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Vāgøgjaskt

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Våg Islander
Vāgøgjaskt Stömm
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Nominative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Vāgøgjaskt (or in English, Våg Islander) is a classical Germanic language once spoken in and around the Norwegian fylke of Sogn og Fjordane, as well as some populations in Hordaland and Sunnmøre. It gets its name from the isle of Vågsøy. Våg Islander is a Northwest Germanic language; belonging to the same primary branch as Old Norse, it has close ties to several nearby North Germanic languages.

It is an inflecting language with traits similar to and complexity hovering around that of Old Norse. It distinguishes four cases in all forms and the vocative only marginally; it has a definiteness distinction only on its nouns, marked with special inflectional endings. Unlike the definite inflections found in Old Norse, the ones in Våg Islander are more fully merged with standard case endings.

Vāgøgjaskt belongs to the same branch of North Germanic languages as Īsdalskt and Hrīmlendsk do, sharing a common developmental history that ended around 650AD. It has been influenced by Sámi languages to a certain degree: it has many loanwords from an unidentified Sámi source. This branch of Germanic languages is primarily characterised by their distinctive passive constructions and absence of distinct weak and strong forms of adjectives.

PhonologyEdit

Våg Islander has eight vowel qualities unevenly spaced across the vowel space: four front, three back and one central vowel quality. It features nasality and vowel length as distinctive features.

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
High [i] i [y] y [u] u
Mid [e] e [ø] ø [ɐ] a [o] o
Low [ɒ] ö

Any stressed vowel can be either short or long and either oral or nasal; the two features can overlap. Long vowels are marked with a macron diacritic (a long [ɒ:] would be <ȫ>) while nasalisation is marked with an ogonek (so that a nasal [ũ] would be <ų>); only [ỹ] receives a tilde diacritic, so that a long nasal [ỹ:] would be written <ỹ̄> as the vowel already has a descender.

The language has only four diphthongs: /au ei ey øy/ <au, ei, ey, øy>; all other vowel combinations result in a hiatus.

It also has eighteen consonant phonemes, ten of which can also be geminated, alongside significant allophony.

Labial Dental Alveolar Dorsal
Voiceless Voiced Lateral Plain Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced
Plosive Plain [p] p [b] b [t] t [d] d [k] k [ɡ] g
Geminate [pp] pp [bb] bb [tt] tt [dd] dd
Fricative Plain [f] f [v] v [θ] þ [s] s [x] h
Geminate [ss] ss
Nasal Plain [m] m [n] n[ŋ] ng
Geminate [nn] nn
Approximant Plain [l] l [r] r [ɻ] ʀ [j] j
Geminate [ll] ll [rr] rr

The consonant <ʀ> can also function as a syllable nucleus alongside the vowels.

UmlautEdit

Våg Islander has productive umlaut: the nearly fully regular u-umlaut and the more irregular i-umlaut. Since, due to its diachronics, Våg Islander generally disallows unstressed vowels having any quality other than [a ã i ĩ u ũ], some umlauts may seem opaque and unexpected, with exceptions randomly strewn around.

The primary effect of u-umlaut is extremely limited: it changes /a a:/ to /ɒ ɒ:/. Secondarily, it changes /a/ to /u/ in unstressed positions. It is caused by most unstressed /u/ vowels. Since some do not cause it, and sometimes it is caused even when the vowel isn't /u/, the suffixes indicate where the umlaut occurs.

Allophony and MorphophonologyEdit

In non-initial position (except post-consonantal but before the root vowel) the short consonants /f b θ d x ɡ/ shift to [f~v v ð ð ɣ ɣ]; these are written as <f f ð ð g g>. The consonants [v ð ɣ] harden to [b d g] after nasals and /l/; they are then written as <b d g>. The cluster /lj/ merges to [ʎ]. The consonants /m n ŋ l r j/ devoice to [m̥ n̥ ŋ̊ l̥ r̥ ç], and the clusters /hm hn hl hlj hr hv/ merge into [m̥ n̥ l̥ ʎ̥ r̥ w̥]. The clusters [kj kkj ɡj ɡɡj ɣj] become [c cc ɟ ɟɟ ʝ].

The consonant /v/ disappears before /y ø u ɔ/ and very rarely /ɒ/ (in analogisations). Vowels become secondarily nasalised next to nasal consonants and other nasal vowels; this isn't represented in the orthography.

GrammarEdit

SyntaxEdit

The syntax of Vāgøgjaskt deals with case assignment, word order, phrase constitution and dependency and constituency relationships.

GeneralitiesEdit

Vāgøgjaskt, as a heavily inflected head-initial language, lacks a rigid word order. Its order of constituents is, for the most part, pragmatic. Even though the majority of word order configurations -- within reason -- is allowed, the default unmarked main clause word order is Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) with a more subtle but more frequently present tendency of putting the verb second (V2).

Emphasis is acheived by pulling the verb to the front of the sentence. Verbs are rarely fronted to the absolute initial position when providing emphasis, as that may cause interrogative confusion.

Noun PhrasesEdit

Vāgøgjaskt has a very Germanic pattern of forming noun phrases (NPs): each NP is made up of a head, usually a noun, NP or a nominalised adjective, and of dependents, which can be adjective phrases (APs), relative clauses (RCs) or other NPs. The most common order of constituents in an NP is head-final, though inversion may be used as a means of emphasis. There are also several special classes of NPs.

NP dependents, outside of special cases, are most frequently governed by adpositions. Those that lack adpositions but are not part of a specific specialised construction have an implied or omitted adposition.

Double NP-phrases (DNPs) have one dependent NP and one head NP: no other elements may be inserted into the pattern. An NP may have multiple APs as dependents.
DNPs come in two different shapes: the first is when the dependent NP precedes its head -- thus following normal AP/NP rules -- and the second where the dependent NP is itself preceded by its head -- forcing the insertion of a definite article between the two.

Prepositions govern the whole NP, forcing all modifiable elements to take the case they require. They usually come at the very beginning of a phrase. Postpositions likewise govern the entire phrase, but are more flexible in positioning: they usually come after the head of the NP and can be separated from it by auxiliaries, short pronouns and discourse particles. More extreme cases of postposition placement occur when the NP is simple: in such extreme situations that require extensive stylistic marking, the postposition can be moved to the end of the entire clause. This happens only in independent clauses.

A rare occurence is when there's disagreement in case between the head and a dependent of a single NP. This happens in simple NPs that have one adjective and one noun; the adjective receives normal case marking while the noun gets the genitive or dative. This happens only in NPs that indicate dual items, usually body parts. Sometimes, a DNP might have a mismatch in numbers between the dependent and head. This occurs almost exclusively with formal titles. With such mismatched DNPs, the definite article acquires the number of the dependent.

