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Vāgøgjaskt/Lexicon

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This is the page of a thematic lexicon of Våg Islander, otherwise also known as Vāgøgjaskt Stömm.

AviansEdit

þröstʀ - masc. u-s. [*þrastuz]
bird, (specifically) small bird
fljūgą (flaug, flugum, flogað) - str. II [*fleuganą]
intr. fly
trn. transport sth/sby. (acc) by flight
egg (eggjum, eggją) - neu. ą-s. [*ajją]
egg, ovum
fjöðʀ (fjaðʀaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*feþrǭ]
feather
hrafni - masc. an-s. [from ON hrafn]
raven
ari - masc. an-s. [*arô]
falcon
örnʀ - masc. u-s. [from ON ǫrn]
eagle
ugvil (ugvili, ugvils) - fem. a-s. [*uwwilǭ]
owl
þjöðʀ (þjöðʀ, þjöðri, þjöðʀs) - masc. ʀ-s. [*þeduraz]
wood grouse
höfkʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*habukaz]
hawk
önd (endaʀ) - fem. a-s. [from ON ǫnd]
duck
kuldʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*kuldaz]
flock/murder (of birds)
paðʀ (panns) - masc. ʀ-s. [from *paþaz by analogy with maðʀ]
migratory route, migration path

MetallurgyEdit

ūr - neu. ą-s. [*ūrą]
raw bog iron
īsarn - neu. ą-s [*īsarną]
natively smelted iron; iron
jārn - neu. ą-s. [from ON járn]
Norse iron, foreign iron
sylfir - neu. ą-s. [from an alternation of *silubrą]
silver
gull - neu. ą-s. [*gulþą]
gold
tin - neu. ą-s. [*tiną]
tin
blȳ (blȳvi, etc.) - neu. ą-s. [*blīwą]
lead
āʀ (ā, eiʀi, āʀs, eijaʀ, ȫjum, āją) - masc. irr/ʀ-s. [*āz~*aiz]
bronze
jaskri - masc. an-s. [*h1ésh2orHom??]
copper
jāʀnʀ - adj. a-s. [same origin as <jaskri>, probably influenced by <jārn>]
coppery, copper-red
jārnʀ - adj. a-s. [jārn-ʀ]
ironish, iron-grey
rauði - masc. an-s. [*raudô?]
iron ore
grōni - masc. an-s. [*grōnô?]
copper ore
akʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*akraz < *akrą?]
steel, iron alloy
stāl - neu. ą-s. [from ON stál]
steel
stēlji - masc. an-s. [*stahlijǫ̂ < *stahl-ij-ō < *stahliją < *stahlą]
steel object; steel weapon
massingʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*massingaz]
brass
eirr (eiʀ) - masc. ʀ-s. [*aizaz]
ore, mineral

GemologyEdit

ybriʀ - masc. an-s [*urb-ijaz < *arbô]
gem, gemstone
remark: the word shifted the meaning of **urbą "heirloom" from *arbô
urb (urf) - neu. ą-s. [*urbą < *arbô]
gem, gemstone
gnōʀi - masc. an-s. [*gnōzô < *grōzô < *greus-aną]
dark-hued opal (most commonly red or black)
remark: the meaning is a partial calque-translation from Greek; the original meaning derives from a now-lost verb *greusaną, giving an unattested *gnjūʀą (to cry, be agitated/scared)
ryðniʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [ryð-(i)niʀ]
ruby
ūrögn (ūragnaʀ) - fem. a-s. [ūr-ögn]
pearl
mersniʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*mar-isō-nārijaz]
topaz, sapphire (blue); blue gemstone

Soil, GroundEdit

ögn (agnaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*agnō]
grain of sand
sandʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*sandaz]
sand
söndʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*samdaz]
sand
remark: stylistic variant of sandʀ
fuld - fem. a-s. [*fuldō]
soil, dirt

Names and NicknamesEdit

heitą (heit, hytum, hetað) - str. I [*haitaną]
itr. be named, be called
trn. regional be named (gen/dat)
Styrmiʀ (Styrmi, Styrmi, Styrmi, Styrmis) - masc. ʀ-s. [*sturm-ijaz]
stormmaker, stormgiver
Dvargetniʀ (Dvargetni, Dvargetni, Dvargetni, Dvargentis) - masc. ʀ-s. [dvarg-et-niʀ]
dwarfeater
Dvargetnja (Dvargetnją, Dvargetnją, Dvargetni, Dvargetnjaʀ) - fem. a-s. [dvarg-et-nja]
dwarfeatress

Colours, OpticsEdit

gølʀ (gølją/gulį gøli/gulimʀ gølt/gulla) - adj. u-s/irr. [*geluz~*gulwaz]
yellow, golden
remark: the adjective preserves an ancient ablauting paradigm; the nominative and accusative have the stem gøl-, from the u-umlaut of *gel-, and the dative and genitive have *gul-
hēgvi (hēgg, hēgva) - adj. i-s. [*hēwjaz]
blue, dark blue
hēfi (hēf, hēfa) - adj. i-s. [*hēwjaz]
blue, dark blue
myrkvʀ (myrkvi, myrkt) - adj. u-s. [from ON myrkr]
dark, dim, black
sölʀ (söl, sölt) - adj. a-s. [*salwaz]
pale, faint, not opaque; yellowish
bląkkʀ (blǫ̈kk, bląkkt) - adj. a-s. [*blankaz]
black, dark
blāʀ (blȫ, blātt) - adj. a-s. [*blēaz < *blēwaz]
blue, black, livid
døkkʀ (døkk, døkkt) - adj. a-s. [from ON døkkr]
dark, dull
jarpʀ (jörp, jarpt) - adj. a-s. [from ON jarpr]
beige, skin-coloured
svartʀ (svört, svart) - adj. a-s. [*swartaz]
black
rauðʀ (rauð, rautt) - adj. a-s. [*raudaz]
red
ryðją (-dda, -ddum, -ðjað) - reg. I [*rudjaną]
itr. turn red
trn. turn sby. (gen) red; paint sby. (gen) red
fient. be red, have a red hue
grø̄ni (grø̄n, grø̄na) - adj. i-s. [*grōniz]
green
gylli (gyll, gylla) - adj. i-s. [gull-i]
golden
bjartʀ (björt, bjart) - adj. a-s. [*berhtaz]
bright; pale, white
hvītʀ (hvīt, hvītt) - adj. a-s. [*hwītaz]
white
remark: although a native Vāgøgjaskt word, its frequency and usage are reinforced and backed by its prevalence in Old Norse

GreetingsEdit

heill (heil, heili, heilaʀ, heil) - adj. a-s. [*hailaz]
phrs. hello, good day; hail
gōðą dag - phrs.
good day, hello
strangnaðu - phrs.
hello, be healthy

HumansEdit

maðʀ (manns) - masc. ʀ-s. [*mann-az]
man, human
hjöllʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*heluþaz]
poet. man, yeoman
kvanną - fem. a-s. [*kwennǭ]
woman
barn (börn) - neu. ą-s. [*barną]
child, offspring
ungbarn (ungbörn) - neu. ą-s. [ung-barn]
infant, baby

Warfare, ExplorationEdit

MaritimeEdit

syltja - fem. a-s. [*sultjō]
brine, coarse saltwater
byrla - neu. an-s. [*burilô < *birilô]
mast
teinn - masc. ʀ-s. [*tainaz]
forestay, backstay
tørvą - fem. a-s. [*terwǭ]
tar, pitch
tjūn - neu. ą-s. [*teuną]
loss of life at sea, man overboard
nōti - masc. an-s. [*nōtô?]
bowsprit
nōʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*nōz]
ship deck
skip - neu. ą-s [*skipą]
ship
nökkvi - masc. an-s. [from ON nǫkkvi]
boat, fishing/whaling boat
ferją - fem. a-s. [*farjǭ]
ferry between two places
fergją (-gða, -gðum, -gjað) - reg. I [*fargijaną]
itr. sink (at sea)
trn. push sth. down, press sth.
trn. squeeze sth. tight
raufʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*raubaz]
loot, plunder, booty

