Wiki
162sky
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountaintána
172redda-rí
173greensôm-dot
174yellowen-ru
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki

Ukikū linguistic wordsEdit

Word Meaning
Yatāba CV syllable
Antána VC syllable
Gôntanu CVC syllable
Atyum first tone (neutral)
Tagán second tone (rising)
Konbā third tone (high)
Sumzâyu forth tone (rising and falling)
Abgónde first noun word class: abstract nouns
Somrēke second noun word class: inanimated
Yufuma third noun word class: animated
Yomkéta Ukikū writing system
Kutûban small sign added to an Ukikū character express different things
Gungáta Kutûban that turns a syllable into an only-vowel or only-consonant, shown with *
Fakûnya Kutûban that turns two syllables into one, shown with '
Īnita Kutûban that turns soft consonants into hard ones, shown with ~
Amkutínta Multiplier of ten
Gunâtso first part of an adjective/adverb
Lanâtso second part of an adjective/adverb

List of affixes and particlesEdit

Affix/Particle Meaning
-ni particle, shows plural
-la particle, shows dual
-m (-mu) particle, shows accusative
-k (-ku) particle, shows dative
-su particle, shows allative
-yi particle, shows ablative
-we particle, shows inessive
-zunu title (see titles)
-karū title (see titles)
-tú title (see titles)
-fazá title (see titles)
-gutsu title (see titles)
-gatyu title (see titles)
-e (-de) particle, 1st Ps.Sg.
-sa particle, 2nd Ps.Sg.
-wú particle, 3rd Ps.Sg.
-nun particle, 4th Ps.Sg.
-go particle, neutral imperative
-zi particle, polite imperative
-lin particle, neutral optative
-lun particle, polite optative
-pu particle, subjunctive I
-hi particle, subjunctive II
-run particle, negative
-wan particle, passive
pá- particle, medium (by-agent)
-gīm particle, comparative (adj./adv. ends in a vowel)
-urá particle, comparative (adj./adv. ends in a consonant)
-futû particle, superlative (adj./adv. ends in a vowel)
-ên particle, superlative (adj./adv. ends in a consonant)
-tâm particle, stress is on the subject (syntax)
támna create a question that can be answered with yes or no
-gón- noun belongs to class 1
-kâm- noun belongs to class 1
-suk- noun belongs to class 1
-tēm- noun belongs to class 1
-yan- noun belongs to class 2
-rēk- noun belongs to class 2
-dôn- noun belongs to class 2
-yim- noun belongs to class 2
-zut- noun belongs to class 2
-sōn- noun belongs to class 2
-tán- noun belongs to class 2
-fum- noun belongs to class 3
-bōm- noun belongs to class 3
-zúm- noun belongs to class 3
-hat- noun belongs to class 3
-tūn- noun belongs to class 3

Writing systemEdit

Ukikū uses its own writing system which is mostly used like a syllabary. It is called Yomkéta or, in English, Ukikū characters.

Yomkéta combinates each consonant with every vowel, so the easiest characters represent CV syllables. Addionally every vowel is combinated with every tone.

You can show bare vowels by adding a small sign (Kutûban) at a /h/ character. So "ha" turns into "a" and "hé" turns to "é" and so on. To show a only-consonant, add a Kutûban to a syllable which ends in "u". So "t" is shown as "tu*" with the Kutûban.

There are different types of Kutûbani: The one that turns syllables into only-vowels or only-consonants is called Gungáta and is represented with a *. Kutubâni that turn two syllables into own are called Fakûnya which are shown with a '. And at least, Kutûban that make consonants hard, are known as Īnita and shown with a ~.

That may seem like the character inventory has to be huge but there are a few rules which make it smaller: The phonemes /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/ and /f/ are only known as hard types of /b/, /d/, /g/, /z/ and /v/ so there exist no "own" characters for them. If you want to use a syllable including /p/ for instance, there is a small sign added to the /b/ character which makes it hard. So "ba" (or "be" etc.) turns to "pa" ("pe" etc.) by simply adding a sign. Simple CV syllables are called Yatāba.

There are also ways for expressing VC and CVC syllables. At first, VC syllables (Antána). They are created with two characters: First, a only-vowel character has to be created. Then, to add the consonant, create a only-consonant character and add a special Kutûban that says that both only-consonant and only-vowel belong to one syllable. Ex.: "ân" is created this way: hâ* + nu*'.

To create CVC syllables (Gôntanu), you have to add a only-consonant to a common CV character and add a Fakûnya ('). Ex.: rum = ru + mu'.

So, all in all, the character inventory is 240 characters large (12 consonants x 5 vowels x 4 tones) if this ones with added signs are not count.

More examples: Yatāba = ya + dâ~ + ba, Antána = Ha* + tá~*' + na, Gôntanu = gô + nu*' + da~ + nu

Example textEdit

Around Wikia's network

Random Wiki