Possessive ConstructionsEdit

Generally, possession in Vāgøgjaskt follows a very distinctly Norse pattern, with certain extensions. Possession is indicated using a possessive phrase (PP) that functions as a special case of an NP. The head of the PP is made up of either an NP or a DNP and is usually initial, with its dependent possessor trailing after it. Possessors come in three different varieties: they can 1) be possessive pronouns 2) be genitive NPs or pronouns 3) be dative NPs or pronouns. These have different marking mechanisms.

Possessive pronouns always follow their heads. If the head is a simple NP, the head of the NP becomes definite. There is no way to distinguish definiteness in most such situations. If the head is a DNP, an appositive in the form of a simple NP must be introduced and thus modified accordingly. There is no way to modify the DNP itself in a possessive pronoun construction. Some kinship terms may be indefinite: nuclear kin are always indefinite, and siblings once removed or farther can be either definite or indefinite.

Genitive and dative NP and pronoun constructions are for the most part unique to Vāgøgjaskt. The possessor can come either before or after its head, and this placement is more stylistic than anything. Some situations allow other constituents to come between the head and the possessor: this is primarily a feature of intransitive sentences with a simple PP made up of a short head and a pronominal possessor in the genitive or accusative.
Constructions with dative and genitive possessors do not enforce definiteness: definiteness is fully contrastive in such PP constructions.

PPs can only be heads of NPs and DNPs. They cannot be the dependents of either -- such constructions require appositives or relative clauses.

Genitive ConstructionsEdit

Genitive constructions are a special type of NPs where the dependent is a NP in the genitive. Genitive constructions are generally called genitive phrases (GPs), even though they work like generic NPs. Unlike DNPs, GPs usually function as partitives, quantitatives or general specifiers. They can come in many shapes, though they are most commonly headed by NPs. A specific subset of GPs are headed by adverbs, usually adverbs of quantity.

Generalised partitive GPs headed by a noun generally have a genitive dependent that is most commonly definite. Dependents can be general NPs, DNPS, PPs or GPs. The general connotation of partitive GPs is that of a segment, of belonging or material make-up.

Quantitative GPs are headed either by adverbs of quantity, such as mikilt or alla, or pronouns or adjectives that quantify something, such as allʀ or gnōgʀ, and have a definite genitive dependent. When possible, the head agrees with its dependent in number and gender, but takes the case that the phrase itself ought to normally take. Phrases headed by adverbs are usually either used as nominatives or take adpositions.

Dative ConstructionsEdit

Earlier Vāgøgjaskt used lots of dative phrases (DPs) in a way similar to GPs. This usage has mostly died out. Some still remain in use as archaisms, stylistic variants or fixed phrases and sayings.

Adjective PhrasesEdit

Vāgøgjaskt adjective phrases (APs) are made up of a head that can be made up of either an adjective or an AP, and of adverbs, APs and adverbials that act as modifiers.

Adverbial PhrasesEdit

Adverbial phrases (AbPs) are not frequently used as modifiers of adjectives in Vāgøgjaskt, but can be modifiers of verbs. They're made up of an adverbial head and usually just one or two adverbial dependent modifiers, most frequently intensifiers.

AbPs can also be made up of a NP with a preposition or of adverbial clauses (AbCs), without any dependents.

Verb PhrasesEdit

Vāgøgjaskt verb phrases (VPs) are fairly complex: they are made up of a main verb that acts as the head, either an optional non-finite or passive finite complement verb, copula complements in the form of NPs, AbPs, AbCs, CICs or APs, and modifiers in the form of AbPs, CICs or AbCs. VPs are discontinuous in Vāgøgjaskt, meaning that other constituents may be intercalated in the VP without requiring special circumstances. This discontinuity is often optional and stylistic (bound by stylistics and restraints of constituent order), but also sometimes obligatory (as in interrogatives). Modifiers tend to come before complements when the VP isn't fronted; when fully fronted to the beginning of a sentence, the modifiers come before the head, which is followed by intercalations.

Morphosemantic Auxiliary ConstructionsEdit

VPs that include a main verb in the form of an auxiliary and a non-finite verb are auxiliary constructions and are usually used in construction of semantosyntactic (analytic) tenses. The primary constructions formed by the use of an auxiliary and a non-finite complement are optatives and futures. Passives are the only construction (otherwise also known as auxiliary passive constructions) formed using an auxiliary and a passive finite complement verb. The primary difference between passive and auxiliary constructions is that passives may be infinitivised and thus plugged into auxiliary constructions, something auxiliary constructions can't do.

Optatives are formed using vasą. The structure of an optative requires vąsa and an infinitive, where vasą is appropriately conjugated in the context. Optatives are most frequently used as invocations or wishes of good or bad fortune. Third person optatives are sometimes also used as soft imperatives, but still carry an optative meaning. Optatives exist only in the past and present; present optatives have both a present and future meaning. Optative imperatives also serve the function of future imperatives.

Futures are formed using skolą, bēttą and mēttą. The structure of a future requires a conjugated auxiliary and an infinitive. There exists a semantic difference between futures formed with different auxiliaries.
Futures formed with skolą have a connotation of certainty or finality; they're used to express immediate or spontaneous decisions, immediately proximate events or fixed, fairly immutable plans. Futures formed with mēttą are weaker than those with skolą, in that they represent potential and uncertain, flexible plans and arrangements; it is commonly used with longer-distance plans and predictions and thus are not quite as strong as those formed with skolą. Futures formed with bēttą carry a connotation of impersonality or lack of agency: they are thus commonly used with intransitives and passives.

Passives are formed using varðą and a passive verb conjugated for person. For finite passives, this means the passive verb is doubly marked for person. Passives can thus be made into a complex passive infinitive, with the auxiliary varðą in the infinitive but its passive conjugated for person. When used as an infinitive and plugged into auxiliary constructions, nothing except simple adverbs can come between the auxiliary and passive. After passivisation, the original nominative argument may be recovered by transformation into an oblique NP in the accusative with the preposition frą̄.

Copula ComplementationEdit

VPs that include a copula (in any sort of construction) take either a bare (non-adposited) copular complement in the nominative ('direct complement) or a complement in case with an adposition or an AbP, CIC or AbC (oblique complement). These are distinguished from copuliform constructions that include pseudo-copulative verbs but take bare complements in case (indirect complement). There is no difference in form between directly and indirectly complemented copular VPs, although indirectly complemented VPs are usually somewhat less flexible when it comes to word order and intercalation.

Independent ClausesEdit

Vāgøgjaskt has a relatively simple elementary independent clause (SC) structure. Its shape -- and thus function -- depends primarily on the subject, object and verb, otherwise also termed its constituents. The subject and object constituents are either NPs or CICs, while the verb constituent can only be the VP. The most general ordering of constituents in simple SCs is SVO. This standard order is further modified by a strong tendency to put the head of a VP in the absolute second place in the clause (V2), allowing intercalation of other constituents after the verb. When the VP is fronted to the absolute beginning of the sentence, the V2 rule shifts its modifiers to stand before it, thus necessitating intercalation. The verb thus cannot be fronted to the absolute initial position.