ViolenceEdit

ękkją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*a(n)k-ijaną?]
trn. kill sby. with a sharp object; stab sby. to death
tēją (tā, tēgum, tegað) - str. VII [*teh-janą < *tah-janą]
trn. tear, lacerate
trn. +dat tear, pierce sby's (dat) skin on body part (acc)
rekją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*rek-janą]
trn. cause sby. to be buried, kill sby.
trn. +dat cause sby. (dat) to bury sby. (acc)
remark: semantically very emphatic verb, almost never used in a way that doesn't imply a marked difference in status, rank or power
rjūfą (rauf, rufum, rofað) - str. II [*reuf-aną]
trn. have a bone broken
rȳfją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*reuf-ijaną]
trn. +dat break sby's (dat) limb, bone, joint (acc)
botją (-tta, -ttum, -jað) - reg. I [unknown, of Sámi origin; cf NSm botnjat (twist, turn)]
trn. +dat dislocate sby's (dat) joint, limb (acc)
remark: very strong and crude, not used for generic descriptions or renarrations as it conjures a specifically cruel image
rȳkją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*reuk-janą]
trn. burn sby. alive, burn sby. to death
lekją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*lek-janą]
trn. cause sby. (acc) to leak
trn. cause sby. (acc) to leak sth. (dat)
aflepją (-ta, -tum, -jað) - reg. I [*ab-lep-janą]
trn. de-lip, remove lips; render unable to speak, physically silence (acc)
leðją (-tta, -ttum, -ðjað) - reg. I [*leþ-janą < *leþr-ijaną]
trn. skin/flay sby. (acc)
trn. skin/flay sby's (dat) body part (acc)
hinkją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*hink-janą]
trn. break sby's legs, make sby. limp (dat)
serðą (sarð, surðum, sorðað) - str. II [*serþ-aną]
itr/trn. rape, sexually violate (acc)
sjarrą (-aði, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*serþ-ōną]
trn. rape out of hate, defile (acc)
skjąrfą (skarf, skurfum, skorfað) - str. II [*skerb-aną]
trn. rape during war, rape as a punishment, rape so as to shame sby. (acc)
skjąrtą (skjąrt, skjųrtum, skjǫrtað) - str. II [*skert-aną]
trn. geld, castrate (acc)
skrø̨ppją (skrø̨pða, skrø̨pðum, skrø̨ppjað) - reg. I [*skimp-ijaną]
trn. cause sby. to die of hypothermia, freeze sby. (dat)
sprengją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*sprang-ijaną]
trn. make sby. jump, push sby. off a cliff or high place (dat)
skeggją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*skag-janą]
trn. twist, shake (acc)
derją (dar, durjum, dyrjað) - str. III [*darj-aną < *dar-janą]
trn. damage, make incapable of work, incapacitate (gen)
remark: the verb is a strong verb that came about as an analogisation of a weak causative verb into the pattern of third class strong verbs
stingvą (-vaði, -vaðum, -vað) - reg. II [Latin stinguó]
trn. put out, extinguish (of fires, acc)
trn. extinguish (a people, species, nation, state acc)
hvātą (hveit, hvitum, hvātað) - str. I [from ON hvátȧ]
trn. stab sby. (acc)

Verbal AbuseEdit

skondą (skaund, skundum, skonda) - str. II [*skōnd-aną]
trn. scold, humble, toss insults at sby. (acc)
høggją (-jaða, -jaðum, -jað) - reg. II [*haw-j-ōną < *haw-ēną?]
trn. mock sby. (acc)

WarfareEdit

tēnðʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*tahja-n-þiz]
war, warfare
reką (rak, rēkum, rekað) - str. V [*wrek-aną]
trn. drive out, expel
trn. exterminate, systematically eliminate
rekją (-kta, -ktum, -kjað) - reg. I [*wrek-janą]
trn. sow discord amongst sby/sth. (acc), incite violence in, put in a warlike state
trn. cause sby/sth. (acc) to wipe self out
sjaɡʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*seguz]
victory, conquest
böð (baðaʀ) - fem. a-s. [of Sámi origin; cf SSm báđar (refugee)]
flight, exodus; usually from a warzone
escape

WeaponsEdit

gelgja - fem. a-s. [*galgijō]
stick, staff; mace
barða - fem. a-s. [*bardō]
one-handed axe
øxʀ (øxjaʀ) - fem. i-s. [*akwisī]
two-handed axe, lumberjack axe

GloryEdit

hjarð (hjörð) - neu. ą-s. [*herþą < *herþaz]
courage, honour

AppearanceEdit

skjallʀ (skjöll, skjallt) - adj. a-s. [*skelhaz]
small, small-faced; small-eyed
fagʀ (fög, fagt) - adj. a-s. [*fagaz]
handsome, possessing attractive attributes linked to strength

HairEdit

snöggvʀ (snögg, snöggt) - adj. a-s. [*snawwaz]
bald, short-haired
hrjūfʀ (hrjūf, hrjūft) - adj. a-s. [*hreubaz]
unshaven, rugged, rough

BodyEdit

kūt - neu. ą-s. [*kūtą]
body fat; soft tissues
kūtʀ (kūt, kūtt) - adj. a-s. [kūt-ʀ]
plump, fat
hurr (huʀ, huʀt) - adj. a-s. [*hurhaz]
lean, thin, not fat

Body ModificationEdit

māsi - masc. an-s. [*mēsô < *mēsǭ]
scar
mēsją (mēʀða, mēʀðum, mēsjað) - reg. I [mās-ją]
trn. scar sby. (dat)
brandʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*brandaz]
scar, branding mark, thane/slave mark

ArchitectureEdit

heimʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*haimaz]
home, household; Heimat
hūs - neu. ą-s. [*hūsą]
house, dwelling
geðmʀ - masc. i-s. [*gadmiz? gaþmiz?]
room
rēfʀ - neu. ą-s. [*rēfizą]
roof
dalla - neu. a-s. [unknown, of Sámi origin; cf NSm dállu (house, farmhouse)]
hut, hovel
höll (hallaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*hallō]
hall, main chamber
delją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [dall-ją]
itr/trn. build, construct
hyrðʀ - fem. i/ja-s? [*hurdiz ~ *hurdijō < *hurdiz]
door, gate
remark: the noun has two acceptable inflectional paradigms; no matter the declension it is in, it takes the definite case suffixes of ja-stem nouns
rēfją (-fða, -fðum, -fjað) - reg. I [rēf-ją]
trn. house sby, shelter sby, let sby. (acc) live with nom
bȳją (bȳða, bȳðum, bȳjað) - reg. I [*bū-janą < *bū-aną]
itr. live in, reside at etc.
staki - masc. an-s. [*stakō]
stick, small wooden beam
døypą (-pta, -ptum, -pjað) - reg. I [from ĪD døypȧ]
itr/trn. dig (a hole/ditch)
hrauʀ - neu. ą-s. [*hrauzą]
grave, burial mound
hrjūfʀ (hrjūf, hrjūft) - adj. a-s. [*hreubaz]
rough (of soil, rock, clay)
uneven, irregular (of building, construction, architectural object)
døppną (-pða, -pðum, -pnjað) - reg. I? [from ĪD døppnȧ]
itr dig a grave (for sby. +dat)
heggja - fem. a-s. [*hagjō]
wall, house fence

InteriorEdit

gøðją (-ðða, -ððum, -ðjað) - reg. I [*gadō-janą]
trn. stuff sth. (acc)
trn. + höndu, stuff sth. (acc) with sth (dat)

Tools, UtilitiesEdit

þreifją (-fða, -fðum, -fjað) [*þraibjaną]
trn. use sth. as a tool, use tool
skökull - masc. ʀ-s. [*skakulaz]
chain, fetter; link in a chain
mark - neu. ą-s. [*marką]
mark, etching, sign
ląss - neu. ą-s. [*lamsą]
lock
lęssją (lęssta, lęsstum, lęssjað) - reg. I [ląss-ją]
itr. lock
trn. lock sth. acc (a door, box etc. )
trn. lock sth. acc behind sth. gen (a door, box etc.)
meis - neu. ą-s. [*maisą < *maisaz]
box, chest; (storage item carved from a) trunk
leija - fem. a-s. [*lajō]
chisel
skrūð - neu. ą-s. [*skrūdą]
gear; buckle

Economy, CommerceEdit

farmʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*farmaz]
goods, merchandise; a good, item of merchandise
gefą (gaf, gēfum, gefað) - str. V [*geb-aną]
trn. give sth. (acc), give sth. to sby. (dat)
enną (ann, unnum, unnað) - str. III [*winnaną]
itr. work, perform commercialised activities
ynną (ann, unnum, unnað) - str. III [*winnaną]
itr. work, perform commercialised activities
virðją (-dda, -ddum, -ðjað) - reg. I [*wirþ-ijaną]
itr/trn. be worth, have value
fermją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*farm-ijaną]
trn. to move goods, money; to transfer ownership of X to dat
feyją (fau, fyjum, føjað) - irr/str. II [*fauj-aną]
itr/trn. to sift (through acc), to seek riches
fjörvą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*ferhw-ōną]
itr/trn. to log/clear (an area acc); to clear area for further exploitation
rȳją (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*rūj-ōną?]
trn. shear, pluck wool off of
gjatą (gat, gētum, gjatað) - str. V [*getaną]
trn. get, receive, obtain
fala - fem. a-s. [*falō < *falǭ]
field, plot of land
penningʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*panningaz]
penny, coin
belgʀ - masc. i-s. [*balgiz]
wallet
hrjūð - fem. a-s. [*hreudą]
mint, peppermint
starf - neu. ą-s. [*starfą]
labour, effort
skattʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*skattaz]
wealth
remark: most frequently in the plural
dȳri (dȳr, dȳra) - adj. i-s. [*deuriz < *deurjaz]
expensive, pricy
dȳrniʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [dȳr-niʀ]
expensive item, finery
mjalið - neu. ą-s. [*meliþą]
honey (as a trade good)
gaʀðʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*gazdaz]
ingot, bar
milð - neu. ą-s. [*miliþ- < *mili(þ)]
unit approx. 4.89898kg of honey; general quantity of ~4.89898kg (+gen)
salt - neu. ą-s. [*saltą]
salt
mēðja - fem. a-s. [*mēþijō]
measurement, unit of measurement
mjötuðʀ - masc. u-s. [*metōduz]
mercantile ruling, trading pass
mjatą (mat, mutum, mutað) - str. III [*met-aną]
itr/trn. measure, weigh, estimate an unit of measurement of sth.
hagą (-aði, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*hag-ōną? from ON?]
trn. order, make an order to acquire, purchase sth, have sth. acquired (dat)
hȳʀðją (hȳʀddi, hȳʀddum, hȳrðjað) - reg. I [merger of *huzdą & *hūz-janą]
trn. rent an item, area, building (gen)
trn. hire sby. (dat)
pakki - masc. an-s. [*pakkô]
pack; hoard
pekkją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*pakk-ijaną]
trn. pack
refl. pack own belongings

