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Now you should know how to do a sentence containing only the subject (Intransitive verb) and both subject and object (Transitive verbs) but that is still not enough to cover them all, dont sigh, this one isnt nearly as bad as the transition between the previous two.
As what could be seen in the second lesson there were two forms of objects, direct and indirect object. Here we go through the indirect object and how to add it to already existing sentences.
The indirect object is an object that is indirectly affected by the verb, for example:
Johan gave her a flower
now why would "her" be the indirect object? how would one know when it is placed directly after the verb? Simple, the giving is done by johan and what is given? The flower is given hence it is directly affected by johans act of giving, "her" is indirectly affected by it as the flower is given to her. it can also be seen as it can take the form of
Johan gave a flower to her
as its clearly seen the indirect object can be substituted by a prepositional phrase "to her". In many old languages (and others still do) it is done by a case called "dative case", it is a case that is meant to replace "to X" and in english it used to but is now long gone. In Umbrean they have the dative case but it doesn't only use for the "To X" case but every time an indirect object is used. While in english it is uncommon it is present in a verb naturally without prepositions it is quite common in Umbrean verbs.
Let us start showing by using it in an intransitve verb
We shall again use the "Loym" verb.
Umbrean Example Döndilu loymösavy The tooth fell
Thats all nice and well, a tooth is falling. But what if one wants to say it fell onto something? the word for onto or on something is "az", it may also be used to describe into something as into bunch of balls, into water etc. The placement of it in the comming example is rather odd for most and wont be explained here but in a later lesson along with its inflection.
Umbrean Example Döndilu adwijo azvai loymösavy The tooth fell into the water
This could be said and be perfectly valid, but it is completely unneccisery. When one fall its always either into something or onto something. So the postposition is not used, one would simply say
Umbrean Example Döndilu adwijo loymösavyël The tooth fell into the water
and leave the azvai out as it is built into the verb that the indirect object is what you fall into/onto. What is falling is indirectly affecting the indirect object by falling onto/into it, many verbs have like this and what the indirect object is/do/contribute differ and is something to just remember.
Another thing to notice is the addition of -ël at the end of the vowel which is an agreement with the indirect object, in this case it is just third person plural as water is treated as plural.
What about with transitive verbs? How would one do it with these? Exacly the same except the indirect object is placed before the direct object, like here in this example with Nov where indirect object marks the thing that is used to hit or punch with.
Süün döndiau gnidja novösumuögs Süün döndiau gnidja novösumuögs Süün döndi- -au gnidja nov- -ös- -umu- ögs 1p sg Tooth undefined
2p sg to hit past
sbj: 1p sg
obj: 2p sg
dat: 3p sg I hit you with a tooth I hit you using a tooth
as you can see just like before you add a fitting ending to the verb which comes after the initial agreement ending and direct object comes before the indirect one while all of them is before the verb. Not too hard once one get to know it.
Umbrean Meaning Subject Direct
Nov' To punch
The one being
Item used to
hit or punch with
Lyom To fall The thing falling whats fallen