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Utagasvrimahi

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300
Utakṣurmahi
Utak-ṣvṛ-mahi
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative - Accusative
Head direction
Yes
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3 (12 Classes).
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Utakṣurmahi is High-God-Speak, a language that the sages and monks worked together to create that would closely emulate the pure sounds and feelings found in every human. It would serve to preserve and enlighten the people who would speak it - half of its words are devoted to meditation, philosophy and dharmic teachings. The other half is focused on emotion and words of every day usage. 

This language is designed to be the primordial language before the catalysm that destroyed the land of its speakers before spreading around the world of Askāla in the form of various Jamahī. (daughter languages/dialects).

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Plosive p, b t, d t, d ʈ, ɖ c, ɟ k, g
Fricative ɸ. β f s, z ʃ, ʒ ʂ ç x h
Affricate pʰ, bʰ ʦ, tʰ, dʰ ʧ, ʤ ʈʂ, ʈʰ, ʰ cçʰ, ɟʰ kʰ, gʰ
Approximant ʋ j
Trill r
Flap or tap
Lateral fric. ɬ, ɮ
Lateral app. l ɭ ɫ
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close ʊ
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open-mid
Near-open ɐ ʌ
Open ɑ

AlphabetEdit

Plosives: p, b, t, d, .ț, ḑ, c, j, k, g;

Aspirated: ph, bh, th, dh, țh, ḑh, ch, jh, kh, gh

Sibilants: f, s, z, ś, ș, x, h

Liquids: v, l/ḷ, r, y

Nasals: m, n, ņ, ń, ñ

Vowels: a, i, u, r, e, o, ā, ī, ū, ai, au

PhonotacticsEdit

1. Plosives - aspirated versions cannot be followed by /l/ or /n/. Exceptions:

  • chla (watch liam), khla (act late), khna (ask not), 
  • ghla (English), ghna (big name)

2. Nasals: Can only combine with suffixed plosives (aspirated included) in nucleus. If in coda, a vowel must follow unless it is /ns/ or /m/. /ns/ will match /s/ with unvoiced consonants, otherwise it will match /n/ with the voiced version. Eg: 

  • Vrama sanas (no change) - He is a dog / a dog - he is. (SBJ)
  • Vrams sanas > Vrãn sanas (nasal-matching) - He be(comes) a dog. (ACC sg)
  • Vrams jayasas > Vrãń jayanas (nasal-matching) - You know about the dog. (ACC sg)
  • Vrāns ṇara > Vrā ṇara (matching) - Remove the dogs. (ACC sg)
  • Vrānh cayatāh > Vrā cayatāh (matching) - They like dogs. (ACC pl)
  • Vrānh ḍharanas > Vrā ḍharanas (matching) - He seeks dogs. (ACC pl)

3. Sibilants: Can combine with unvoiced plosives, nasals and liquids, prefix or suffix. But retroflexes cannot combine with dentals and vice versa. NB: 

  • /h/ is seen as a fricative in coda, yet has inherent rules of sibilants although it cannot combine with aspirated plosives prefixwise while retaining its integrity.
  • Before voiceless consonants /h/ in coda will change to become any of the 4 sibilants (f, s, sh, zh) depending on where the tongue will be. As for voiced consonants, it will change to an /r/ if not next to dentals or even be dropped out depending on Sandhi. Eg:
    • lah dura > lo dura (rounding), avah a > ava ṭa (matching), nih vana > nir vana (adjusting)
    • lāh varā > lā varā (elliding), avauh ca > avauś ca (matching), adhyāh usta > adhyār usta (adjusting)
  • /s/ - The same applies here as well, especially in coda. Except /s/ changes to /l/ if next to any voiced consonant or vowel. Eg:
    • las+dura > lal dura (voicing), avas ṭa > avata (matching), uris rana > uri rana (elliding due to r)

4. Liquids: 

  • /av/ > /o/, but /āv/ > /au/ unless followed by another vowel. Exception: /au/ + /u/ > [āb u].
  • /ay/ > /e/, but /āy/ > /ai/ unless followed by another vowel. Exception: /ai/ + /i/ > [ār i].
  • /r/ before any dental consonant retroflexes them. Including /l/ (becomes ḷ). This effect gets cancelled if an ā vowel appears anywhere after.

