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Valesese

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Valesese
Dophysĥlli
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Ergative
Head direction
Head First
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
1
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Valesese is spoken on East Vales (which is west of West Vales), West Vales (which, in turn, is east of East Vales), and Northern Vales (which is north of the other Valeses, so it's okay. Northern Vales is also pretty boring.) Valesese has almost died out several times before. It was in strong use in the Valeses until Britain conquered them in 1830, which caused Valesese to go out of fashion with the city dwellers (the country dwellers weren't really aware that they were under new rule). They ruled until 1932, when rebels seized Dwosgh Ÿœghlen (known to the British as Dosuel), the capital of what is now West Vales. They established Southern Vales (which is now split into two parts, the communistic West Vales, and East Vales). During their reign, Valesese came back into vogue among the city dwellers. Sadly, they only reigned for 9 years. On July 12th, 1941, the Japanese took the Valeses. For 4 years, the Japanese reigned, but then they surrendered, yada, yada, yada. The Valeses were split into Southern and Northern Vales. 15 years later, Southern Vales was taken over by Communists (from the USSR!), but the USA fought a two-year battle against them, and Vales still split into East Vales, with its capital as Dwosgh Asinsen, and West Vales, with its capital as Dosuel. (By the way, if your surname is O'Neil, and you go to East Vales, expect plenty of questions about whether or not you're related to Rodger O'Neil, who fought adecisive battle later on in the war. Going to West Vales isn'y recommended. Northern Vales is just plain boring.) English was briefly considered as the official language for East Vales. (They are one of the only countries in the world, other than the USA, that still uses the royal system.) That's it, really.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Velar Epiglottal
Nasal

m

m

n

n

ŋ

ng

ʡ


ħ

Plosive p, b

t, d, dʷ

t, d, dw

k, g, gʷ

k, g, gw

ʡ

ħ

Fricative

ɸ, β

ph, bh

θ, ð

th, dh

s, z

s, z

x, ɣ

j, gh

ʜ, ʢ

h, ĥ

Flap or tap

ɾ

r

Lateral fric.

ɬ

ll

Lateral app.

l

l

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close

i, y

i, y

ɯ, u

ÿ, u

Close-mid

e, ø

e, ø

ɤ, o

ö, o

Open

a, ɶ

â, œ

ɑ, ɒ

ä, a

AlphabetEdit

A, Â, Ä, B, D, Đ, E, G, H, Ĥ, Ħ, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, Ø, Œ, P, R, S, ẞ, T, U, Y, Ÿ, Z

PhonotacticsEdit

(P, T, A)V(C)(F, A, N) with P being a plosive, T being a tap, A being an approximant, F being a fricative, and N being a nasal.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No No Yes
Nouns No Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No Yes No No No No
Numbers No Yes No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Nouns have three cases Ergative, Absolutive, and Genitive.

Verbs have three tenses: past, present, and future. The past tense is further split into two other tense- aspect things: imperfective past and perfective past. There is a subordinating thing (I'm thinking it's an aspect. Not sure though.) for subordinate clauses. There is also an inchoative and a dynamic (Maybe they're moods?). The negative mood is formed by using an inflecting negative verb: gwus.

Instead of having adjectives, they have verbjectives (As I like to call them). So, instead of green thing, the sentence would be thing is-green. Instead of The Greek girl sings, it would be The girl is-Greek (In the subordinating!) sings.

Valesese is so head-first, it isn't funny.

For the nouns, there are three cases: ergative, absolutative, and genitive.

The basic sentence order is OSV (yes, I know, it's the rarest one.)

It is not a pro-drop language.

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

Boka beħsÿn ä ÿ bâkä. (I want a mint mocha)

Otas kogsus bölä. (Yogurt is good for you.)

Älbwøl rÿ dwe o äsœs elis. (Hold my books.)

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