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Valdirsk

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IntroductionEdit

Velhargjerne ! Virskaú lokvar Valdirska er śe.
Welcome ! This is an example of speaking Valdirsk.

DescriptionEdit

Valdirsk is a conlang with some West Scandinavian, Goidelic, Magyar, Latin and Croatian influences, but with a mainly innovative vocabulary and grammar. Its principal particularities consist in the Ablaut in nouns to mark dative, its prepositional casus.

Graphematics and PronunciationEdit

All letters are pronounced, except the optional /k/ at the end of infinitives. Here follows the pronunciation according to the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA):

Grapheme IPA
a a
b b
c t͡s
č t͡ʃ
d d
e (stressed) e
e (unstressed) æ
f f
g g
h h
i i
j j
k k
kh x, χ
l l
m m
n n
o o
ó ø
r ɾ, r̥, ʁ
s s
š ʃ
t t
u y
ú u
v v
z z

Diphthongs

IPA
au œi̯
au̯
Umlaut -->
i ai
e ei
a ó
o ó
ú u
ó au
u au

Examples: vili -> vaili, vedan -> veidan, hal -> hóli, mora -> móru, vúlda -> vuldu, rók -> rauki, hugan -> haugaIn most cases, the tone lays on the first vowel or vowel group. However, bounded morphemes (as -óv- or -ól-) when inserted into the word become its tonal centre.

NounsEdit

There are three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), two numbers (singular, plural) and four cases (nominative, accusative, dative, genitive). Particularly, the accusative is used as subject of an intransitive verb where the subject is an experiencer, while in transitive contexts the subject is in the nominative and the object in the accusative.

Masculine Sg. Feminine Sg. Neuter Sg. Masculine Pl. Feminine Pl. Neuter Pl.
Nominative - -a - -ar -ir -Umlaut-
Accusative -ur -u - -an -an -Umlaut-
Dative -Umlaut-i -Umlaut-u -Umlaut- -um -um -um
Genitive -a -ar -a -ova -ova -ova

Personal Pronouns Edit

1st Sing. 2nd Sing. 3rd Sing. 1st Plur. 2nd Plur. 3rd plur.
Nominative ir lak iad
Accusative jer
Dative mér lók
Genitive iódum

VerbsEdit

To be Praesens Passatum Futurum
Ininitiatum I'm about to be, I'm going to be (now) I was going to be I will be about to be, I will be going to be
Initiatum I am (being) I was (being) I will be (being)
Finitum I have been (I was until now) I had been

Here the tense (praesens, passatum, futurum) indicates the moment in which the action occurs, and the modus (ininitiatum, initiatum, finitum) if the action at that time was unbegun, in progress or finished.

Example with to be (vai, irregular):

Praesens Ininitiatum: va-sg-ak*, va-sk-ad, va-sk, va-sk-um, va-sk-ul, va-sk-an

Praesens Initiatum: va-k, va-d, va, va-um, va-ul, va-n

Praesens Finitum: va-ha-k, va-ha-d, va-ha, va-ha-um, va-ha-ul, va-ha-n

Passatus Ininitiatus: va-v-sg-ak, va-v-sk-ad, va-v-sk, va-v-sk-um, va-v-sk-ul, va-v-sk-an

* A -k can never be followed by another -k after a vowel, thus constructions as -kak, -kek, -kik etc. are impossible and the first -k has to be replaced by -g for sound harmony (-gak, -gek, -gik etc.)


Some verbsEdit

Activum Passivum
Infinitivum Praesens vai -
Passatum ha vakk -
Futurum ska vakk -
Participium Praesens vandi -
Passatum vakk -
Futurum varandi -

VocabularyEdit

Sample textsEdit

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

 - Article I of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Halar atlai fjókk vara vrúindiskai úd makkai a nókhvarn úd slovnum. Vara gjórvakk iódum hjedva úd novvar úd cvargaska makkdrekkum a góldar vrótsku.

Artikl I Aitlavordarska Vijórlokva Hailar Slovna

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