5. Vowels: 

  • ~u, ~i in coda or in morpheme boundary, if followed by a dissimilar vowel, will change to (v, y). Eg:
    • Tāni abumāh > Tāny abumāh (We moved them people)
    • Asu ātarya > Asv ātarya (One of many)
  • ~a in coda is unchangeable even if a vowel follows.


Grammar

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adverb Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


1. Nouns - fall into the 2 male/2 female classes, as well as the 8 neuter classes. They are also declined according to case and number, as seen in the tables below: (the upper is singular form, the lower plural form)

Gender Class root SBJ DAT VOC INESS ACC GEN ORIG INSTR TILL
masc #1Edit
~uEdit
~usEdit
~ūhEdit
~vasEdit
~ubah Edit
~vimEdit
~ubinEdit
~osEdit
~vohEdit
~amsEdit
~vansEdit
~etEdit
~vetEdit
~yumEdit
~vyun/urunEdit
~yatEdit
~vyet, uretEdit
~itEdit
~vitEdit
masc #2Edit
~oEdit
~osEdit
~auhEdit
~avasEdit
~āvahEdit
~avimEdit
~āvinEdit
~ausEdit
~erauhEdit
~āmsEdit
~eransEdit
~aitEdit
~eraitEdit
~erumEdit
~airunEdit
~ayatEdit
~airatEdit
~etEdit
~aitEdit
fem #1Edit
Edit
~āsEdit
~yāhEdit
~esEdit
~yaihEdit
~aumEdit
~yaunEdit
~ayasEdit
~yayahEdit
~emsEdit
~yensEdit
~erutEdit
~yerutEdit
~avamEdit
~yavanEdit
~avitEdit
~yavitEdit
~otEdit
~yotEdit
fem #2Edit
~iEdit
~isEdit
~īhEdit
~yusEdit
~iruhEdit
~yamEdit
~iranEdit
~visEdit
~ivihEdit
~umsEdit
~yunsEdit
~vatEdit
~ivatEdit
~emEdit
~yenEdit
~otEdit
~yotEdit
~atEdit
~yatEdit

Neuter Class

Meaning root SBJ DAT VOC INESS ACC GEN ORIG INSTR TILLK
neut #1 Edit
GenericEdit
~aEdit
~asEdit
~āhEdit
~esEdit
~aihEdit
~omEdit
~aunEdit
~yasEdit
~ayahEdit
~imsEdit
~ensEdit
~irutEdit
~erutEdit
~vamEdit
~avanEdit
~vitEdit
~avitEdit
~utEdit
~otEdit
neut #2Edit
Physical PlaceEdit
~anEdit
~asEdit
~ānuhEdit
~ānasEdit
~āluhEdit
~adhamEdit
~arāniEdit
~esEdit
~esaihEdit
~amsEdit
~ānihEdit
~asnatEdit
~āsutEdit
~etramEdit
~etrāniEdit
~enatEdit
~enaihEdit
~entatEdit
~esnauhEdit
neut #3Edit
Spiritual PlaceEdit
~aṇ/ṛEdit
~aṣuEdit
~āṇuhEdit
~aṇāsEdit
~āruhEdit
~aḍhamEdit
~aryāṇiEdit
~erusEdit
~eṣaihEdit
~amsEdit
~āṇihEdit
~aṣṇatEdit
~aṣṇutEdit
~eṭramEdit
~eḍrāṇiEdit
~eṇatEdit
~eṇaihEdit
~eṇTatEdit
~eSṇauhEdit
neut #4Edit
AnimaEdit
~abEdit
~amaEdit
~āmihEdit
~āvaEdit
~āvihEdit
~abhaEdit
~abhrāhEdit
~evaEdit
~evaihEdit
~amfEdit
~ānsEdit
~avyaEdit
~āvīhEdit
~ebhaEdit
~ebhrāhEdit
~emaEdit
~emaihEdit
~empaEdit
~empaihEdit
neut #5Edit
Demon-strativeEdit
~atEdit
~anaEdit
~ānihEdit
~ālaEdit
~ālihEdit
~adhaEdit
~adhyāhEdit
~elaEdit
~elaihEdit
~amsEdit
~ānsEdit
~asyaEdit
~āsihEdit
~edhaEdit
~edhyāhEdit
~enaEdit
~enaihEdit
~entaEdit
~entaihEdit
neut #6 Edit
PronounEdit
~adEdit
~auEdit
~anāhEdit
~āyaEdit
~arāhEdit
Edit
~ayāhEdit
~eEdit
~esuEdit
~amsEdit
~ānsEdit
~avaEdit
~āvihEdit
~edhaEdit
~edhyāhEdit
~enaEdit
~enaihEdit
~entaEdit
~entaihEdit
neut #7Edit
TemporalEdit
~aḍEdit
~aṇaEdit
~āṇihEdit
~āraEdit
~ārihEdit
~aḍhaEdit
~aḍhyāhEdit
~eraEdit
~eraihEdit
~amṣEdit
~arṇuEdit
~aṣyaEdit
~arṣihEdit
~eḍhaEdit
~eḍhyāhEdit
~eṇaEdit
~eṇaihEdit
~eṇṭaEdit
~eṇṭaihEdit
neut #8Edit
NumericalEdit
~acEdit
~ańjaEdit
~ajńihEdit
~āyaEdit
~aihEdit
~ajhaEdit
~ajhyāhEdit
~eryaEdit
~eryauhEdit
~amśEdit
~aińiEdit
~aśyaEdit
~āśihEdit
~ejhaEdit
~ejhyāhEdit
~eńaEdit
~eńauhEdit
~eńcaEdit
~eńchauhEdit
neut #9Edit
AbstractEdit
~akEdit
~anga Edit
~agnihEdit
~āhaEdit
~ahāhEdit
~aghaEdit
~aghrāhEdit
~eyaEdit
~eyauhEdit
~amhEdit
~āñhEdit
~akhyaEdit
~ākhihEdit
~eghaEdit
~eghrāh Edit
~eñaEdit
~eñauhEdit
~enkaEdit
~enkauhEdit