SC questions can either be binary or complex. Binary questions demand yes, no or echo answers; they are formed by fronting the verb to the absolute initial position in the clause, thus often chaining constituents like so: verb-subject-VP.modifiers-(verb)-object.
Complex questions are introduced by a question word, such as hvī or hvas, and follow the structure of binary questions, with omissions where necessary.

Dependent ClausesEdit

Vāgøgjaskt employs several different types of relative clause, each with its own form and mechanisms of action. All dependent clauses have an element that introduces them. Some clauses might have a referent to which they refer to, though that varies by clause type.

Relative ClausesEdit

Relative clauses (RCs) are a type of dependent clause in Vāgøgjaskt that is introduced by the relative pronoun sam. They always have a referent. The order of constituents in such a clause is more rigid than in an independent clause or a generalised subordinate clause: the relative pronoun always comes first, and is then followed by other elements, most frequently a verb. The relative pronoun is marked for case and number as befits its role and purpose in the clause. If the pronoun is to take an adposition, the adposition is universally moved to the end of the clause. Third person pronominal referents are usually replaced with demonstrative pronouns.

Adverbial ClausesEdit

Adverbial clauses (AbCs) are a type of dependent clause that is introduced primarily by question words such as hvar and hvī. They lack a referrent when they are oblique complements to copulae, but have one when acting as modifiers to generalised VPs. They consistently begin with the question word, which is then followed by other elements. Their referrents are usually demonstrative equivalents of the question words (þar and þvī for the examples); interrogative personal pronouns thus refer to demonstrative personal pronouns.

General Subordinate ClausesEdit

There are a few general subordinate clause types in Vāgøgjaskt that generally have the same form: these are declarative, conditional, binary interrogative, complex interrogative and preconditional clauses.

Declarative clauses (DCs) are the simplest in shape: they're introduced by the conjunctions at and þiʀ. The word order in the clause is relatively free after both. The primary difference between the two is in use: at introduces factual and straightforward clauses in the indicative, and þiʀ introduces subjunctive clauses that often carry meanings of uncertainty, wishes, expectations and possibilities.

Conditional clauses (CCs) are introduced with the conjunction ef. Word order in CCs is relatively free, although there is a tendency to put all pronominal arguments before the verb. CCs can be both indicative and subjunctive; while this is conditioned by the level of certainty and factuality encoded in the semantics of the clause, they're most frequently subjunctive. They introduce conditions on which the main clause derives; "if".

Preconditional clauses (PCs) are introduced with the conjunctive clusters þvī at and þvī þiʀ. If the clauses are word initial, they take the preposition af. The primary difference between the two is that the first introduces indicative and the second subjunctive clauses. They introduce conditions due to which the main clause isn't false; "because".

Binary interrogative clauses (BICs) are introduced with the conjunction hvaðraʀ. They can either be indicative or subjunctive; this is conditioned by the level of certainty, factuality and possibility encoded in the clauses. They introduce a binary possibility; "whether".

Complex interrogative clauses (CICs) are introduced by question words such as hvar or hvaʀ. They generally follow the word order of independent clauses, with adverbs having a tendency to be fronted. They can either be indicative or subjunctive; this is conditioned by the context and semantics of the clause itself. The question words decline in case, gender and number (whenever possible) to fit their function inside the clause; they are considered regular clause constituents, despite referring to something clause-external. They can function as verb arguments and modifiers when bare, and copular complements only if they have a demonstrative referent to head them.

Pronouns and ArticlesEdit

Personal pronouns:

Singular Dual Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 3rd
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
NOM/VOC jak þū jānn jȫnn þat vit þit vēʀ ȳʀ þeir
þeiʀ
þø̄r þō
ACC mek þek jānna jānn ūkk ykk ūss yrr þann
DAT miʀ þiʀ jāmm jānni þimm ūkkʀ ykkʀ þeiʀa
GEN mīnn þīnn jānas jānnaʀ þāʀ ūkkarr ykkarr ūssarr yrrarr þeim

Possessive pronouns:

1st Person Sg 2nd Person Sg 1st Person Pl Reflexive
Masc Fem Neut Masc Fem Neut Masc Fem Neut Masc Fem Neut
Sing. NOM/VOC mīnn mīn mītt þīnn þīn þītt vārr vār vārt sīnn sīn sītt
ACC mīna þīna vāra sīna
DAT mīnų mīną mīnų þīnų þīną þīnų vārų vārą vārų sīnų sīną sīnų
GEN mīns þīns vārs vārraʀ vārs sīns
Plur. NOM/VOC mīniʀ mīnaʀ mīn þīniʀ þīnaʀ þīn vāriʀ vāraʀ vār sīniʀ sīnaʀ sīn
ACC mīnaʀ þīnaʀ vāraʀ sīnaʀ
DAT mīnum þīnum vānum sīnum
GEN mīną þīną vārną sīną

Interrogative pronouns - the singular paradigm is taken from *hwaz and the plural paradigm from *hwarjaz:

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
NOM hvaʀ hveri hvō hvörr hvat hvöri
ACC hvön hverinn hvǭ hvarjar
DAT hvemm
hvemmi
hverra hvöʀ hverra hvemm
hvemmi
hverra
GEN hvas hverimʀ hvörr hverimʀ hvas hverimʀ

Elective pronouns - anything/something; the paradigm is a result of a merger of the interrogative pronoun and nøkkvarr:

Masculine Feminine Neuter
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
NOM nøkkaʀ nøkkri nøkka nøkkurr nøkkvat nøkkri
ACC nøkkun nøkkvinn nøkkvą nøkkjar
DAT nøkkvamm
nøkki
nøkkarra nøkkuʀ nøkkarra nøkkvamm
nøkki
nøkkarra
GEN nøkkvas nøkkmʀ nøkkurr nøkkmʀ nøkkvas nøkkmʀ

Universal pronouns - everything, everyone; the paradigm derives from *allaz:

Singular Plural
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc/Fem. Neut.
NOM alliʀ allaʀ allsak allfulką öllsak
ACC öllun allin
DAT alli allja allsaki öllum
GEN alljas alljarr allsaks allą

Relative pronouns - which, who; the paradigm derives from a reduced form of *samaz:

Singular Plural
Nominative sam
Accusative söm
Dative sam sömum
Genitive samʀ samną

Universal determiner pronoun - everything, everyone, all; derived from *allaz:

Singular Plural
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
NOM allʀ öll allt alliʀ allaʀ öll
ACC allą all alląʀ all
DAT alli öllum
GEN alls allʀaʀ
allaʀ
alls allą

Definite article - derived from *jainaz:

Singular Plural
Masc. Fem. Neut. Masc. Fem. Neut.
NOM īðʀ īn īt īniʀ īnjaʀ īn
ACC īną īnjąʀ īną
DAT īmʀ jömum
GEN īns īðʀ
īnnaʀ
īns īną

NounsEdit

Våg Islander nouns come in three genders -- masculine, feminine and neuter -- and can be in the nominative, accusative, dative and genitive cases (with a marginal vocative still somewhat distinct). They can be singular or plural (although some are singularia/pluralia tantum and have only one number; others have a new dual form that is mostly identical to the plural) and can be definite or indefinite.

