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Now that you know a few simple usable phrases it might be more interesting in making your own sentences. So we will start with simple sentences containing only the subject and the verb.
As these concepts will be used alot through this course here is a description of them
Term Description Example Subject The entity in a
sentence doing the verb
Mary kissed john Verb The action in a sentence You kissed him Object Direct The thing that is directly
affected by the verb
I gave you a flower Indirect The entity that is indirectly
affected by the verb
I gave you a flower
A verb that only takes on a subject are known as intransitive verbs and as mentioned may only take subject and no direct object, though they can take indirect objects which will be discussed later.
# English Example 1 Mary fell 2 I walked 3 Steven whispered
Just a few examples of english ones, simple sentences indeed and that is what will be used here. But here is where the tricky stuff starts none the less.
In Umbrean nouns and names, yes even of people, are declined in accordance to their purpose in the sentence and in these examples the nouns would take on the "intransitive case", not that hard to guess now is it?
Down here is a list of the declension chart, reduced to only include the intransitive case to make it easier to read. Singular means its just one, paucal is a few and plural is many
The nouns meaning changes according ot the suffix which will tell if its defined or undefined ("an apple" vs "the apple"), singular, paucal or plural (an apple vs a few apples vs "many apples" and then what gender it is, gender does not refer to masculine or femenine like latin languages have but refer to the class which the noun belongs to. There is a system behind it which will be discused later.
Names do share alot with nouns in that they are declined with one exception, they are not declined in accordance to numbers (unless there really are more than one person in a group that have the same name), the gender choice there is more oftan than not rather arbitrary, the exception being naturally names that have a natural gender for some reason, and definitiveness marks politeness. Undefined form is less polite more casual while defined is used to be more polite about someone.
With some simple noun working let's form a sentence. "Lyom" is a verb meaning "to fall" as in the gravity is causing you to fall, "adwia" means water, H2O and is of the Magical gender class, now how is that put out?
Umbrean Example adwijo loymaömavy adwijo loymaömavy Adwi- -jo lyom- -aöm- -avy
The top shows it all put togather, second row is the individual words and the third everything is split up into its various units of information which we will explain here.
Adwi- can be seen as the root of the noun for water where the a at the end merely marks its gender.
-jo which is placed on the noun root and can only be used for magical nouns. It detonates it is plural, water is a mass noun as you cannot say "a water" without adding some form of item the water modifies somehow and all massnouns are treated in plural form no matter what, defined form and it is intransitive case, it acts alone in the verb.
Lyom- means as already said "to fall", but it is only the root word and is conjugated according to person, tense and role which is taken care by 2 suffixes working togather, -aöm indicates it is present continuing, as it is currently happening. while -av'y indicates it is 3 person singular and is placed on intransitive (or ambitransitive verbs when they are taking intransitive roles) and marks third person singular.
0% Irregular Intransitive Conjunction Singular Puacal Plural 1st Person -ikhi -ëffi -bla 2nd Person -dja -üta -dëë 3rd Person -avy -evi -shy
All combined it means "The water is falling"
Lets use the same verb but have "adam" being the one falling, Adam can take on any gender so lets say its artificial so its adamy, and as the lst part of the sentence have already been explained it wont be done again here.
Umbrean Example Adamyk loymaömavy Adamyk loymaömavy adam- -yk loymaömavy
Adam- is rather naturally just Adam
-yk is the gender marker for artificial undefined, intransitive case and singular, as it is undefined it is rather casual talking about adam, as he is my friend or that i dont have respect for him. if one wanted to add respect it would have been -yv'o instead
Countable nouns are things one can count, one flower, two flowers and so on. For now we will only deal with 1 of the sort and use the word cynu which is finger.
It is declined accordingly to all parameters mentioned earlier, a table will display the various meanings for the intransitive case, all cases means the same its just where they are placed in the sentence that changes then.
Word Suffix Meaning cynul -ul a finger cynuv -uv a few fingers cynur -ur fingers cynlu -lu the finger cynuly -uly the few fingers cynure -ure the fingers
as seen the suffix tells quite alot and is formed the same as previously mentioned cases. paucal/a few usually means the amount you can count instantly without sitting down counting one by one or grouping, usually between two to six, some can go as high as 9 but thats rare. Usually after 6 they use plural case but there is no exact limit where paucal ends adn plural begins.
One may also notice that there is no indefined article, you just say cynul for a finger, nothing before
The umbrean nouns come in four genders/noun classes as already mentioned. They are usually distinguished by their ending vowel. They come in the shape of [Stem][Gender vowel] where the stem is only used for all the suffixed while the gender vowel is left out then
Gender Vowel example Magical a adwia Living u döndiu Non-moving ü Artificial y Lyyoxy
Intransitive Verb ListEdit
Umbrean Meaning Lyom To fall