Animal HusbandryEdit

stī - neu. ą-s. [*stiją]
sty, swine pen
stjūrr (stjūr, etc.) - masc. ʀ-s. [*steuraz]
one unit of cattle; bull or cow
geldʀ (geld, geltt) - adj. a-s. [*galdjaz]
infertile (of cattle)
not giving milk, unmilkable
rīðą (reið, riðum, reðað) - str. I [*rīd-aną]
itr. ride, travel on horseback
trn. ride acc

RelationshipsEdit

sø̄kją ā (-ði, -ðum, -ðjað) [sø̄kją + ā]
itr. visit
trn. visit sby. (acc)

Romance, Marriage, LustEdit

(tǫ̈̄, tỹ̄ji, tāʀ; tȫʀ, tȫjum, tāją) - fem. a-s. [*tawō]
romantic couple
snōta - fem. a-s. [*snōtō]
kidnapped bride, abducted bride, forced bride
mjaðlīkʀ/-līka - masc/fem. ʀ/a-s. [mjað-līkʀ/lika]
endear. mead-like, intoxicating
elską (alsk, ēlskum, elskað) - str. V [*alisk-aną]
trn. love, cherish
elskʀ (elsk, elskt) - adj. a-s. [*aliskaz]
dear, beloved, cherished
elskuðʀ - fem. ja-s. [elsk-u-ðʀ]
love, affection
hunanglīkʀ/-līka - masc/fem. ʀ/a-s. [hunang-līkʀ/līka]
endear. honey-like, honeyed
kvamną (kōmn, kōmnum, kamnað) - str. VI [*kwemn-aną < *kwenn-aną]
itr. get married
trn. get married to sby.
trn. get sby. (acc) married to sby. (gen)
trn. get a couple (acc) to marry each other

AnimosityEdit

fjandʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*fijandz]
enemy, nemesis
hverfą (hvarf, hurfum, horfað) - str. III [*hwerb-aną]
itr. disappear
trn. betray sby, disappear on sby. (dat)
regni - masc. an-s. [*raginô < *raginą]
coll. conspirators
conspiracy

FriendshipEdit

gāʀa - adv. [gāʀ-a]
together, with one another
vinʀ - masc. i-s. [*winiz]
friend
nāð - fem. a-s. [*nēþō]
grace, politeness, hospitality
friendship
senną þurr (sann, sunnum, sunnað) - str. III [*sinnaną]
trn. long for sby, miss sby. dearly
trn. long for a place, head for a place
trn. crave a substance, food, drink

Family, KinshipEdit

mōðiʀ (mø̄ðiʀ) - fem. i-s. [*mōþer]
mother
brōðiʀ (brø̄ðiʀ) - masc. i-s. [*brōþēr]
brother
faðiʀ - masc. i-s. [*faþer]
father
ȫheimlingʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*awa-haim-ilingaz]
maternal uncle (mother's brother, mother's sister's husband)
ȫheimlingja - fem. a-s. [ȫheimling-ja]
maternal aunt (mother's sister, mother's brother's wife)
föðri - masc. an-s. [*fadurjô]
paternal uncle
föðrja - fem. a-s. [föðr-ja]
paternal aunt
tøgʀ - masc. u-s. [*teguz]
siblings, group of siblings
föðriggi - masc. an-s. [*fadurwjô]
paternal cousin
mōðriggi - masc. an-s. [by analogy with föðriggi]
maternal cousin
alą (el; ōl, ōlum, alað) - str. VI [*alaną]
trn. bring up, raise

LGBTQIA+Edit

gaʀkynslung - masc/fem. a-s. [gaʀ-kyns-lung]
cisgendered person
gaʀkynslingʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [gaʀ-kyns-lingʀ]
cisgendered male
gaʀkynslingja - fem. a-s. [gaʀ-kyns-lingja]
cisgendered female
gaʀkyndʀ - fem. ja-s. [gaʀ-kyn-ðʀ]
cisgenderism

Nobility, AuthorityEdit

brax (brag, bragi, brax) - masc. ʀ-s? [*bragz]
prince, son of a noble
remark: unlike its reanalogised synonym bragʀ, the noun brax has two acceptable plurals: both bragaʀ and bregjaʀ are equally valid plurals of the noun
bragʀ (brag, bragi, brax) - masc. ʀ-s? [*bragz]
see brax
jarlʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [from PN *erilaz]
lord, earl, jarl; king
løyfą (-fta, -ftum, -fjað) - reg. I [from ĪD løyfȧ]
trn. permit sby. (dat) sth. (gen)
konungʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [from ON konungr]
king
kybliʀ (kybli, kyblis) - masc. ʀ-s. [*kubl-ijaz]
noble; wool-owner
remark: derives from a word for a piece of wood; the semantic shift occurred primarily due to the fact that wool was often wound up around the sticks and presented to noblemen in the form of a tithe -- the shift was: stick > piece of wool > wool tithe > wool-owner
þegn (þegn, þegni, þegns) - masc. ʀ-s. [from ON þegn]
thane, slave
gēflung - masc/fem. a-s. [*gēbi- + -lung]
gifted servant, gifted slave
hlysną (-aði, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*hlus-in-ōną]
dep. itr/fient. be sung in songs, be notable
kragi - masc. an-s. [*kragô]
collar, necklace (of dogs, slaves)
(rare) leash
bjagą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [unknown, likely of Sámi origin; cf NSm beahkit (crawl)]
itr. 'bend the knee', swear fealty
itr. + uf swear fealty to dat

Clothes, GarmentsEdit

dȳki - masc. an-s. [from ON dýki]
clothes, apparel
henpʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*hanipaz]
ribbon; rope
röggva - fem. a-s. [*rawwō]
wool, woolen cloth, woolen clothing
spinnsröggva - fem. a.s. [spinn-s-röggva]
lace
rȳmi - masc. an-s. [*reumô]
belt
nȫld (nāldaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*nēlþō < *nēþlō]
sewing needle
nökkvaðʀ (nökkuð, nökkvatt) - adj. a-s. [*nakwadaz]
naked, without clothing
fękką (fąkk, fųkkum, fųkkað) - str. III [*finkaną]
fient. be dressed nicely
itr. have nice clothes
bāną (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [unknown, likely of Sámi origin; cf NSm batnit (spin)]
trn. weave, spin thread; knit

Common, MundanityEdit

gmeinʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*ga-mainaz]
common folk, populace
remark: the noun is a reanalysed adjective

LegalEdit

fagri (fagʀ, fagra) - adj. i-s. [*fagraz]
fair, of a fair judgement, unbiased
equal, of equal standing and/or rights
kunną (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*kunn-ōną]
trn. try, judge sby. (dat)
galgi - masc. an-s. [*galgô]
gallows
remark: the noun seems to be related to gelgja in some way

OccupationsEdit

lēkjaʀ (lēkja, lēki, lēkjas) - masc. ʀ-s. [*lēkjaz]
doctor, medicus
þauli - masc. an-s. [*þaulô]
law-speaker, þing-speaker

Art and CraftEdit

kynnari - masc. an-s. [*kunn-ārijô]
artist, craftsman
kynnją (kynnða, kynnðum, kynnjað) [*kunn-ijaną]
itr. fient. be an artist, be capable
trn. craft sth. (acc)

ReligionEdit

hami - masc. an-s. [*hamô]
religious fact, religious truth
Ymjaʀ (Ymja, Ymi, Ymjas/Ymis) - masc. ʀ-s? [*Jumjōz < *Jumjaz]
a mythical giant
nykʀi - masc. an-s. [*nikwazô < *nikwazaz]
sea serpent, sea monster
nȳkaʀ (nȳkʀą) - neu. ą-s [from a vṛddhi derivation of *nikwaz-ą < *nikwaz-az]
ritual sacrifice by drowning or submersion
nȳkją (nȳkða, nȳkðum, nȳkjað) - reg. I [nȳk(ʀ)-ją]
trn. sacrifice sby/sth. by drowning, submersion in water (acc)
itr. practice or perform nȳkaʀ
geistʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*gaistaz]
spirit, ghost
draugʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*draugaz]
apparition, wraith
drug - neu. ą-s. [*drugą]
hallucination, state of seeing apparitions
anda - neu. an-s. [*andô]
soul
tenną (tann, tunnum, tunnað) - str. IV [*tinnaną]
itr. burn (of a funeral pyre)
itr. burn (inside a funeral pyre)
eisą - fem. a-s. [*aisǭ]
funeral pyre
regn (regni, rögn, ragną) - neu. ą-s. [*raginą]
cosmic power, deity (specifically non-giant)
dvargi - masc. an-s. [*dwargô < *dwargaz]
dwarf
dyrgʀ - fem. i-s. [*dwirgī < *dwargī]
she-dwarf