R-StemsEdit

Våg Islander ʀ-stem nouns are mostly inherited from Proto-Germanic a-stem masculines that ended in *-az. They are exclusively masculine and end in either or a geminated consonant that's the product of a merger with the *-ʀ. Example noun <maðʀ> (man, human; also i-stem):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative maðʀ manniʀ mannaʀ menniʀniʀ
Vocative mann manniʀ mannaʀ mennįʀniʀ
menniʀniʀ
Accusative mann manną mannąʀ mannąʀą
Dative manni mannina mönnum mönnunum
Genitive manns mannsins manną mannąną

They generally take these suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -iʀ -aʀ -iʀniʀ+I
Vocative -0 -iʀ -aʀ -įʀniʀ+I
-iʀniʀ+I
Accusative -0 -ąʀ -ąʀą
Dative -i -ina -um+U -unum+U
Genitive -s -sins -ąną

Ą-StemsEdit

Våg Islander ą-stem nouns are mostly inherited from Proto-Germanic a-stem neuters that ended in *-ą. They're exclusively neuter and are suffixless. Example noun <djūʀ> (animal, critter):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative djūʀ djūʀit djūʀ djūʀa
Vocative djūʀ djūʀit djūʀ djūʀa
Accusative djūʀ djūʀit djūʀ djūʀa
Dative djūʀi djūʀina djūʀum djūʀunum
Genitive djūʀs
djūss
djūʀsins
djūssins
djūʀą djūrąną

They generally take these suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -0 -it -0+U -a+U
Vocative -0 -it -0+U -a+U
Accusative -0 -it -0+U -a+U
Dative -i -ina -um+U -unum+U
Genitive -s -sins -ąną

AN-Stem NeutersEdit

Våg Islander an-stem neuters (even though not all of them are neuter) are inherited from Proto-Germanic an-stem neuters (that ended in *-ô). They end in -a. Example noun <auga> (eye):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative auga augat augų augna
Vocative auga augat augų augna
Accusative auga augat augų augna
Dative augi augina augum augunum
Genitive augʀ augʀins augą augąną

They generally take these suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -a -at -na
Vocative -a -at -na
Accusative -a -at -na
Dative -i -ina -um+U -unum+U
Genitive -ʀins -ąną

AN-Stem MasculinesEdit

Våg Islander an-stem masculines (even though not all of them are masculine) are inherited from Proto-Germanic an-stem masculines. They end in -i. Example noun <ękki> (ache, regret, longing):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative ękki ękkiʀ ękkaʀ ękkaʀniʀ
Vocative ękka ękkiʀ ękkaʀ ękkaʀniʀ
Accusative ękka ękką ękkąʀ ękkąʀą
Dative ękki ękkina ękkum ękkunum
Genitive ękkʀ ękkʀins ękką ękkąną

They generally take these suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -i -iʀ -aʀ -aʀniʀ
Vocative -a -iʀ -aʀ -aʀniʀ
Accusative -a -ąʀ -ąʀą
Dative -i -ina -um+U -unum+U
Genitive -ʀins -ąną

U-StemsEdit

Våg Islander u-stem nouns are inherited from Proto-Germanic u-stems that ended in either *-u (neuter) or *-uz (animate). They either end in , a geminate that came from the merger of an earlier *, or in a bare stem. Example masculine noun <mjöðʀ> (mead):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative mjöðʀ mjöðiʀ miðiʀ miðiʀniʀ
Vocative mjöð mjöðiʀ miðiʀ miðiʀniʀ
Accusative mjöð mjöðą miðį miðįʀą
Dative mjöði mjöðina mjöðum mjöðunum
Genitive mjaðʀ mjaðʀins
mjaðsins
mjaðą mjaðąną

They generally take these suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative +U -iʀ+U -iʀ+I -iʀniʀ+I
Vocative -0+U -iʀ+U -iʀ+I -iʀniʀ+I
Accusative -0+U +U +I -įʀą+I
Dative -i+U -ina+U -um+U -unum+U
Genitive -ʀ* -ʀins*
-sins*
-ą* -ąną*

Example neuter noun <spjör> (spear, stick)

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative spjör spjörit spjör spjörna
Vocative spjör spjörit spjör spjörna
Accusative spjör spjörit spjör spjörna
Dative spjöri spjörina spjörum spjörunum
Genitive spjarr spjarrins
spjarsins
spjarą spjarąną

They generally take these suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -0+U -it+U -0+U -na+U
Vocative -0+U -it+U -0+U -na+U
Accusative -0+U -it+U -0+U -na+U
Dative -i+U -ina+U -um+U -unum+U
Genitive -ʀins
-sins
-ąną

I-StemsEdit

Våg Islander i-stems are inherited from Proto-Germanic i-stems that ended in *-iz. They end in and are primarily masculine, with the occasional feminine exception. Most female i-stems can also decline as ja-stems. Example noun <ittʀ> (paralysis, pain, anguish):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative ittʀ ittiʀ ittiʀ ittiʀniʀ
Vocative itt ittiʀ ittiʀ ittiʀniʀ
Accusative itt ittį ittį ittįʀą
Dative itt ittna ittjum ittjunum
Genitive itts ittʀins
ittsins
ittją ittjąną

They generally take the suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -iʀ -iʀ -iʀniʀ
Vocative -0 -iʀ -iʀ -iʀniʀ
Accusative -0 -įʀą
Dative -0 -na -jum -junum
Genitive -s -ʀins
-sins
-ją -jąną

Ja-StemsEdit

Våg Islander ja-stems are inherited from Proto-Germanic jō-stems that ended in with an -ijō appearing throughout the paradigm. They usually end in or a geminate arisen from the merger of a consonant with the *. This is considered a Norse influence. They're invariably feminine. Some of the ja-stems can also decline as i-stems. Example noun <ylgʀ> (fox):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative ylgʀ ylgʀi ylgjaʀ ylgjaʀniʀ
Vocative ylg ylgʀi ylgjaʀ ylgjaʀniʀ
Accusative ylg ylgi ylgjaʀ ylgjaniʀ
Dative ylgi ylgiʀi ylgjum ylgjunum
Genitive ylgjaʀ ylgjaʀaʀ ylgją ylgjąną

