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Name: [[]]



Head Direction:

Number of genders:

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No



p b t d ch j k g e
m n ny ng o
w s y h u
r ë (between Portuguese [â] and a schwa)


Basic GrammarEdit


at hand he
near visible wo
remote visible ai

near non-visible ëndé ('de)
indistinct non-visible ëmmë ('më)
remote non-visible ombú ('bu)



im [im], [um] after syllables with [a]

PLURAL always modifies the first component of the noun phrase, and is an invariable -ia. Ex: 'Bu-ia heja, "The houses we can't see". He kántu, "This book within my reach". Kida 'ndé-ia kántu?, "Where are those books [they must be nearby but I can't find them]?". He ko he-ia kantú!, "Here are the books! [In the place within my reach, are the books within my reach"]. Kida um kántu???, "Where is that damn book??? [I have been looking and looking and can't find the friggin' book and maybe I never will- where is it???]". Kida um-ia kántu??? "Where are those damn books???"

Um Ëropa, 'bu-ia heja olodúr. Um USA, 'më-ia heja olodú-mindár. (In Europe, houses (we can't see and are far away from) are old. In the USA, houses (we can't see) are not old.) Adjectives can be used without a copula, but must take the suffix -r, pronounced as in English or Mandarin. As part of an adjective phrase, the plural shifts to the demonstrative, the uninflected adjective precedes the noun, and the noun takes a different suffix -r indicating that it is a modified noun.

Adjectives are negated by taking the root form, adding -mindë/-mindár depending on the construction (-mindë is attributive, -mindár is predicative). Pëna-mindë púmar = Not a big man. Ai púma pëna-mindár. = That man over there is not big.

That is, there are two suffixes -r. When it appears after a noun, it means the noun is modified. When it appears after an adjective it means the adjective is being used as a predicate.

Wo-ia heja olodúr. = These houses are old.

Wo-ia heja pënar. = These houses are big.

Wo-ia olodú hejar. = These old houses.

Wo-ia pëna hejar. = These big houses.

Wo-ia olodú hejar pënar. = These old houses are big.

Wo-ia pëna hejar olodúr. = These big houses are old.

Wo-ia pënang olodú hejar. = These big old houses. (The suffix [-ng] or [-eng] is used to link adjectives, like "and".)

Wo-ia heja pënareng olodúr. = These houses are big and old.

Common nouns cannot appear without modifying morphemes. That is "*heja" cannot constitute a phrase on its own. It must be heja-wan = a house, heja-ia = houses, wo heja = this here house in sight, 'më heja = a certain house around, im heja = that damn house, im pëna-mindë hejar = that damn too small house (not big, in a frustrating way).


Transitive and intransitive verbs are inflected differently. Intransitive verbs are inflected for gender and number, and tense is marked in an auxiliary that does not show person or number. Transitive verbs are marked for tense directly, but not for gender or number; these are indicated by the pronouns.

pámbu. = basic

pámbutas (ms). pámbuta. (fs) - present (active)

pámbutai (mp). pámbunnë. (fp) - present (active)

pámbutë (n.)

pámbulas (ms). pámbula (fs). - present (passive)

pámbulai (mp). pámburnë (fp). - present (passive)

pámbulë (n.)

min [am] pámbutas. = I write/I am writing (m)

min [am] pámbuta. = I write/I am writing (f)

kántu-wan [am] pámbulë. = a book is written.

min pambutër kantú-ia. = I write books.

min pambú kantú-wan. = I wrote a book.

pambú. (perfect)

pambutër. (imperfect)

jína = love.

min jinatër kai.

mi- mëwër-

wi- ur-

de- dëyër-

-ëm -egëm

-au -egu

-ing -ing (obj)/-rining (personal)

Miau jína! I love you.

Ming pámbu kántu-wan. I-it write.PERF book-one. I wrote a book.

Ming pámbutër kántu-ia. I-it write.IMPERF book-pl. I write books.

Wiegëm umpundátër. You speak to us. Wiegëm umpúnda. You spoke to us. Wiegëm ta umpúnda. You will speak to us.


Example textEdit

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