WelfareEdit

heitʀ - fem. ja-s. [*haitį̄]
fever, temperature
bylgją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I. [*bulg-ijaną < *bulgj-aną]
itr. to cough, heave, hack
bylgðʀ - fem. ja-s. [*bulg-iþō]
common cold, fever
plǫ̈̄gʀ - masc. u-s. [*plāg-uz < Lat. plāga]
plague, pestilence
þrastąplǫ̈̄gʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [þrast-ą + plǫ̈̄gʀ]
flu, bird influenza, 'bird plague'
varkʀ - masc. i-s. [*werkiz]
headache, migraine
marrą (mōrr, mōrrum, marrað) - str. VI [*marzjaną? *marzōna? cf. Far <marra> (to plague)]
trn. to pain, to make sick
merðʀ - masc. i-s. [*marz-þiz]
nausea, dizziness
rȳgðą (raugð, rugðum, rogða) - str. II [**reug- ??]
trn. to infect, to pass contagion
rjūgðą (raugð, rugðum, rogða) - str. II [**reug- ??]
trn. to infect, to pass contagion
rȳgsl - neu. ą-s. [*reug-slą?]
infection, disease
fnerrą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*fnezz-ōną]
itr. sneeze
hinką (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*hinkōną < *hinkaną]
itr. limp, walk with a limp
hink - neu. ą-s [*hinką < *hinkōną]
limp, bad gait, injured gait
reipʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*raipaz]
band, bandage
bati - masc. an-s. [*batô]
recovery
gaupna - fem. a-s. [*gaupnō]
hand injury
strangną (-naða, -naðam, -naði) - reg. VI [*strang-naną]
fient. be healthy, be firm (of body and mind)
háfi - masc. an-s. [of Sámi origin; cf SSm hávvi (wound, gash)]
cut, laceration, gash, wound

Opinions, MoralityEdit

gōðʀ (gōð, gōtt; betʀi, betʀ, betʀa; besti, best, besta) - adj. a-s. [*gōdaz]
good, decent, positive

MentalEdit

þykkją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*þunk-ijaną]
+dat +gen cause to recognise, remind of
þỹkkją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*þunk-ijaną]
+dat +gen cause to recognise, remind of
frȫʀ (frȫ, frȫtt) - adj. a-s. [*fraw-az?]
quick, intelligent, with a good memory
teiðą (-aði, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [unknown, of Sámi origin; cf NSm <diehtit> (know)]
itr/trn. understand, know
vanjandi (vanjand, vanjanda) - adj. part. i-s. [venją < **wanaz]
accustomed, used to
remark: the adjective is a participle from <vanją>
vanją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*wan-janą??]
trn. get used/accustomed to
remark: the verb is a reanalysis of the adjective <*wanʀ> in pre-Vāgøgjaskt, paradoxically derived from its own participle
knūą (knau, knuum, knoað) - str. II [*knjūą < *kneuaną??]
fient. to be understanding, be knowing, be intelligent
ylją (yl/ylt/yl/yljum/yljuð/yljų vatta/öttum yli/ylim ylði/ylðim yli/yljand yljuð/yljund) - irr. [*wilaną]
trn. want, desire
biðją (bað, bēðum, bjaðað) - str. V [*bidjaną]
itr. hope, want
trn. hope for, want (acc) to happen; ask sby. (dat) for sth. (acc)
hrāðą (garōð, garōðum, raðað) - irr/str. IV [*(h)rēdaną, *herōd < *rerōd]
itr/trn. decide, decide on, decide to do + at
remark: the verb derives from a reduplicative verb, with a reanalysis of its reduplicated componenent
frekją aftʀ (-kta, -ktum, -kjað) - reg. I [frek-ją + aftʀ]
trn. lust after, want, desire (dat)
þękkją (-kta, -ktum, -kjað) - reg. I [*þank-janą]
trn. think, be of the opinion that
itr. think in a manner of adv
kunni (kunn, kunna) - adj. i-s. [*kunþiz]
known, familiar, famous (of a person, place)
kunni - masc. an-s. [*kunþijô < *kunþiz]
acquaintanceship, familiarity (of/with a person, people, place)

VocalEdit

rāmʀ (rām, rāmt) - adj. a-s. [*rēmaz]
hoarse, of a hoarse voice
fīsą¹ (feis, fysum, fesað) - str. I [*fīs-aną]
itr. whisper, speak quietly, say quietly
fīsą² (feis, fysum, fesað) - str. I [from ON físȧ]
trn. blow on a fire, fan a fire
fīʀą (feis, fyʀum, feʀað) - str. I [*fīs-aną]
homonymic complement, see → fīsą¹
segją (sagði, sögðum, segjuð) - reg. I [*sag-janą]
trn. say, talk about, utter
telją (taldi, töldum, teljuð) - reg. I [*tal-janą]
trn. count, sum up
trn. + umb talk about, speak about, foretell about, recount about
stemmą (stamm, stummum, stommað) - str. III [*stimn-aną < *stimn-oną?]
trn. speak (a language, acc)

PhysicalEdit

gīną (gein, ginum, genað) - str. I [*gīnaną]
fient. be tired
itr. yawn

AgeEdit

gamall (gamal, gamalt; eldʀi; eldstʀi) - adj. ʀ-s. [from ON gamall]
old
gōmull (gōmul) - masc. ʀ-s. [vṛddhi-formation from *gōmwalaz < *gamalaz]
sickness, decay, aging

YouthEdit

kjaldą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*keld-ōną?? < *kelþ-ōną]
itr. play, joke around
trn. play using sth. (acc); con, cheat sby. (acc)
leiką (lek, likum, leikað) - str. II? [*laikaną]
itr. play, have fun
vaxą (ōx, ōxum, vaxað) - str. VI [*wahs-ijaną]
itr. grow, grow up
trn. raise
ungʀ - adj. a-s. [*jungaz]
young
sveinn - masc. ʀ-s. [*swainaz]
boy, lad
mø̄ʀ (mey, mø̄ʀi, meyjaʀ, meyjum, meyją) - fem. ja-s. [*mawīz]
girl, lass
mögʀ - masc. u-s. [*maguz]
young man, boy
ynglung - masc/fem. a-s. [ung-lung]
young person
young man/woman
ösnʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*asnuz < *asunz]
young servant/slave, young thane
male concubine
ystʀ (ystʀ, ystt) - adj. a-s. [*ustrjaz]
energetic, youthful, lively, strong
ystʀ (yst, ysti, ystjaʀ) - fem. ja-s. [*ūstrī < *ustrī]
energy, youth

Food, Food ProductionEdit

jakką (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*jag-ōną? *jakk-ōną?]
itr. hunt, go hunting
jekkją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*jakk-ijaną?]
trn. hunt, chase after, seek
freyðą (frauð, fruðum, froðað) - str. II [*freuþaną]
itr/trn. make a broth, cook in a stew, be cooked in a stewed
ostʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*justaz]
cheese, white cheese
veiðą (veiðiði, veiðiðum, veiðjaði) - reg. III [from ON veiðȧ]
trn. hunt, trap, stalk sth.
ystją (-stta, -sttum, -stjað) - reg. I [*ust-ją]
itr/trn. curdle (sth. acc)
seltją (-ltta, -lttum, -ltjað) - reg. I [salt-ją]
trn. salten, make salty
fø̄ða - neu. an-s. [from ON fœða]
snack, nourishment
mjöðʀ (mjaðʀ, miðiʀ) - masc. u-s. [*meduz]
mead, honey alcohol
hunang - neu. ą-s. [*hunangą]
honeyed foodstuffs, honeyed food
seltjaskʀ (seltjusk, seltjaskt) - adj. a-s. [salt-j(a)-skʀ]
salty
lø̄ʀ - neu. ą-s. [*lawizą]
ham, dried meat
fengʀ - masc. i-s. [*fangiz]
catch, caught prey (especially of terrestrial animals)
ījakk - neu. ą-s. [ī-jakk]
prey caught during hunting
gummi - masc. an-s. [gumbô]
quickbread, sweet pastry
merki - masc. an-s. [*marikô]
lettuce, celery
skekki (skekka, skokki, skokkʀ, skokkaʀ, skokką) - masc. an-s. [*skink- ~ *skunk-]
dried meat, ham
remark: the noun preserves ablaut where the nominative and accusative singular retain one stem (skekk-) and other forms retain another (skokk-)

PersonalityEdit

þorną ([þurna], þornaða, þornaðam, --) - reg. IV [*þurz-naną]
fient. be afraid, be a coward
blaðną ([blaðna], blaðnaða, blaðnaðam, --) - reg. IV [*blad-naną]
fient. be cunning, witty
frēgi (frēg, frēga) - adj. i-s. [*frēg-iz]
well-known; charismatic
þekkʀ (þekk, þekkt) - adj. a-s. [*þakkjaz]
elegant, sophisticated, fluently mobile
ų̄viss (ų̄vis, ų̄vist) - adj. a-s. [ų̄-viss]
insecure, unknowing
viss (vis, vist) - adj. a-s. [*wisaz < *wissaz]
observant
kvykki (kvykk, kvykka) - adj. i-s. [*kwikwiz < *kwikwaz]
lively, alive, energetic
frekʀ (frek, frekt) - adj. a-s. [*frekaz]
greedy; lustful, carnal