They generally take these suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -ʀi -jaʀ -jaʀniʀ
Vocative -0 -ʀi -jaʀ -jaʀniʀ
Accusative -0 -i -jaʀ -janiʀ
Dative -i -iʀi -jum -junum
Genitive -jaʀ -jaʀaʀ -ją -jąną

A-StemsEdit

Våg Islander a-stems are inherited from Proto-Germanic ō-stems. They variably end in either -a or a bare u-umlauted stem; the choice between the two is irregular, and some nouns may have both forms simultaneously. Many words that end in -a derive from Proto-Germanic feminines that ended in a nasalised -ǭ but they have generally been denasalised in Vāgøgjaskt. They're generally feminine. Example a-terminated noun <hjarða> (swarm, herd):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative hjarða hjarði hjarðaʀ hjarðaʀniʀ
Vocative hjarðą hjarði hjarðaʀ hjarðaʀniʀ
Accusative hjarðą hjarðį hjarðaʀ hjarðaniʀ
Dative hjarði hjarðiʀi hjörðum hjörðunum
Genitive hjarðaʀ hjarðaʀaʀ hjarðą hjarðąną

They generally take the suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -a -i -aʀ -aʀniʀ
Vocative -i -aʀ -aʀniʀ
Accusative -aʀ -aniʀ
Dative -i -iʀi -um+u -unum+u
Genitive -aʀ -aʀaʀ -ąną

Example stem-terminated noun: <löð> (acceptance, surrender):

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative löð löði laðaʀ laðaʀniʀ
Vocative löð löði laðaʀ laðaʀniʀ
Accusative löð löðį laðaʀ laðaniʀ
Dative löði löðiʀi löðum löðunum
Genitive laðaʀ laðaʀaʀ laðą laðąną

They generally take the suffixes:

Number
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative -0+u -i+u -aʀ -aʀniʀ
Vocative -0+u -i+u -aʀ -aʀniʀ
Accusative -0+u +u -aʀ -aniʀ
Dative -i+u -iʀi+u -um+u -unum+u
Genitive -aʀ -aʀaʀ -ąną

AdjectivesEdit

Våg Islander adjectives agree in case, gender and number with the phrase they modify. They're divided into a-stems, i-stems and u-stems. Comparatives and superlatives are exclusively i-stems. Participles have their own inflectional particularities. They have four grades of comparison:

  1. Standard (1)
  2. Comparative (2)
  3. Superlative (3)
  4. Excessive (4)

They also have a negative form for adjectives, where they denote the absence, not the presence, of a property. All the adjectives have a default grade, this usually being the standard; some can have the negative as a default. Some adjectives lack some of the grades; if an adjective's default isn't the standard and instead is a higher number, it doesn't have grades of a lower number. Some adjectives whose default is the standard grade may sometimes also lack grades of a higher number; these are called absolute adjectives.

Most positive adjectives can be turned into negatives (and negatives into positives) using the prefixes ų̄-/ǭ-. Some adjectives have suppletive opposites.

Comparatives are formed with the suffix -ʀi (i-stem), superlatives with -stʀi (i-stem) and excessives with -spiðʀ (a-stem or u-stem).

A-StemsEdit

Våg Islander a-stem adjectives make up the majority of the language's adjectives; most regular default-grade adjectives are a-stems, and all newly-coined or -derived adjectives (excepting analogical formations) are by default a-stems. Excessives are usually also a-stems. They derive from Proto-Germanic a-stem adjectives that ended in -az.

They generally take the suffixes:

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative -0+u -t -i -aʀ -0+u
Accusative -ąʀ -ąʀ
Dative -im -iʀ -im -um
Genitive -s -ʀaʀ -s -ʀą
-iʀą

I-StemsEdit

Våg Islander i-stems are a minority in the language; most adjectives of this class are actually comparatives or superlatives of other adjectives. The ones that are i-stems in the standard grade were either i-stems (ending in -iz) or īn-stems (ending in ) in Proto-Germanic. They are invariably i-umlauted; this is significant for comparatives and superlatives.

The regular declension of these adjectives is with these suffixes:

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative -i -0 -a -ann -inn
Accusative -ąnn -įnn -ąnn
Dative -um
Genitive -inn -aną -iną -aną

The comparative suffix -ʀi declines as:

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative -ʀi -ʀa -ʀann -ʀinn -ʀą
Accusative -ʀą -ʀį -ʀų -ʀąnn -ʀįnn -ʀąnn
Dative -ʀį -ʀum
Genitive -ʀinn -ʀąna -ʀiną -ʀaną

The superlative suffix -stʀi declines as:

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative -stʀi -istʀ -stʀa -stʀann -stʀinn -stʀą
Accusative -stʀą -stʀį -stʀų -stʀąnn -stʀįnn -stʀąnn
Dative -stʀį -stʀum
Genitive -stʀinn -stʀąna -stʀiną -stʀaną

U-StemsEdit

Våg Islander u-stems are a minority in the language. They derive from Proto-Germanic u-stems that ended in -uz. They include some excessives and some standard-grade adjectives. The standard-grade adjectives of this class can either be umlauted or unumlauted. Example unumlauted adjective <mjarkʀ> (dark, dim):

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative mjarkʀ mjörki mjarkt mjörki mjörkjaʀ mjörkja
Accusative mjörkją mjörkį mjörkann mjörkann
Dative mjarkį mjörkimʀ mjörkʀa mjörkum
Genitive mjarks mjarkną mjarks mjarkʀą

They generally take the suffixes:

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative -i+u -t -i+u -jaʀ+u -ja+u
Accusative -ją+u +u -ann+u -ann+u
Dative -imʀ+u -ʀa+u -um+u
Genitive -s -ną -s -ʀą

Example umlauted adjective <hnöskʀ> (not strong, not brave):

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative hnöskʀ hnöski hnöskt hnöski hnöskjaʀ hnöskja
Accusative hnöskją hnöskį hnöskann hnöskann
Dative hnöskį hnöskimʀ hnöskʀa hnöskum
Genitive hnasks hnaskʀą hnasks hnaskʀą

They generally take the suffixes:

Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative/Vocative +u -i+u -t+u -i+u -jaʀ+u -ja+u
Accusative -ją+u +u -ann+u -ann+u
Dative +u -imʀ+u -ʀa+u -um+u
Genitive -s -ʀą -s -ʀą

ParticiplesEdit

Participles in Vāgøgjaskt are a very peculiar class of adjectives: even though they modify nouns in the same manner as adjectives do, they decline like nouns of various declension classes. Present participles decline like an-stems, where the masculine and feminine both take the masculine and neuters the neuter subclass of the declension type, and past participles decline like u-stems, where masculines and feminines take animate endings and neuters inanimate endings. Participles thus distinguish only between two genders, grouped for easier reference as common and neuter.