Phew, that was quite a monster chart of noun cases - not to fret, once you get the hang of it, it's actually really easy. First though lets focus on how cases are used in Utakṣurmahi. I will only use the Masculine #1 (~u) in these examples, to show how ~s sandhi works with verbless sentences. 

  • Dalus dalkus > Dalul dalkus - the man is a boy. 
  • Dalet patul ghit > Dalet patul ghitus - The man's leg is thick. (~it adjectives get affixed with suffixes, becoming ~itus(h)  itul(a) for masculine nouns in sg
  • Pakus abit yapkṣantus > Paku'l abitul' yankṣantus - Feather is long bird-hair (plosive sandhi cluster nasalizing rule)
  • Dalus dalvas sana > Dalul dalvas sana - The man exists for the boy.
  • Dalus sava dalkam narana > Dalus sava dalkãn narana - The man sees his boy.


Here we are introduced to two new rules - the internal plosive sandhi and the ~it adjective.

For the internal plosive sandhi rule, depending on the situation, 

  1. Nasalization: (eg: ~d + ṭha > ~ṇṭha, ~ad+kha > ~ankha) [~vP1+P2s = ~nP2s]
  1. Ellision: (eg: ~k + ṣṭa > ~ṣṭa, ~c + spa  > ~spa) [P1+sP2 = ~hP2]
  1. Assimilation: (eg: ~t+ṭha > ~ṭṭha, exceptions: ~b+dha > bdha) [P1+P2 = P2P2s]

As for the ~it adjective, you simply get the adjective root, and affix whatever you had for the noun (including case and plurality) onto the adjective. Using 'small fish' (kit vab; ~ab neuter) in all 9 cases: 

  • SBJ: kit vama > kitama vama; PL: kidāmih vāmih > kidāmir vāmih (h > r v-sandhi)
  • DAT: kit vāva > kitāva vāva; PL: kidāvih vāvih > kidāvir vāvih (h > r v-sandhi)
  • VOC: kit vabha > kitabha vabha; PL: kidabhrāh vabhrāh > kidabhrā vabhrāh (āh v-sandhi h-ellision)
  • INESS: kit veva > kiteva veva; PL: kidevaih vevaih > kidevair vevaih (h > r v-sandhi)
  • ACC: kit vams > kitam vams; PL: kidāns vāns > kidān vāns (v-sandhi s-ellision)
  • GEN: kit vavya > kitavya vavya; PL: kidāvīh vāvīh > kidāvir vāvih (h > r v-sandhi)
  • ORIG: kit vebha > kitebha vebha; PL: kidebhrā vebhrāh > kidebhrā vebhrāh (ā v-sandhi h-ellision)
  • INSTRU: kit vema > kitema vema; PL: kidemaih vemaih > kidemair vemaih (h > r v-sandhi)
  • TILL: kit vempa > kitempa vempa; PL: kidepaih vepaih > kidepair vepaih (h > r v-sandhi)