Emotions, StatesEdit

glaðʀ (glöð, glatt) - adj. a-s. [*gladaz]
glad, happy; flat, even
frektʀ - fem. ja-s. [frek-ðʀ]
lust, carnal urge
gjall - masc. ʀ-s. [*gelaz]
lust, desire
gaman - neu. ą-s. [*gamaną]
joy, happiness
ękki - masc. an-s. [*ankjô < *a(n)kiz?? *a(n)k(aną)??]
ache, regret, longing
kų̄bʀ - neu. ą-s. [*kumbzą?? < *kumbrą?]
sorrow, deep sadness
kvarą (kvar, kvārum, kvarað) - str. VI [*kwer-aną]
itr. sigh
ø̄lą (ȫl, ēglum, eglað) - str. VII [reanalysed *wōl-janą > *wōlj-aną]
itr. bemoan, complain
angarr (angaʀ) - masc. ʀ-s. [*angazaz]
anger, depression-fuelled rage
angʀįsk - neu. ą-s. [*angaz-an-iską]
enraged, angry individual
remark: the noun is a substantivisation of a hypothetical adjective *angʀįskʀ (-sk, -skt)
tār (tāss, tȫgʀ, tȫgʀum, tāgrą) neu. ą-s. [*tahrą]
tear
remark: the noun preserves the Verner alternant of the plural
tērją (-rði, -rðum, -rjað) - reg. I [*tahr-ijaną]
int. tear up, start crying quietly
gremną ([grimna], gremnaða, gremnaðam, --) - reg. IV [*grim-naną]
fient. be angry, be enraged, be furious
gremja (-mða, -mðum, -mjað) - reg. I [*gram-janą? *grim-janą ~ *grim-jōną?]
trn. make sby. (acc) angry, enrage sby.
gremmą (gramm, grummum, grommað) - str. III [*grim=m-aną]
itr. fume, be angry, be enraged, throw a tantrum, go amok
ōgn - fem. a-s. [from ON ógn]
fear, terror
intimidation, terror tactic

Senses and SensationsEdit

ittʀ - masc. i-s. [*jihtiz]
pain, anguish, paralysis
kvöla (kvölą, kvöli, kvalaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*kwalō]
torment, torture
remark: the noun kvöla is a merger of two competing paradigms, *kvöl and *kvala, derived from the same root
sø̄ą (sȫ, sēgum, segvað) [*sehwaną]
itr. be able to see
trn. see sth. (acc)
heyʀą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*hauzijaną]
itr/trn. hear, perceive
sefją (-fði, -fðum, -fjað) - reg. I [*safjaną]
itr. have the taste of sth. (dat)
trn. taste sth, sample flavour of sth. orally, try sth. edible or drinkable in small amounts

SleepEdit

geymją (-mði, -mðum, -mjað) - reg. I [*gaum-janą]
trn. wake sby. (acc) up
gaumʀ (gaum, gaumt) - adj. a-s. [*gaumaz]
awake, alert, well-rested
afgeymją (-mði, -mðum, -mjað) - reg. I [af-geymją]
trn. tire sby. (ac), make sby. exhausted

ProfanityEdit

bogðą (-aði, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [unknown, of Sámi origin; cf SSm <bohkedh> (fuck)]
trn. fuck
(varðaðu) bogðaʀ - phrs.
get fucked; fuck off
skītą - (skeit, skitum, sketað) - str. I [*skītaną]
trn/itr. shit, defecate
skītʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [skīt-az]
shit
skītją - (-tti, -ttum, -jað) - reg. I [skīt-janą]
trn. cause to shit; poison
vamją - (-ði, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*wamm-janą]
int. barf, regurgitate
int. be utterly repulsed by
vamʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [**wam-az? < *wamm-az < *wamm-iz]
vomit
excl. used with extreme displeasure or surprise; comparable to "shit!"

Narrative, StoryEdit

töl (talaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*talō ~ *talą]
tale, story, recap, recounting, recollection

Linguistics, LiteracyEdit

stömm - neu. ą/a-s? [*stamnō < *stamnijō <~ **stimn-ōną??]
language, speech of a people; dialect
remark: the noun has both an a-stem declension that comes from its etymology, and an ą-stem declension that originated in analogy with other suffixless neuters; it itself is always neuter
orð - neu. ą-s. [from ON orð]
word, utterance
urð - neu. ą-s. [*wurdą]
word, utterance
remark: the noun has partially been supplanted by the Norse borrowing, "orð"; it occurs as an infrequent alternative to the Norse loan
rūna - fem. a-s. [*rūnō]
letter, rune
fuþark - neu. ą-s. [from the names of the runes]
alphabet, futhark
bōkʀ (bōkʀ, bø̄kiʀ) - fem. u-s. [*bōks]
book

PopulationalEdit

grȫðʀ (grāðʀ) - masc. u-s. [*grēduz]
famine, hunger
grȫðgʀ (grȫðug, grȫðugt) - adj. a-s. [*grēdugaz]
hungry, starved (of a population)

PoliticsEdit

fani - masc. an-s. [*fanô]
flag, emblem
kreigą (kraug, krugum, krogað) - str. II [*kraig-aną]
trn. stand up to/resist sby. (dat)

ShapesEdit

böllʀ - masc. u-s. [*balluz]
ball

Sequences, OrdinalsEdit

sīðʀ (sīð, sītt) - adj. a-s. [from ON síðr]
next, following

MaterialsEdit

leðʀ - neu. ą-s. [*leþrą]
leather, hide
gruf - neu. ą-s. [*grubą < *grubuz]
coarse leather, hide
hurn - neu. ą-s. [*hurną]
horn
horn - neu. ą-s. [from ON horn]
horn
remark: less frequent, stylistic variant of hurn
steinn - masc. ʀ-s. [*stainaz]
stone, rock
løymi - masc. an-s. [from ĪD løymı]
clay, peat

Material QualitiesEdit

deiginn (deigin, deigint) - adj. a-s. [*daig-īnaz]
soft, mushy, rubbery
kolann (kolan, kolant) - adj. a-s. [participle of unattested *kalaną]
stiff, hard, rigid

WaterEdit

mjöðmʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*medumaz]
waist-deep water
vötn - neu. ą-s. [*watōr~*watn-]
water
remarks: the noun has a common North Germanic shape: its stem is derived from the oblique stem
afi - masc. an-s. [of Sámi origin; cf SSm áhpi (bay)]
inlet, bay
hrönn - fem. a-s. [*hraznō]
wave
merr (meri, mers, merjum, merją) - neu. ą-s. [*marją < *mariz]
sea, large body of water
leyja (ley, leyʀi, leyjaʀ, leyjum) - fem. a-s. [*lajō?]
bedrock, sea bottom
lauðʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*lauþraz]
sea foam, lather
kremmją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*kramm-ijaną]
itr. (dat) thaw, melt (of ice, hoar)
krammʀ (krömm, krammt) - adj. a-s. [*krammaz]
thawed, molten (of cold liquids)
fųttʀ (fųtti, fųtt) - adj. u-s. [*funhtuz]
wet, swampy, soaked (of terrain, landscapes, biomes)
fukką (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*funk-ōną]
itr. (of streams) flow, flow gently
itr. (of streams) sparkle
fient. (of streams) look drinkable and/or clean
fuss - neu. ą-s. [*fursą < *fursaz]
waterfall

GeographyEdit

mörk - fem. a-s. [*markō]
forest, marsh
mȳrr - fem. a-s. [from ON mýrr]
mire, bog
kvappi - masc. an-s. [*kwappaz~*kwabô]
swamp, marsh
dǫ̈ppfala - fem. a-s. [*damp-falǭ; second element attested in Vg fala]
flooded field, flooded flatland
kvøyką (-kta, -ktum, -kjað) - reg. I [from ĪD kvøykȧ]
itr. liven up, bloom (of a forested area); flood (of a forested area)
fjall - neu. ą-s. [*fellą? *felhą?]
mountain
brjāðʀ - masc. i-s. [*brēþiz]
geyser; hot spring, hot pool
dall - masc. ʀ-s. [*dalaz]
dale, valley
øgg (øgjaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*awjō]
island, isle
ǭss (ǭs, ǭsi, ǭss etc.) - masc. ʀ-s. [*̄ōnsaz < *ōsnaz]
lake, pond
ōss (ōs, ōsi, ōss, etc.) - masc. ʀ-s. [*ōsaz]
estuary, river mouth
staðʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*stadaz < *stadiz]
town, settlement, city
nurðʀ (nurð, nurtt) - adj. a-s. [*nurþeraz]
north, northern
suðʀ (sunn, sunnt) - adj. a-s. [*sunþeraz]
south, southern
heimaland - neu. ą-s [heima-land]
homeland, Heimat, native country/area

Locations, Nationalities, LanguagesEdit

Beyheimʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [Bey-heimʀ]
Bohemia
Vāgøgjaʀ - fem. pl.t. a-s. [Vāg-øgjaʀ]
The Vag Islands
Norðvagʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [Norð-vagʀ]
Norway
Sassi - masc. an-s. [*sahsô]
a Saxon man
Sessja - fem. a-s. [*sahs-ijō]
a Saxon woman
Sassąland - neu. ą-s. [sassą-land]
Saxony, Saxonland
England - neu. ą-s. [eng-land]
England
Englendskt - neu. adj. a-s. [england-sk-t (stömm)]
English, the English language
djūpð - fem. a-s. [*diupiþō]
cave, cavern
arch. depth (of sea, caves)
Albiland - neu. ą-s. [albi-land]
Scotland
Makʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [from OIr. macc]
derog. Scotsman, Irishman