VerbsEdit

Våg Islander verbs are divided into 4 weak and 7 strong verb classes, with some irregular strong verbs being unclassified. They conjugate for the present and past tenses, as well as the active and passive voices. They can be either indicative or subjunctive. The passive is formed by the co-passive form of the verb (f.e. <drękkjand> of <drękkją>) and the active forms of the auxiliary <varða>.

AuxiliariesEdit

Våg Islander auxiliaries are irregular verbs that are primarily used as copulas or in the formation of certain tenses, voices or other periphrastic items. The most frequent auxiliary verbs are <vasą> (PGmc *wesaną -- be; optative auxiliary; copula), <varðą> (PGmc *werþaną -- become, change (into); passive auxiliary; inchoative copula), <mēttą> (cf SSm <maehtedh> -- be able/can; future auxiliary), <bēttą> (cf SSm <båetedh> -- come, arrive; future auxiliary) and <skolą> (PGmc *skulaną -- future auxiliary).

All of these verbs, except <bēttą> (and marginally <varðą>), only have active forms and all of them are irregular in their inflection. <vasą>, <skolą> and <varðą> furthermore have a suppletive conjugation, and <bēttą> is very irregular though not quite truly suppletive.

The conjugation of <vasą>:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st em esum vas vēsum
vāsum
2nd es esuð vast vēsuð
vāsuð
3rd est esu
esų
vas vēsų
vāsų
Subjunctive 1st sēm vēsi vēsim
2nd sēs sēð vēsiʀ vēsið
3rd sę̄ vēsi vēsį
Participle vasandi vasandaʀ vasann vasaniʀ
Imperative 1st esiviʀ
2nd estu esiʀ

The auxiliary <skolą> had its past tense supplanted by the preterite of <*mōtaną>. It doesn't have participles or imperatives. Its conjugation:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st skal skulum mōsa mø̄sum
2nd skalt skuluð mōsaʀ mø̄suð
3rd skal skolą
skulų
mōsa mø̄sų
Subjunctive 1st skyl
skylį
skylim mø̄sið mø̄sim
2nd skyliʀ skylið mø̄siʀ mø̄sið
3rd skyl skylį mø̄sið mø̄sį

The verb <varðą> has multiple meanings and three different conjugations based on meaning. The first is when it means "change", where it has a passive and its past tense is formed with the co-passive of an otherwise non-extant verb <**ottą>. The second is when it means "become" and its past is supplanted by the past of <bøytą> (to arrive, to approach), otherwise a regular weak class II verb. The third is when it is an auxiliary or copula, where its past tense is supplanted by the past tense of apparently an irregular malformation, theoretically <**urðą>. Its conjugation:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st varða örðum otta
bøytaða
urða
ottand
bøytaðum
urðum
2nd virðiʀ virðið ottaʀ
bøytaðiʀ
urt
ottand
bøytaðuð
urðuð
3rd virðið varðą ottað
bøytaði
urða
ottand
boytaðų
urðų
Subjunctive 1st varða varðim ottað
bøytaði
yrði
ottund
bøytaðim
yrðim
2nd varðiʀ varðið ottaʀ
bøytaðiʀ
yrðiʀ
ottund
bøytaðið
yrðið
3rd varði varðį ottað
bøytaði
yrði
ottund
bøytaðį
yrðį
Passive 1st otta ottand ottað ottund
2nd ottaʀ ottaʀ
3rd ottað ottað
Participle varðandi varðandaʀ ottann ottaniʀ
Imperative 1st varðiviʀ
2nd varðaðu varðiʀ

The verb <bēttą> is actually the merger of a loaned Sámi verb (compare with SSm <båetedh>) and the paradigms of a native Germanic verb derived from PGmc <*beuną>, otherwise unattested in Våg Islander. It is used to form the future and is extremely irregular. Its fully loaned equivalent <mēttą> is a regular weak class II verb. Its conjugation resembles that of strong verbs:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st bētta bēttum bās būsum
būʀum
2nd bēttiʀ bēttið bāst būsuð
būʀuð
3rd bēttið bēttą bās būsų
būʀu
Subjunctive 1st bø̄gja bø̄vim bēʀi bēʀim
2nd bø̄giʀ bø̄við bēʀiʀ bēʀið
3rd bø̄gi bø̄vį bēʀi bēʀį
Passive 1st bātti bāttand būʀað būʀund
2nd bāttiʀ būttaʀ
3rd bāttið būttað
Participle bēttandi bēttandaʀ būʀann būʀaniʀ
Imperative 1st bēttiviʀ
2nd bēttiðu bēttiʀ

Weak Class IEdit

Inherited from Proto-Germanic -ij- and -j- verbs, the first class of weak verbs has mostly causatives and denominatives that may have shifted semantically over time. It also includes <bringją> (PGmc <bringaną> -- bring). Their infinitives end in -ją, from *-(i)janą. Example verb: <drękkją> (get drunk):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st drękki drękkjum drękkða drękkðum
2nd drękkiʀ drękkið drękkðiʀ drękkðuð
3rd drękkið drękkją drękkði drękkðų
Subjunctive 1st drękki drękkim drękkði drękkðim
2nd drękkiʀ drękkið drękkðiʀ drękkðið
3rd drękki drękkį drękkði drękkðį
Passive 1st drękki drękkjand drękkjuð drękkjund
2nd drękkjaʀ drękkjuʀ
3rd drękkjað drękkjuð
Participle drękkjandi drękkjandaʀ drękkjann drękkjaniʀ
Imperative 1st drękkiviʀ
2nd drękkiðu drękkiʀ

They are in general conjugated with the following suffixes:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st -i -jum -ða -ðum
2nd -iʀ -ið -ðiʀ -ðuð
3rd -ið -ją -ði -ðų
Subjunctive 1st -i -im -ði -ðim
2nd -iʀ -ið -ðiʀ -ðið
3rd -i -ði -ðį
Passive 1st -i -jand -juð -jund
2nd -jaʀ -juʀ
3rd -jað -juð
Participle -jandi -jandaʀ -jann -janiʀ
Imperative 1st -iviʀ
2nd -iðu -iʀ

Weak Class IIEdit

Inherited from Proto-Germanic -ō- and -ā- verbs, it has verbs of various meanings, including duty-denominalisers and some factitives. Their infinitives end in , from *-ōną. Example verb: <baðą> (wash, bathe):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st baða böðum baðaða baðaðum
2nd baðaʀ baðað baðaðiʀ baðaðuð
3rd baðað baðą baðaði baðaðų
Subjunctive 1st baða baðam baðaði baðaðim
2nd baðaʀ baðað baðaðiʀ baðaðið
3rd baða baðą baðaði baðaðį
Passive 1st baða baðand baðað böðund
2nd baðaʀ baðaʀ
3rd baðað baðað
Participle baðandi baðandaʀ baðann baðaniʀ
Imperative 1st baðaviʀ
2nd baðaðu baðiʀ