Note that the ~it changes to ~id in the plural versions. This is to highlight plurality by voicing. Also note the sandhi here is very similar to Sanskrit Visarga Sandhi rules. (v-sandhi refers to voiced-sound-in-next-word-sandhi rule)

==


No. English Utagasvrimahi
1Iahad
2you (singular)tvad
3hesu
4wenad
5you (plural)vad
6theytad (pl)
7thissad
8thattad
9herese
10therete
11whokad
12whatkam
13whereke, kekha
14whenkak, keha
15howkena, keska
16notna
17allomnak, om~
18manyāmak
19someāyak
20fewāvak
21othervyak, vi~
22onelac
23twovac
24threevalac
25fourrac
26fiveralac
27bigolak
28longovak
29widephak
30thickghak
31heavygvak
32smallkak
33shortśak
34narrowśvak
35thinślak
36womanasā, manā
37man (adult male)asu, manu
38man (human being)șa, aha
39childkanaha
40wifetaitā
41husbandtaitu
42motherkhaitā
43fatherkhaitu
44animalab, akṣab
45fishvab, vakṣab
46birdaikṣab, yakṣab
47dogṣakṣap, vrab
48lousemilab
49snakesalab
50wormkasalab
51treeukṣan
52forestāsukṣan
53stickukṣanka
54fruitukṣańjā
55seedukṣańjāka
56leafukṣantu
57rootsukṣanpatā
58barkukṣanga
59flowerukṣanju
60grasspalān
61ropetaiva
62skinsanga
63meatkṣarvā
64bloodvarā
65boneralā
66fatravā
67egg
68hornju
69tailpaku
70featheryatu, aitu
71hairkṣantu
72headsukṣatu
73earhānatā, ākṣātu
74eyerānatā, rakṣātā
75noselānatā, laksātu, ńakṣātu
76mouthhāvatā, hakṣātā, vakṣātu
77toothraunu, ralākṣātu, takṣātu
78tonguevānatā, takṣātu, yakṣātu
79fingernailraḷākṣātu
80footpatā
81legpatu
82kneetaikṣāta
83handustā
84wingyatu
85bellyratā
86gutsantratā
87neckhata
88backstata
89breastyatu
90heartyatā
91liverpuratā
92drinkvāva
93eatrāva
94bitetāra
95suckbūra
96spitsphūra
97vomitghūra
98blowhūra
99breathehaya
100laughhaha
101seerāra
102hearhāra
103knowjhaya, bhava
104thinkbhava, maha
105smellmala
106fearkara, agnaya
107sleepyala, kahala
108livebhala
109diehala
110killbhara
111fightbhala
112huntdala
113hitdara
114cutkara
115splitgara
116stabkhara, stava
117scratchralya
118digstūbhala
119swimulava, uvara
120flyyava, ivama
121walkcara, talava
122comekama
123lielastava
124sitpava
125standsustava
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallgvala
128givedaya
129holdlapha
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rublara
132washhava
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullsvalava
135pushilava
136throwdara
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140saymaha
141singvamaha
142playhava
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowvaya
145freezevala
146swellyara
147sunsvahu
148moonsvahā
149starvisvahu, kasvahu, așa
150watervāka
151rainvāyu, vachu
152rivervāru
153lakevālā
154seabhālā
155saltbhālākā
156stonelākā
157sandvalā
158dustyalā
159earthlā, olā, Malā
160cloudvayā
161fogpabhayā
162skyāyā
163windyava
164snowalvāka
165icealvā
166smokerayu
167firerau
168ashrālā
169burnraya
170roadvibhu
171mountainstalā
172redlarāma
173greenyarāma
174yellowrarāma
175whiteomrāma
176blackarāma
177nightasvarvāyā, nisvahach
178daysvahac
179yearrasvahac
180warmrak
181coldparak
182fullsvārak
183newvyānak
184oldovajńak
185goodsak
186badgvak
187rottenragvak
188dirtykagvak
189straightstavak
190roundāglak
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothsyak
194wetvak
195dryavak
196correctyak
197nearsanak
198faryanak
199rightuvak
200leftāvak
201at~e
202in~ante
203with~vis
204andca
205ifverb.med + 'v'-psn, ivak
206becausetekha
207namesaman

Adjectives: Vocabulary==

Example textEdit

Aumān humanār ustyān satmān svriyantāh - All men are created free and equal. 

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