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Valjar

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Valjar is a language evolving from Vjaryir (my 3rd conlang) in an attempt to give new life to an old concept, with similar vocabulary.


PhonologyEdit

Place of articulation → Labial Coronal Dorsal Radical consonant
Manner of articulation ↓ Bi­la­bial La­bio‐
den­tal
Den­tal Al­veo­lar Post‐
al­veo­lar
Re­tro‐
flex
Pa­la­tal Ve­lar Uvu­lar Pha­ryn‐
geal
Nasal   m        n                   
Plosive p t tʰ k kʰ  
Fricative ɸ f s ʃ ʂ j w
Approx­imant         ɹ                
Trill                
Tap or Flap                  
Lateral Fricative        
Lateral Approx­imant l              
Lateral Flap                


  • if an aspirated consonant is followed by another aspirated consonant, the first is unaspirated
  • if two of the same consonants follow one another then,
    • lengthen if a frictative
    • unaspirate and pronounce only one
    • if a /p/ and /pʰ/ follow one another, they are reduced to /ɸ/


Front Near Front Central Near Back Back
Close i ɯ • u
Near Close ɪ
Mid
Open-mid ɛ ʌ • ɔ
Near Open
Open ɑ

Orthography Edit

Alphabet: a b c ç d e f g h i í j k l m o ó p r s t u v w y

Latin a b c ç d e f g i í j k l m n o ó p r s t u ú v w y
IPA ɑ ʃ ʂ ɛ f ɪ i j k l m n ɔ ʌ p ɹ s t u w ɯ ɸ w y

Notes:

  • /w/ and /j/ are both considered semi-vowels, and may only occur before a vowel.
  • [w] before [a, e, o, ó, u], and [u] before [i, í]
  • [j] before [a, e, o, ó], and [y] before [i, í, u]

GrammarEdit

Word Order Edit

Primary word order is VSO, but with the exception that the verb must come first, is otherwise fairly free.


  • VSO word order - Wanlu vurot nofum. - The fox jumped on ground.
  • Head-Initial - Vur noka. - Red fox.
  • Possessor-Possessed - Vurje vík. - The fox's meal.
  • Attached adpositions - Jelke adot ança. - I live in the house.

Nouns Edit

Gender Edit

Through various sound changes, the original M/F/N gender system of Vjaryir degraded into a Common/Neuter gender system which generally took the Masculine's inflections. Gender is based on the noun's vowels, in a rudimentary vowel harmony. Nouns with back vowels (a, o, ó, u, ú) are Common gender, while the front vowels (e, i, í) are Neuter gender, and a noun with a mix of the both front and back is Common. Nouns with mixed o/ó and u/ú are rare.

 English Valjar Gender
Fox Vur Common
Bird Kil Neuter
River Maguik Common

Plural Edit

There are various plural endings, depending on the noun's vowels, last sound, and gender.

 Gender Vowels Last Sound
Common a, o, ó Vowel
Consonant
u, ú Vowel
Consonant
Neuter e, i, í Vowel
Consonant


Ex. 'Vur. - Fox -> Vurm. - Foxes.


 Gender Vowels Ending
Common a, o, ó -p
u, ú -m
Neuter e, i, í -d

Cases Edit

There are a total of 10 cases in Valjar, each inflecting based on noun gender. If a noun ends in a vowel, simply take off the initial vowel of the case.

Case  Sub-case Common Neuter
Nominative Agent -ot -e
Experience -os -es
Accusative Patient -um -im
Prepositional -om -im
Reflexive -ek
Dative -wu -wí
Instrumental -ol -il
Possesive Possessor -je
Possessed -og -ig
Sociative -va -ve

Pronouns Edit

There are 4 grammatical persons, the first 3 typical, while 4th person would be similar to the English "one". Pronouns follow case inflection regularly.

Personal:

Person Pronoun Plural
1st ad ap
2nd ív íd
3rd Common ot op
3rd Neuter ic id

4th

it ed

Demonstrative:

Distance Pronoun Plural
Near et etop
Far eta etap

Singular demonstrative pronouns are attached onto the verb as a suffix, the plural noun's going before the demonstrative for plural.

Ex. Vuret. - This fox. -> Vurmet. - These foxes.

Verbs Edit

List of all verb tenses, aspects, and moods. Rows are split from top to bottom: past, present, future.

Indicative Conditional Generic Hypothetical Dubitative Negative
Perfect -lu -lufe -lud -lupú -lug -belu
-ke -kef -ked -kepú -keg -beke
-ja -jafe -jad -japú -jag -beja
Progressive -tól -tólfe -tóld -tólpú -tólg -betól
-til -tilfe -tild -tilpú -tilg -betil
-tal -talfe -tald -talpú -talg -betal
Frequentative I -fep -fef -fepd -fepú -fepg -befep
-fek -fef -fekd -fekú -fekg -befek
-feka -fefa -fefad -fefú -fekag -befeka
Frequentative II -gru -grufe -grud -grupú -grug -begru
-gre -gref -gred -grepú -greg -begre
-gra -grafe -grad -grapú -grag -begra
Intentional -uf -uffe -ufd -ufú -ug -buf
-if -iffe -ifd -ifú -ig -bif
-af -affe -afd -afú -ag -baf
Accidental -wó -wófe -wód -wópú -wóg -bwó
-ui -uife -uid -uipú -uig -bui
-wa -wafe -wad -wapú -wag -bwa
Defective -lube -lubfe -lupd -luppú -lubg -belube
-kebe -kebfe -kepd -keppú -kebg -bekebe
-jabe -jabfe -japd -jappú -jabg -bejabe



Questions Edit

Questions are very easy to form in Valjar, as there are few question affixes and word order does not change. To form a question, add the appropriate prefix onto the verb.

Ex. Vuretke. - This is a fox. -> Ikvuretke. - Is this a fox?

Example textEdit

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