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So now one knows how to make a very simple sentence, just a subject and the verb. That's all good but how much can be expressed by it? Well alot if its done right but thats for later lessons.
For now we shall move onto transitive verbs which takes on an object aswell, lets check the table from before again.
Term Description Example Subject The entity in a
sentence doing the verb
Mary kissed john Verb The action in a sentence You kissed him Object Direct The thing that is directly
affected by the verb
I gave you a flower Indirect The entity that is indirectly
affected by the verb
I gave you a flower
There are two types of objects but we will only use the direct one, indirect is for later lessons.
While in many languages if you know how the subject is said in intransitive verbs you know it for transitive aswell.
That is unfortunately not the case in Umbrean, in intransitive verbs it takes on the intransitive case, which is a no brainer hearing the names, but in transitive verbs it takes the ergative case.
One hear that the subject of both cases takes different cases and the direct object have also its own case called accusative case and it all need to be done properly.
Lets show it below using the word döndiu meaning "tooth"
Case name Noun declension Suffix English example Umbrean example Intransitive Döndiul -ul A tooth fell Döndiul loymaömavy Ergative Döndiudh -udh a tooth hit him Döndiudh anian novaömaz Accusative Döndiuf -uf He hit a tooth Omi döndiuf novaömaz
This of course is merely singular undefined form of each case shown there but it demonstrates in each case it takes a different form to deal with its part in the sentence. But lets get on with the real sentence now
Now let us add the object after the verb and get things started. Not really, one cannot do that in Umbrean without sounding completely insane, the verb comes at the end of the sentence. It is known as an SOV language, lets demonstrate the differens below in english
John ate the apple SOV language
John the apple ate
and here is the sentence from before with the tooth split up and analyzed for information so you can clearly see it is an SOV language.
Döndiudh anian novaömza Döndiudh anian novaömaz Döndi- -udh anian nov'- -aöm- -az Tooth Living
sbj: 3P sg
obj: 3P sg
A tooth is hitting him
As one can see it clearly places the subject (ergative case) before the object (accusative case) which is then followed by the verb. So if one can wrap their head around that things will get alot easier as it does remind of old english in that sense. something to be careful about is that the ending on the verb here is different from before aswell as it is now agreeing to both the subject and the object, check here to see it in greater detail which to use when
Here is a simple little thing to look at how to construct these simple sentences with what case to use and what placement along it all it should be placed
Verb Tense marker
To know the endings to use in those cases i recomend going here as it would take too much space here.
It should be said that Umbrean is picky due to its grammar that the object ot ransitive verbs always present
Transitive Verb listEdit
Umbrean Meaning Subject Object Nov To punch
The one being