They are conjugated with the suffixes:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st -a -um+u -aða -aðum
2nd -aʀ -að -aðiʀ -aðuð
3rd -að -aði -aðų
Subjunctive 1st -a -am -aði -aðim
2nd -aʀ -að -aðiʀ -aðið
3rd -a -aði -aðį
Passive 1st -a -and -að -und+u
2nd -aʀ -aʀ
3rd -að -að
Participle -andi -andaʀ -ann -aniʀ
Imperative 1st -aviʀ
2nd -aðu -iʀ

Weak Class IIIEdit

Inherited from Proto-Germanic Class III -ja- verbs, it fails to include the -ā- verbs which have merged with -ō- verbs. Their infinitives usually end in -ją. Example verb <vekją> (awaken):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st veki vekjum
!vøkjum
vekið vekiðum
2nd vekiʀ vekið vekiðiʀ vekiðið
3rd vekið vekją vekiði vekiðų
Subjunctive 1st vekja vekjam vekjaði vekjaðim
2nd vekjaʀ vekjað vekjaðiʀ vekjaðið
3rd vekja vekją vekjaði vekjaðį
Passive 1st vekja vekjand vekjað vekjund
2nd vekjaʀ vekjaʀ
3rd vekjað vekjað
Participle vekjandi vekjandaʀ vekjann vekjaniʀ
Imperative 1st vekiviʀ
2nd vekiðu vekiʀ

They are conjugated with the suffixes:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st -i -jum -ið -iðum
2nd -iʀ -ið -iðiʀ -iðið
3rd -ið -ją -iði -iðų
Subjunctive 1st -ja -jam -jaði -jaðim
2nd -jaʀ -jað -jaðiʀ -jaðið
3rd -ja -ją -jaði -jaðį
Passive 1st -ja -jand -jað -jund
2nd -jaʀ -jaʀ
3rd -jað -jað
Participle -jandi -jandaʀ -jann -janiʀ
Imperative 1st -iviʀ
2nd -iðu -iʀ

Weak Class IVEdit

Inherited from Proto-Germanic -na-, it has since expanded to a slightly larger base of derived verbs that are mostly inchoative or fientive (adjectives conjugated as verbs). They have neither a passive nor a past participle, and are always intransitive. Their infinitives end in -ną or -nną. Due to the nature of the PGmc. suffix *-naną and due to further analogy, many of the verbs that have a stressed -o- or -e- have -u- and -i- in the subjunctive present respectively; this gives the verbs a pseudo-strong alternation. Example verb <dolną> (be mad, go crazy):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st dolna dolnam dolnaða dolnaðam
2nd dolnaʀ dolnað dolnaðaʀ dolnaðað
3rd dolnað dolną dolnaða dolnaðą
Subjunctive 1st dulna dulnam dolnaði dolnaðim
2nd dulnaʀ dulnað dolnaðiʀ dolnaðið
3rd dulna dulną dolnaði dolnaðį
Participle dolnandi dolnandaʀ
Imperative 1st dolniviʀ
2nd dolnaðu dolniʀ

They conjugate with the following suffixes:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st -na -nam -naða -naðam
2nd -naʀ -nað -naðaʀ -naðað
3rd -nað -ną -naða -naðą
Subjunctive 1st !-na !-nam -naði -naðim
2nd !-naʀ !-nað -naðiʀ -naðið
3rd !-na !-ną -naði -naðį
Participle -nandi -nandaʀ
Imperative 1st -niviʀ
2nd -naðu -niʀ

Strong VerbsEdit

All Våg Islander strong verbs possess the same inflectional suffixes, but are formed from four principal parts: the present stem, two past stems and the passive stem. They fall into one of seven classes based on their parts. Some verbs may fall into a class even though not all of its forms line up. The general conjugational pattern for strong verbs is:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st I-a I-um+u II III-um+u
2nd I-iʀ+i I-ið+i II-t III-uð+u
3rd I-ið+i I-ą II III-ų+u
Subjunctive 1st I-a I-im III-i+i III-im+i
2nd I-iʀ I-ið III-iʀ+i III-ið+i
3rd I-i I-į III-i+i III-į+i
Passive 1st IV-i+i IV-and IV-að IV-und+u
2nd IV-iʀ+i IV-aʀ
3rd IV-ið+i IV-að
Participle I-andi I-andaʀ IV-ann IV-aniʀ
Imperative 1st I-iviʀ
2nd I-iðu I-iʀ
Class I VerbsEdit

Class I strong verbs are inherited from Proto-Germanic class I strong verbs, and they exhibit the following generalised alternation of the stressed vowel:

Princ. Part Grade
I -ī-
II -ei-
III -i-
IV -e-

In the active past plural, the sound additionally shifts to <-y-> due to u-umlaut, and in the passive present singular the vowel is instead <-i-> due to a lack of a-umlaut and secondary presence of i-umlaut.
Some malformed class I verbs exist, with the following alternation:

Princ. Part Grade
I -e/a/?-
II -ei-
III -i-
IV -e/a/?-

These are derived from Proto-Germanic class I verbs with an *-i- in the present instead of an *-ī-. Their first and fourth parts can contain either <-e-> or <-a->, and this is conditioned by the presence of a previous <-v->. They otherwise follow the same rules as the regular class I verbs.

Example verb <krītą> (shout, growl):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st krīta krītum kreit krytum
2nd krītiʀ krītið kreitt krytuð
3rd krītið krītą kreit krytų
Subjunctive 1st krīta krītim kriti kritim
2nd krītiʀ krītið kritiʀ kritið
3rd krīti krītį kriti kritį
Passive 1st kriti kretand kretað kretund
2nd kritiʀ kretaʀ
3rd kritið kretað
Participle krītandi krītandaʀ kretann kretaniʀ
Imperative 1st krītiviʀ
2nd krītiðu krītiʀ
Class II VerbsEdit

Class II strong verbs are inherited from Proto-Germanic class II strong verbs, and they come in two variants:

  • IIa -- The -- verbs, deriving from PGmc -eu- and -ū- in class II verbs
  • IIb -- The -øgv- verbs, deriving from PGmc -eww- class II verbs

All of the IIb verbs also have IIa variants that are used about as often as their IIb counterparts. Umlaut is especially prevalent with them. The <-v-> of <-gv-> in IIb verbs doesn't disappear before a rounded vowel, and IIb verbs are resistant to umlaut.
The IIa verbs exhibit the following alternation:

Princ. Part Grade
I -jū-
II -au-
III -u-
IV -o-

Example verb <bjūðą> (invite, offer rest to):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st bjūða bjūðum bauð buðum
2nd bjūðiʀ bjūðið bautt buðuð
3rd bjūðið bjūðą bauð buðų
Subjunctive 1st bjūða bjūðim byði byðim
2nd bjūðiʀ bjūðið byðiʀ byðið
3rd bjūði bjūðį byði byðį
Passive 1st bøði boðand boðað boðund
2nd bøðiʀ boðaʀ
3rd bøðið boðað
Participle bjūðandi bjūðandaʀ boðann boðaniʀ
Imperative 1st bjūðiviʀ
2nd bjūðiðu bjūðiʀ
Class III VerbsEdit

Class III strong verbs are inherited from Proto-Germanic class IIIa and IIIb strong verbs that merged into a single class, as well as most class IV verbs that had <*-e-> in the present without a preceding <*-w->; due to a-umlaut, verbs with <*-i-> in the present have merged with those with <*-e->. Some of the verbs have an <-a-> in the present; this is conditioned by a preceding /v/. The class has split further with some verbs exhibiting e-breaking, with forms existing with both a <-ja-> form and an <-e-> form. All of the <-ja-> verbs are etymologically <*-e-> verbs, but are being analogically replaced by a generalised <-e-> form. Many verbs also retain an unrelated present tense that took a different evolutionary route.

Princ. Part Grade
I -e-/-a-
-ja-/-?-
II -a-
III -u-
IV -u-
-o-

They have two acceptable forms for the passive stem vowel: an analogical <-u-> or an etymological <-o->.
Example verb <lęppą> (crawl):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st lęppa lęppum ląpp lųppum
2nd lęppiʀ lęppið ląppt lųppuð
3rd lęppið lęppą ląpp lųppų
Subjunctive 1st lęppa lęppim lỹppi lỹppim
2nd lęppiʀ lęppið lỹppiʀ lỹppið
3rd lęppi lęppį lỹppi lỹppį
Passive 1st lỹppi lųppand lųppað lųppund
2nd lỹppiʀ lųppaʀ
3rd lỹppið lųppað
Participle lęppandi lęppandaʀ lųppann lųppaniʀ
Imperative 1st lęppiviʀ
2nd lęppiðu lęppiʀ
Class IV VerbsEdit

The fourth class of strong verbs is nearly defunct, with four verbs in total: <troðą> (trample), <svąrą> (fester, rot, become infected/infested), <kvamą> (approach) and <dvalą> (forget). They exhibit the following alternation:

Princ. Part Grade
I -o-/-va-
II -a-/-va-
III -ø̄-/-ø-
IV -o-

Example verb <svąrą>:

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st svąra svǫ̈rum svąr sø̄rum
2nd svąriʀ svąrið svąrt sø̄ruð
3rd svąrið svąrą svąr sø̨̄rų
Subjunctive 1st svąra svąrim sø̨̄ri sø̨̄rim
2nd svąriʀ svąrið sø̨̄riʀ sø̨̄rið
3rd svąri svąrį sø̨̄ri sø̨̄rį
Passive 1st sø̨ri sǫrand sǫrað sǫrund
2nd sø̨riʀ sǫraʀ
3rd sø̨rið sǫrað
Participle svąrandi svąrandaʀ sǫrann sǫraniʀ
Imperative 1st svąriviʀ
2nd svąriðu svąriʀ
Class V VerbsEdit

Class V strong verbs are inherited from most Proto-Germanic class V verbs, specifically excluding verbs with <*-eha-> that turned into new class VII verbs with <-ē->. Class V verbs have one of {-e-, -va-, -ja-, -i-} in the present, but otherwise have the same alternations. Additionally, verbs with <-i-> have two different infinitives: one in <-> and one in <-ą>. Some verbs from other strong classes do not have the same present grade as standard class V verbs, but exhibit identical alternations.

They exhibit the following alternation:

Princ. Part Grade
I -e-/-va-/-ja-/-i-
II -a-/-va-
III -ē-/-vā-
IV -e-/-va-/-ja-

Example verb <gjatą> (get, receive, obtain):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st gjata gjötum gat gētum
2nd gjatiʀ gjatið gatt gētuð
3rd gjatið gjatą gat gētų
Subjunctive 1st gjata gjatim gēti gētim
2nd gjatiʀ gjatið gētiʀ gētið
3rd gjati gjatį gēti gētį
Passive 1st gjati gjatand gjatað gjötund
2nd gjatiʀ gjataʀ
3rd gjatið gjatað
Participle gjatandi gjatandaʀ gjatann gjataniʀ
Imperative 1st gjativiʀ
2nd gjatiðu gjatiʀ
Class VI VerbsEdit

Class VI strong verbs are inherited from Germanic class VI verbs, where all of the old <-j-> present verbs had gotten analogised into normal class VI verbs but usually with a <-e-> present. They exhibit the alternation:

Princ. Part Grade
I -(v)a-/-e-
II -ō-
III -ō-
IV -a-

Example verb <skeðą> (hurt, insult):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st skeða skeðum skōð skōðum
2nd skeðiʀ skeðið skōtt skōðuð
3rd skeðið skeðą skōð skōðų
Subjunctive 1st skeða skeðim skōði skōðim
2nd skeðiʀ skeðið skōðiʀ skōðið
3rd skeði skeðį skōði skōðį
Passive 1st skeði skaðand skaðað sköðund
2nd skeðiʀ skaðaʀ
3rd skeðið skaðað
Participle skaðandi skaðandaʀ skaðann skaðaniʀ
Imperative 1st skeðiviʀ
2nd skeðiðu skeðiʀ
Class VII VerbsEdit

Class VII verbs are an innovation from Proto-Germanic class V strong verbs with an <-eha-> or <-ehwa-> in the present, as well as some weak verbs with <-eh->. There is a small number of these verbs.

They exhibit the following alternation:

Princ. Part Grade
I -ē/ø̄-
II -ā/ȫ-
III -ēg/ēgv-
IV -eg/egv-

Example verb <ēą> (explain, elaborate):

Present Past
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Indicative 1st ēa ēum ā ēgum
2nd ēiʀ ēið āt ēguð
3rd ēið ēðą ā ēgų
Subjunctive 1st ēa ēim ēgi ēgim
2nd ēiʀ ēið ēgiʀ ēgið
3rd ēi ēį ēgi ēgį
Passive 1st egi egand egað egund
2nd egiʀ egaʀ
3rd eigð egað
Participle ēandi ēandaʀ egann eganiʀ
Imperative 1st ēiviʀ
2nd ēiðu ēiʀ

See alsoEdit

Vāgøgjaskt/Lexicon
Vāgøgjaskt/Texts
Vāgøgjaskt/Poetic Forms

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