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While you probably by now know how to construct basic sentences there havent been good discussion in depth with the nouns and pronouns, that will be done here
Nouns have various subdivision of classes but also forms they can take them on. I shall try describing them here as well as possible.
These properties affects the declension of the noun
Definitiveness often refers to if the object in question have been mentioned earlier or is being brought into the conversation.
Definitiveness Explination Example Defined The object have
been talked about previously
The car Undefined The object is being
brought into the conversation
As seen here in english it is seperated by an article, a/an is the indefinite article while the is the defined.
An example, "I saw a car drive by, later the car hit him", the "the" in the second part refers back to the first one as it has already been mentioned
In umbrean this is marked through a serie of ending that differ on various things.
Those who are familiar with noun gender from english will think of the romance languages feminine and masculine noun classes, but german have those two along with neuter. Swedish have Common gender and neuter, other languages have even more division. Gender in language is simply a way of dividing nouns up into several groups, english have none of the sort. The gender can determine alot of things, like in german what definite article is done, how adjectives are treated and more.
Gender Spanish example English Masculine Gato Cat Feminine Casa House
In these languages the choice is rather arbitrary and reflect in no manner the object in question. In umbrean there are four genders, Magical, Non-Moving, Living and Artificial.
These genders are not arbitrary but reflect a certain property the object have and is subject to a hierarchy of the choice. The nouns contain a root and upon that root the gender vowel is added to mark its gender while in declension it is removed.
Gender Defining trait Ending Example English 1 Living The object in question is
alive or related to the living
-u Döndiu Tooth 2 Artificial The object is constructed, created or
manifactured by an intelligent being
-y Lyyokhsy Table 3 Magical It is neither living nor artificial yet
seem to be able to move somehow or
possess magical traits
-a Adwia Water 4 Non-moving Object cant move on its own and matches
none of the other classes
ó **** ****
Few things can fall into multiple genders but if thats the case the most obvious feature or dominant feature that fit a gender is the one it falls into. In Umbrean the gender distinction is quite important and controls alot of the morphology
Numbers of course, as the very name implies, discuss the number or amount of something. In english you have just 2 of them, these two.
Number Example Singular One Apple Plural Two apples
thats all english have, umbrean have one category more called "paucal" which means "a few" and is defined as "The amount one can instantly percieve without counting". As one can figure it has no solid stop and can stop at 5 for some all the way up to 9 for others.
Number Example English Singular Döndiudh a tooth Paucal Döndiuhse Few teeth Plural Döndiul Many teeth
Cases are ways for a noun to change phonologicly to accomidate a certain meaning, english have three cases of which only one is truley used on nouns, Genetive case.
Umbrean is richer in that in the way it has 4 cases used constantly on everything. But its cases only gives grammatical roles, if it does something, if its done to it, if it acts alone, was it indirectly affected and such by the verb. There is no genitive case as such. Here is a description of the cases:
Case Description Intransitive The actor when it acts on its own without
affecting something else directly
Ergative The actor when it affects something else
through the verb
Accusative The thing on which the actor acts on Dative The object which is indirectly affected
by the actor
Mass or QuantitativeEdit
One fancy word and once small one, no the "mass" part does not mean the words are big, long or have a heavy weight in real life, I´ll explain it here.
Mass nouns refer to objects that cannot be quantified by numbers and only by some other unit of measurement. For example in english you cannot say "I have two waters" or "The two hairs i saw were horrible". Because they are mass nouns, you put in water usually liter or weight unit along with it and hair is most often owned by someone.
Quantitative nouns can on the other hand be, "One apple" "two apples" they do not need a unit for them but can use them anyway.
Type Description Example Countable Can be counted individually Apples Mass Cannot be counted without the use of units Water
Pro-nouns are nouns meant to replace other ones typicly by refering to a previously stated item, an english example would be "The food was great, but it did come late". The personal pronouns, the mostly used ones, are such as "I" "we" etc. A table below will show ones from real languages but one can go Here
English Spanish Swedish Singular First I Yo Jag Second You Tú Du Third He/She/it Ello/Ella/Él Han/Hon/Den/Det Plural First We Nosotros Vi Second You Vosotros Ni Third Them Ustedes Dem
Umbrean is a pro-drop language and it means that one can drop out the pronouns both in the subject and objects.
With pronouns Süün gnidja döndiau novaömñumuögs Without pronouns Döndiau novaömñumuögs I hit you with a tooth With pronouns Süün gnidja noviaömñumuögs Without pronouns noviaömñumuör I hit you with it/him/her