Time, PropertyEdit

eftri - adv. [*aftiri]
again, anew
tīðją - fem. a-s. [*tīdijǭ < *tīdiz]
time
tīðʀ (tīð, tītt) - adj. a-s. [*tīdijaz]
on time, punctual
sāni - adv. [*sēnê < *sēna]
soon
- adv. [*nu]
now
tīði - adv. [tīð-i]
over time, eventually
tīðą (-aði, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*tīd-ōną]
trn. time sby's time/intervals
bigą̄ (bigigg, bigiggjum, --) - irr. supl. [*bi-gāną]
pass, go by
gārr (gȫʀ, gāʀt) - adj. a-s. [??]
same, consistent
berr (beʀ, beʀt) - adj. a-s. [from ON berr]
only, alone
beʀa - adv. [beʀ-a]
only, in no way other than, nothing/nobody other than
gāʀvag - adv. [gāʀ-vag]
consistently, all the time
allvag - adv. [all-vag]
always, continuously
holvag - adv. [hol-vag]
rarely, infrequently, a small number of times
skolą (mōsa, mø̄sum) - irr. supl. [*skul-aną]
aux. shall, will, is going to (certain)
bēttą (bās, būsum/būʀum, būttað) - irr. supl. [unknown, of Sámi origin; cf SSm båetedh]
aux. will, is going to (impersonal, inactive, without agency)
mēttą (-aði, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [unknown, of Sámi origin; cf SSm maehtedh]
aux. will, is going to (uncertain, flexible)
sneimni (fjarri, fjarsti) - adv. [*snaiman-ê??]
early, before the alloted time

CalendarEdit

myrginn - masc. ʀ-s. [*murgenaz]
morning, sunrise
nyðvi - masc. an-s. [*niþwô < *niþwǭ]
sunset, evening
aðn - neu. ą-s. [*aþną]
season
mānaðʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*mēnōþs]
month, lunar cycle
āʀ - neu. ą-s. [*jērą]
year
ī gjāʀ - phrs. [from ON í gjár]
yesterday
ø̨̄tʀ (vątʀ, vǫ̈tum) - masc. u-s. [*wintuz < *wintruz]
winter, cold time
remark: the native word has previously been a rarer alternative to Norse vętʀ, but has since regained ground
vętʀ - masc. u-s. [from ON vėtr]
winter, cold time
remark: the word used to be more frequent than native ø̨̄tʀ, but has since lost ground it had gained
vār - neu. ą-s. [*wērą]
spring
harfst - neu. ą-s. [*harbustą < *harbustaz]
autumn, fall
haldąsk (hagildsk, hagildumsk, haldaðsk) - irr. [*hald-aną-sik]
itr. wait, await, expect
haldiðsk frą̄ (hagilðsk, hagildundsk, --- ) - irr. dep.
dep. gen await nom; be awaited by gen

PhysicsEdit

lęttʀ - adj. a-s. [*linhtaz]
light, lightweight

DecayEdit

(fȳja -- fȳ, fūʀ, fȳjaʀ -- fūją) - masc. an-s. [*fūô]
mold
sūką (-aði, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*sūkōną]
itr. spoil (of food)
sȳkvą (-ða, -ðum, -vað) - irr/reg. I [*sūkw-ijaną?]
trn. have food (acc) spoiled
trn. spoil sby's (dat) food (acc)

PolarityEdit

eigi - adv. [from ĪD eigi?]
negation adverb; "not"
eigi var - adv.
not ... either

AnatomyEdit

höfuð - neu. ą-s. [*hafudą]
head
hjaʀni - masc. an-s. [*herzn(az) < *hersnô]
scalp
hjassi - masc. an-s. [*hersnô]
brain
augą - neu. an-s. [*augô]
eye
hjartą - neu. an-s. [*hertô]
heart
möndull - masc. ʀ-s. [*mandulaz]
shoulderblade
kvöðʀ - masc. u-s. [*kweþuz]
uterus, vagina
fyst (fistaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*fistō < *h₂písdeh₂?]
vulva, vagina

PhysiologyEdit

fluma - neut. an-s. [*pléwmn̥]
air, breath
aną (ōn, ōnum, anað) - str. VI? [*ananą?]
itr/trn. breathe; breathe sth. (acc) in
enją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*an-ijaną]
trn. breathe sth. (acc) into sth. (dat)
drekką (drakk, drukkum, drokkað) - str. III [*drink-aną]
itr. drink
trn. drink sth.
etą (āt, ētum, etað) - str. V [*etaną]
itr. eat
trn. eat sth.
trn. eat sth. out of a set, group, part of collective unity (gen)
burtą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [of Sámi origin; cf SSm boradit (eat)]
trn. eat (of livestock)
trn. feed livestock

LocationEdit

kruttą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*krutt-ōną < krattô]
itr. be inside sth (gen)

Activities, ActionsEdit

byrją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*bur-janą]
trn/itr. begin, start
byrvą (bör, burum, burvað) - str. III [*bur-janą]
trn/itr. begin, start
byrją (ber, byrjum, byrjað) - str. III [*bur-janą]
trn/itr. begin, start
slotą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [*slutōną]
trn/itr. stop, cease doing; cease being (dat)
nenną (nann, nunnum, nonnað) - str. III [*ninþ-aną]
itr. dare, muster up courage
mølvją (-vða, -vðum, -vað) - reg. I [*malw-janą]
trn. crush, pulverise, intentionally turn to powder or small bits
malą (mōl, mōlum, malað) - str. IV [*mal-aną]
trn. break, smash
krękkja (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [krękk + *-ijaną]
trn. make sby. slip, fall; push sby.
vann (vön, vant) - adj. a-s. [*wanaz]
repetitive, annoying
sø̄kją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*sōk-janą]
trn/itr. seek, search, look for
mjaką (mak, mukum, mokað) - str. III [*mek-aną]
trn. hinder, prevent, obstruct
bītą (beit, bitum, bītað) - str. I [*bīt-aną]
trn. bite, chew on
gnagą (gnōg, gnōgum, gnagað) - str. VI [*gnag-aną]
trn. gnaw, chew on, mangle
skaką (skōk, skōkum, skakað) - str. VI [*skak-aną]
itr/trn. swing, shake
irpją (-ta, -tum, -jað) - reg. I [*irp-ijaną]
itr. collect leaves, pick leaves
trn. pick leaves off tree
temja (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*tam-janą]
trn. tame, domesticate
hylją (-da, -dum, -jað) - reg. I [*hul-ijaną]
itr/trn. dig, carve, make hollow
gørvja (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*garw-ijaną]
trn. do, perform, prepare sth to be done
hafą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. III [*hab-janą]
trn. have, possess
eigą ([ei] eittaða, eittaðum, eittað) - irr/reg. II [*aiganą]
trn. have (be related to, be acquainted with, be in a relationship with)
tāką (gaðōk, gaðōkum, takað) - irr/str. VI [*tēk-aną, *gadōk < *tedōk < *tetōk]
trn. squeeze, hold tightly
remark: the verb derives from a reduplicative verb, with a reanalysis of its reduplicated componenent
tēkją (gaðø̄kta, gaðø̄ktum, tekjað) - irr/reg. I [*tēk-janą]
trn. grasp at; try to get away from (acc)
remark: the verb is extremely peculiar: its paradigm shows it is an extremely old and irregular derivation of the root of tāką, it both has strong-like alternations and weak dental suffixes in its conjugation
bendą (band, bundum, bundað) - str. III [*bind-aną]
trn. bind, tie sth.
magą (mag/matt/mag/mugum/muguð/mugų matta, mattjum, --) - irr. [*mag-aną]
itr/trn. know, be able to
remark: in the subjunctive, the verb takes the circumstantial obligative meaning of "could, should, ought to, be motivated to"
bringą (brątt, brųttum, brǫttað) - str. III [*bring-aną]
trn. bring sth, carry sth. to sth. + til

CanidsEdit

hundʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*hundaz]
dog, hound
gjalpą (galp, gulpum, golpað) - str. II [*gelpaną?]
bark, whimper
ylgʀ - fem. ja-s. [*wulgī]
arctic fox; arctic vixen
tȳfʀ - fem. ja-s. [unknown, Germanic; cf ON <tófa> (fox)]
red fox; red vixen
ūlfʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*wulfaz]
wolf
vargʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*wargaz]
poet. arch. wolf, fox; thief
ȳlfją - fem. a-s. [*wulfiljǭ < *wulf-ilǭ]
she-wolf
ylgi - masc. an-s. [*wulg-jô]
arctic fox male
tȳfi - masc. an-s. [tȳf- + *-jô]
red fox male

FelinesEdit

lāðʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [lādaz??]
(male) cat
lēðja - fem. a-s. [lāð-ja]
(female) cat
lāðlung - masc/fem. a-s. [lāð-lung]
kitten

ReptiliansEdit

yrmʀ - masc. i-s. [*wurmiz]
snake; worm; dragon
urm - neu. ą-s. [*wurmą < *wurmiz]
sea reptile; snake young
ųkki - masc. a-s. [*unkô]
snake
dreki - masc. an-s. [from ON dreki]
dragon
draki - masc. an-s. [*drakô]
dragon

EducationEdit

skōli - masc. an-s. [*skōlô < *skōla]
school
freðją (frōð, frōðum, fraðað) - str. VI [*fraþjaną]
itr. learn
trn. study
freðją (-tta, -ttum, -jað) - reg. I [*fraþ-ijaną]
trn. teach

