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Upper Fnórric

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Name: Upper Fnórric

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction: Final (occasionally initial)

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General informationEdit

The Upper Fnórric language (Fnórric Latin: Lô bismô fnorazô tořak, pronounced [ˈlo ˈbismo fnɒˈʁazo tɒˈʁak]) is the main language spoken on the island of Upper Fnorát, in the country of Kihāmát. It is recognised as the island's official regional language. It is very closely related to the neighbouring island's language, Lower Fnórric, which has slightly fewer speakers. An inflected fusional nominative-accusative language, Upper Fnórric has two numbers, two genders and eight cases. The language belongs to the isolated Panlaffic language family, indigenous to the country's eight islands.

Phonology and orthographyEdit

Upper Fnórric can be written in either both traditional Panlaffic script or in the Standardised Romanised Panlaffic Alphabet. For ease of use the Romanised alphabet is used below.

ConsonantsEdit

P p : [p] voiceless bilabial plosive

L l : [l] alveolar lateral approximant, [ɫ] velarised alveolar lateral approximant (before another consonant)

M m : [m] bilabial nasal, [ɱ] labiodental nasal (before f and v)

N n : [n] alveolar nasal, [ŋ] velar nasal (before g and k)

D d : [d] voiced alveolar plosive

H h : [h] voiceless glottal fricative, [ɦ] voiced glottal fricative (before y and between two vowels)

Ȟ ȟ : [ç] voiceless palatal fricative

K k : [k] voiceless velar plosive

Ǩ ǩ : [x] voiceless velar fricative

R r : [ɹ] alveolar approximant (at the start of a word), [ɾ] alveolar tap

Ř ř : [ʁ] voiced uvular fricative

B b : [b] voiced bilabial plosive, [β] voiced bilabial fricative (between two vowels)

Þ þ : [θ] voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative, [ð] voiced dental non-sibilant fricative

V v : [ʋ] labiodental approximant

Z z : [z] voiced alveolar fricative

Ž ž : [ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar fricative

F f : [f] voiceless labiodental fricative

G g : [ɡ] voiced velar plosive, [ɣ] voiced velar fricative (between two vowels)

S s : [s] voiceless alveolar sibilant

Š š : [ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar fricative

Č č : [t͡ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar affricate

T t : [t] voiceless alveolar plosive

Y y : [j] palatal approximant

VowelsEdit

A a : [a] open front unrounded vowel

Ā ā : [ɑː] long open back unrounded vowel

E e : [ɛ] open-mid front unrounded vowel, [e] close-mid front unrounded vowel (at the end of a word)

O o : [ɒ] open back rounded vowel

Ô ô : [o] close-mid back rounded central vowel

Ō ō : [ɔː] long open-mid back rounded vowel, [ɔ] open-mid back rounded vowel

I I : [ɪ] near-close near-front unrounded vowel

Ī ī : [iː] long close front unrounded vowel

U u : [ʊ] near-close near-back rounded vowel

Û û : [u] close back rounded vowel

Ū ū : [uː] long close back rounded vowel, [u] close back rounded vowel

PhonotacticsEdit

LY ly : [ʎ] palatal lateral approximant

NY ny : [ɲ] palatal nasal

DZ dz : [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate

DS ds : [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate

DŽ dž : [d͡ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar affricate

KG kg : [kː] geminated voiceless velar plosive

GK gk : [gː] geminated voiced velar plosive

TZ tz : [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate

TS ts : [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate

AlphabetEdit

Coat of Arms (transparent)

The Kihā́mmic Coat of Arms

All the Panlaffic languages have traditionally been written in the Panlaffic alphabet, Upper Fnórric using a specific variant, but nowadays chiefly due to the Internet the Romanised alphabet is gaining use. Unlike in Kihā́mmic the stresses of words are not indicated with stress marks.

Panlaffic alphabetEdit

The Panlaffic alphabet is a true alphabet. An example of its use is on the Coat of Arms of Kihāmát (left). The word on the scroll spells "Kihāmát" in the Kihā́mmic variant of the alphabet. Though the alphabet formerly had both majuscule and minuscule cases, only the majuscule is now generally used and the minuscule is no longer used at all in any official context.

Romanised alphabetEdit

P L A Ā M N E D H Ȟ K Ǩ O Ô Ō R Ř B Þ I Ī V Z Ž F G S Š Č U Û Ū T Y
p l a ā m n e d h ȟ k ǩ o ô ō r ř b þ i ī v z ž f g s š č u û ū t y



Basic grammarEdit

OverviewEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No Yes Yes


CasesEdit

There are eight cases in the Upper Fnórric language:

  1. Nominative
  2. Accusative
  3. Genitive
  4. Ablative
  5. Allative (or dative-allative)
  6. Instrumental
  7. Prepositional
  8. Vocative

NounsEdit

Nouns have two genders: masculine and feminine; two numbers: singular and plural; and are declined according to case.

MasculineEdit

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