Quantities, DeterminersEdit

gnōgʀ (gnōg, gnōgt) - adj. a-s. [*ga-nōgaz]
enough, sufficient
gnōga - adv. [gnōg-a]
sufficiently, decently, to an appropriate extent; a sufficient amount, sufficient
nøkkvarr (nøkkur, nøkkvart) - adj. a-s. [from PN *ne-waitk-hwarjaʀ]
some, an unspecified quantity
nøkklʀ (nøkkl, nøkkt) - adj. a-s. [from PN *ne-waitk-hwilikaʀ]
some (thing/body), an unknown or unspecified entity
nøkka - adv. [nøkk-a]
some, a little bit of
allʀ (öll, allt) - adj. a-s. [*allaz]
all, every, all of
alla - adv. [all-a]
all, all of
mikill (mikil, mikilt; meiʀi, meiʀ, meiʀa; meistʀi, meistʀ, meistʀa) - adj. a-s. [*mikilaz]
much, a lot
mikilt - adv. [mikilt < mikill]
much, a lot; many, plenty
remark: this adverb is directly formed from the adjective; a more regular form such as **mikla is unattested.
hvarr (hvör, hvart) - adj. a-s. [*hwaraz < *hwarjaz]
each, every

QuestionsEdit

hvaʀ - pron. [*hwaz]
who
hvat - pron. [*hwat]
what
hvas - pron. [hvas]
whose, from whom; gen
hvī - hv-w. [*hwī]
why
hvā - hv-w. [*hwā]
with what
hvaʀa - hv-w. [*hwezō]
with whom
hvar - hv-w. [*hwar]
where
how ... (specifying adverbs)
hvanna - hv-w. [hwann-a?]
when
hvannjaʀ - hv-w. [hvann-*jōz]
whence, where from
hvanni - hv-w. [hvann-i]
where to
hvīlkʀ - hv-w. [*hwilīkaz]
what kind of, which type of

NumbersEdit

einn (einn/einn/einum/eins eina/einu/einiʀ/einnaʀ ein/ein/einum/eins) - adj. irr. [*ainaz]
one
tvann (tvann/tvąnn/tvörjum/tvaną tveinn/tvęinn/tvörjum/tveiną tvą̄/tvąnn/tvörjum/tvaną) - adj. irr. [*twa-?]
two
þrīʀ (þrīʀ/þrī/þrīggjum/þrīgą þrēʀ/þrēʀ/þrīggjum/þrīgą þrjā/þrjų̄/þrīggjum/þrīgą) - adj. irr. [*þrīz]
three
fjöðʀi (fjöðʀi/fjöðʀąʀ/fjöðʀum/fjörrą fjöðʀinn/fjöðʀįnn/fjöðʀum/fjörrą fjöðʀą/fjöðʀąʀ/fjöðʀum/fjörrą) [*fedwōz < *fedwōr]
four
'fjaðʀi (fjaðʀi/fjaðʀąʀ...) [*fedwōz]
four
famf (---) [*femf < *fimf]
five
sex (---) [*sehs]
six
sjūn (---) [*sebun]
seven
attu (---) [*ahtōu]
eight
njų̄ (---) [*newun]
nine
tjų̄ (---) [*tehun]
ten
ęllifu (---) [*ainalif]
eleven
tvalf (---) [*twalif]
twelve
þrīgtjų̄ (---) [þrīg-tjų̄]
thirteen
fjörrtjų̄ (---) [fjörr-tjų̄]
fourteen
famtjų̄ (---) [famf-tjų̄]
fifteen
sextjų̄ (---) [sex-tjų̄]
sixteen
sjų̄tjų̄ (---) [sjūn-tjų̄]
seventeen
njų̄tjų̄ (---) [njų̄-tjų̄]
nineteen
tuttugu (---) [from ON tuttugu]
twenty
tvattugu [hybrid of tva- and (tu)-ttugu]
twenty
þrīttugu [þrī-ttugu]
thirty
fjaðʀugu [fjaðʀ-(tt)ugu]
forty
tvą̄ttugu [tvą̄-ttugu]
forty
famttugu [fam(f)-ttugu]
fifty
sextugu [sex-(t)tugu]
sixty
þrjāttugu [þrjā-ttugu]
sixty
sjūttugu [sjū-ttugu]
seventy
attugu [att-(tt)ugu]
eighty
fjaðʀagu [fjaðʀa-(ttu)gu]
eighty
njų̄ttugu [njų̄-ttugu]
ninety
hondrað (hondraðs) - ą-s. [*hundaradą]
hundred
tvann hondraðs
two hundred
þūsund (þūsandaʀ) - a-s. [* *þūsundjō < *þūsundī]
thousand
tvann þūsandaʀ
two thousand

PropertiesEdit

snjallʀ - adj. a-s. [*snellaz]
quick, swift
hlūðʀ - adj. a-s. [*hlūþaz]
strong, powerful; booming
kūmʀ - adj. a-s. [*kūmaz]
weak; impotent

ShapeEdit

krangʀ (kröng, krangt) - adj. a-s. [*krangaz]
bent, turned, twisted
fattʀ (fött, fatt) - adj. a-s. [*fattaz]
bent, twisted, crooked
valdi (vald, valda) - adj. i-s. [*waldiz]
big, large
holʀ (hol, holt) - adj. a-s. [*hulaz]
small; empty
holl (hol, holt) - adj. a-s. [*hulaz]
small; empty
snø̄fri (snø̄fr, snø̄fra) - adj. i-s. [*snōbriz]
narrow, tight
reitʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*raitaz]
square; square plot of land, square unit of measurement

IdentityEdit

samʀ - adj. a-s. [*samaz]
same, the same
ąðʀ (önn, annt) adj. a-s. [*anþaz < *anþeraz]
other, another

ChemistryEdit

brennją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*brannijaną]
trn. burn, light, set ablaze
brenną (brann, brunnum, bronnað) - str. III [*brinnaną]
itr. burn
drukinn (drukin, drukint; drukną) - adj. a-s. [*druknaz]
dry; arid
drokną ([drukna], droknaða, droknaðam, --) - reg. IV [*druk(n)-naną]
fient. be dry, arid
dryknją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*drukn-ijaną]
trn. +gen.o dry, remove moisture
eitri - neu. an-s. [*aitrô < *aitraz]
poison
eitrą (eittja, eittjum, eittjað) - reg. I [**eitr-ją? < *aitr-ijaną]
trn. kill sby. via poison
hyrr (hyrji, hyrji, hyrji, hyrjaʀ etc.) - fem. ja-s. [*hurijō < *hurjō?]
fire, ember
kyndją (-dja, -djum, -djað) - reg. I [*kund-janą]
trn. kindle, light
mjaltą (malt, multum, moltað) - str. III [*meltaną]
itr. melt, dissolve
meltją (-tta, -ttum, -jað) - reg. I [*melt-ijaną]
trn. melt, dissolve
māsla - fem. a-s. [*mēslō]
paste, mush, cream

AstronomyEdit

Svagl - neu. ą-s. [*swagilaz]
Sun, star
Māni - masc. an-s. [*Mēnô]
Moon
skīną (skein, skinum, skenað) - str. I [*skīnaną]
itr. shine
trn. shine upon, illuminate
heimʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*haimaz]
world
allheimʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [all-heimʀ]
all-world; universe, cosmos
heima - adv. [*haimō]
homewards, home
jarða - fem. a-s. [*erþō]
earth
jörð - fem. a-s. [*erþō]
earth
luftʀ (luftʀ, lyftiʀ, luftą) - masc. u-s. [*luftuz]
sky, heaven
dagʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*dagaz]
day, daytime
nātt (nātt(i)/nātt(i)/nātt(i)/nāttu(ʀi)/nētuʀ(aʀ) nētuʀ(niʀ)/nētuʀ(niʀ)/nētuʀ(niʀ)/nȫttum(-unum)/nāttą(ną)) - fem. irr. [*nahts]
night, nighttime

MotionEdit

ōlką (ōlk, ōlkum, ulkað) - str. irr (VI?) [*wulk-ōną]
itr. run, move quickly
trn. race; (+ aftʀ ) chase after
hottą (hottaði, hottaðum, hottað) - reg. II [*hutt-ōną]
itr. run, sprint, move quickly
hyttją (hytti, hyttum, hyttjað) - reg. I [*hutt-ijaną]
trn. make sby. (acc) run; chase sby.
gą̄ ([gāna, gānam] igg, iggjum, --) - irr. supl. [*gāną]
itr. go, move, head towards
kvamą (kvam, kømum, komað) - str. IV [*kwem-aną]
trn. approach
itr. arrive, come, approach
troðą (trað, trøðum, troðað) - str. IV [*trud-aną]
trn. trample, step on; raze (with feet)
krękką (krąkk, krųkkum, krǫkkað) - str. III [*krink-aną]
itr. slip, lose traction
itr. (by extension) fall, slide from prominence
krỹppją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [*krump-janą]
trn. bend, twist, deform sth.
leką (lak, lukum, lokað) - str. II [*lekaną]
itr/trn. leak (+acc sth.)
sōttą (-aða, -aðum, -að) - reg. II [unknown, possibly of Sámi origin; cf NSm čuoččahit (steady self)]
itr. sit up, rise from a lying-down or prostated position

DirectionEdit

niða - adv. [by analogy to uppna]
from below
niði - adv. [by analogy to uppi]
down
niðʀ - adv. [*niþer]
downwards
uppna - adv. [*ubanē]
from above
uppi - adv. [*uppai]
up above, up (static)
upp - adv. [*upp]
upwards
burtna - adv. [by analogy to uppna]
from away
burti - adv. [by analogy to uppi]
away (static)
burt - adv. [from ON burt]
away (lative)

SoundsEdit

syngvą (sang, sungum, songvað) - str. III [*singwaną]
itr/trn. sing, chant
songlą (svangl, sønglum, songlað) - str. IV [song-lą]
itr/trn. chant, hum, recite
hlehją (hlōh, hlōhum, hlahað) - str. VI [*hlahj-aną]
itr. laugh
hlē - neu. ą-s [*hlahją]
laughter, humour

FishEdit

sīl - neu. ą-s. [*sīlą]
herring, fry

Small AnimalsEdit

mörðʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*marþuz]
marten

MeteorologyEdit

blāsą (blas, blusum, blosað) - str. III [*blēs-aną]
itr. blast, blow (of wind)
blēʀą (blāʀ, blēgʀum, blegʀað) - str. VII [*blehs-aną? *blēs-aną?]
itr. blast, blow (of wind)
vindʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*windaz]
wind
skȳ - neu. ą-s. [*skiwją]
cloud, fog
skȳðʀ - fem. ja-s. [skȳ-ðʀ]
cloudiness, state of fog
svāla - fem. a-s. [unknown, of Sámi origin; cf SSm svaaloe]
snowy weather, snowy landscape
ūr - neu. ą-s. [*uwurą]
drizzling rain, drizzle, soft rain
regn - neu. ą-s. [*regną]
rain, medium rain
stormʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*sturmaz]
storm, torrential rain
tǫ̈̄rr - masc. u-s. [*tanhuz < *tanhuz (adj)]
windy drizzle, windy weather with small amounts of rain
jūsą (aus, usum, osað) - str. II [from ON ausȧ]
itr. to rain, to drizzle
ȳrją (-ða, -ðum, -jað) - reg. I [ūr-ją]
itr. to drizzle, to rain softly
regnją (-gna, -gnum, -gnjað) - reg. I [regn-ją]
itr. to rain

DerivationEdit

-lą - str. IV [*-il-aną]
forms verbal diminutives
-a - adv. [*-ô]
forms adverbs of manner from a-stem adjectives
-i - adv. [*-ê]
forms adverbs of manner from i/u-stem adjectives
-i - adj. i-s. [*-iʀ?]
forms i-stem adjectives from nouns
-vag - adv. [*wegaz]
forms adverbs of iterations (twice, thrice etc.)
-(n)iʀ - masc. ʀ-s. [*-(n)āriz < *-(n)ārijaz]
forms agent nouns out of verbs
-(n)ari - masc. ʀ-s. [*-(n)ārijô < *-(n)ārijaz]
forms agent nouns out of verbs
-(n)(i)ja - fem. a-s. [*-(n)āri-jō]
forms agent nouns out of verbs
-ja+I - fem. a-s. [*-ijō]
forms feminines from ʀ-stems.
-iʀ (-i, -i, -is) - masc. ʀ-s. [*-ijaz]?
forms nouns out of adjectives, often in the sense of possessing or creating a property or state
-skʀ (-sk, -skt) - adj. a-s. [*-iskaz]
forms a-stem adjectives from nouns; -ish, -y
-ðʀ - fem. ja-s. [*-iþō]
forms abstract nouns, nouns of state or being from adjectives, verbs, other nouns
-są+I - reg. II [*-isōną]
forms denominative verbs from certain abstract nouns
-ją+I - reg. I [*-(i)janą]
forms causatives from verbs or nouns
forms verbs relating to production of material
-inn (-in, -int) - adj. a-s. [*-īnaz]
forms adjectives of material from nouns, verbs
-(i)niʀ (-ni, -ni, -nis) - masc. ʀ-s. [*-īn-ijaz]
forms nouns with the material makeup of the material of other nouns, verbs
remark: the longer, bisyllabic variant is used after syllables with a heavy coda
-lingʀ+I - masc. ʀ-s. [*-il-ingaz]
forms nominal diminutives
forms nouns that possess an attribute from adjectives
forms nouns of descent from adjectives
-lung - masc/fem. a-s. [*-lingō]
forms nouns of descent from adjectives
forms gender-ambiguous diminutives or nouns that possess an attribute from the adjective
forms family names
forms first names
forms gender-ambiguous diminutive agent nouns from verbs
remark: while the noun itself can be either masculine or feminine, primarily as part of first or family names, it declines as an a-stem; it is grammatically feminine and takes feminine adjectives, although the pronouns used to refer to it vary accordingly
-lingja+I - fem. a-s. [*-il-ingjō < *-il-ing-ilǭ]
forms nominal diminutives
forms nouns of descent from adjectives

Particles, ConjunctionsEdit

at [*at]
introduces subordinate clauses; that
þiʀ [*þaizōi]
intruduces subordinate clauses; that
auk [*auk(aną)?]
and; links two phrases, less frequently clauses
ef [*jab < *jabai]
if (factual, real consequence)
if +subj (hypothetical)
[*ju]
but, whereas
enn [from ON enn]
than (in comparisons)
hvaðraʀ [*hwaþeraz]
introduces subordinate clauses; whether
þau [*þauh]
though, but; introduces counter-statements or counterbalancing statements
þun [*þanō]
because of this, thus
ȳn [*jainanō]
because of that, thus
svā þun [svā + þun]
because ....
hvan [*hwannē]
as, while, when

DemonstrativesEdit

þat [*þat]
that, it; dummy subject
sā/þann/þimm/þas
sū/þǭ/þeiʀ(a)/þeirr
þat/þat/þimm/þas
this, this one (proximate)
remark: the proximate demonstrative shares its plural with the pronouns
þessi
þessi/þenną/þömm/þas
þessi/þessą/þessaʀi/þessaʀ
þetta/þetta/þött/þas
that, that one (distant)
remark: the distant demonstrative shares its plural with the pronouns
þar [*þar]
there, that place, to that place

PrepositionsEdit

aftʀ prep. [*aftri?]
acc. after, just behind (spatial)
dat. after, following (temporal)
į̄ (ī, īn, į) prep. [*in]
dat. in, inside of
acc. into
ųb (ų̄b, umb, umm) prep.
dat. around, in the vicinity of
dat. around, surrounding
höndu [*handū?]
dat. using, with; inst
yfri [*ubiri]
dat. over, above
acc. across, above
yndri [*undiri < *under; by analogy with yfri]
dat. below, beneath
acc. towards the underside (lative)
ūʀ [??]
gen. out of (material)
dat. out of (ablative)
fen [*fanē?]
acc. from (ablative)
dat. from/belonging to (partitive)
dat. about, concerning (topical)
hreng [*hringō]
dat. about, regarding, concerning (topical)
frą̄ [*fram]
gen. by (passive agent)
dat. from (partitive, ethnic)
acc. due to, by
af [*ab]
acc. belonging to
introducing a subordinate clause sentence-initially
þurr [*þurhw]
acc. via, through, using X as the means of locomotion
acc. through, throughout, during (temporal)
acc. in, during (a story, book, tale)
glīx [*galīk-sam]
gen. such as, like
remark: formed by syncope of glīksam and is correspondingly a bit more informal
glīksam [*galīk-sam]
gen. such as, like
uf [*ub]
dat. beneath, below
ā (ą̄, an) [*ana]
dat. on, atop of
dat. at (of time)

InsectsEdit

- fem. a-s. [*bijō]
bee
tīkki - masc. an-s. [*tīkkô]
tick, louse

ArachnidsEdit

vafi - neu. ą-s. [*wabją]
web
þǫ̈̄ttʀ - masc. u-s. [*þanhtuz]
arch.́ thread; spider silk thread
þǫ̈ttʀ - masc. u-s. [*þanhtuz]
thread; spider silk thread
spinną (spann, spunnum, spunnað) - str. III [*spinn-aną]
itr. spin a web, weave a web (usually of spiders)
trn. spin sth. (acc) (often out of spider-silk)
spinnlung - masc/fem. a-s. [spinn-lung]
spider, 'spinling'

BiologyEdit

svąrą (svąr, sø̨̄rum, sǫrað) - str. IV [*swer-aną]
itr. fester, rot, become infected/infested
stjarfą (stjarf, stjurfum, stjorfað) - str. III [*sterb-aną]
itr. die
svaltą (svalt, sultum, soltað) - str. III [*swelt-aną]
itr. hunger, starve
svaltją (-tta, -ttum, -jað) - reg. I [*swelt-ijaną]
trn. starve, deprive of food
kvalą (kval, kvālum, kvalað) - str. V [*kwel-aną]
itr. become incapacitated
kynn - fem. ja-s. [*kunjō]
sex; grammatical gender

FloraEdit

blōmi - masc. an-s. [*blōmô]
flower
mus - neu. ą-s. [*musą]
moss
gras - neu. ą-s. [*grasą]
grass

TreesEdit

sefją - fem. a-s. [*safjǭ]
sap, tree sap
mast - neu. ą-s. [*mastą]
fragnant fruit
löggva - neu. an-s. [*lawwô?]
tree bark
lögg (löggvi, laggvaʀ) - fem. a-s. [*lawwō]
grove, thicket
lēglingjaʀ - fem. a-s. pl-t. [lāg-lingj-aʀ]
forest stand; cluster of short trees

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