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Varrit

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Varrit
Bvareq Otan
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Head direction
left
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
none
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General InformationEdit

Varrit (natively Bvareq Otan [ˈvj̈ɐɾɪʔ ˈɐʊʰtɐŋ]; Alemarese Veariq) is a language isolate spoken on the semi-autonomous Varrit Islands of Alemar, off the coast of Barejinia on the Chevin Peninsula.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n (ŋ)
Plosive lax p t ts k ʔ
aspirated tsʰ
ejective
Fricative voiceless f s x~h
voiced v z
Approximant j j̈ w
Flap ɾ
  • /n/ is realized as [ŋ] word-finally.
  • The lax series consonants are voiced when between two voiced sounds.
  • The aspirated series consonants are preaspirated after vowels.
  • The /h/ phoneme can be pronounced [x] or [h] in free variation, tending towards [x] in educated speech. It is however exclusively pronounced [x] in the coda.
  • The postpalatal approximant /j̈/ is only found as part of the high opening /j̈ɐ/ diphthong.

VowelsEdit

Varrit has three basic, somewhat centralized vowels, two long vowels which tend to diphthongize in uneducated speech, two low closing diphthongs, and a high opening diphthong.

Front Central Back
High ɪ j̈ɐ ʊ
Mid eː~eɪ oː~oʊ
Low ɐɪ ɐ ɐʊ
  • The vowel system of Varrit used to be a simple ten vowel system: five short, five long, but it underwent something like the opposite of the Great Vowel Shift of English. Long vowels lowered (except for /aa/), short vowels raised (except for /i/ and /u/).
short long
/a/ [ɐ] /aa/ [j̈ɐ]
/e/ [ɪ] /ee/ [ɐɪ]
/i/ /ii/ [eː]
/o/ [ʊ] /oo/ [ɐʊ]
/u/ /uu/ [oː]

Stress Edit

Stress is completely predictable. It is placed on the last long vowel, ignoring the last syllable of a word, which is never stressed. If their are no long vowels or the only one is in the last syllable, then the stress is on the antepenultimate.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter A B D Ð E F G H I J K L M
Sound /a/ /p/ /t/ /z/1 /e/ /f/ /k/ /ʔ/2 /i/ /h/ /kʰ/ /r/1 /m/
Letter N O P Q R S T U V X Y Z Þ
Sound /n/ /o/ /pʰ/ /ʔ/ /r/ /s/ /tʰ/ /u, w/3 /v/ /s/1 /j/ /z/ /s/1
  1. <ð>, <x>, <l>, and <þ> are only used in borrowed words.
  2. <h> is pronounced /ʔ/ in borrowed words and is used in native words in the digraph <hu>, which used to be its own letter.
  3. <u> is pronounced /w/ between a consonant and a vowel.

Digraphs:

dz /ts/
ts /tsʰ/
tq /tʼ/
kq /kʼ/
hu /w/

Examples:

  • dzirris /tsiris/ [ˈtsɪɾɪs]
  • jummuts /humotsʰ/ [ˈxʊmoːʰts]
  • tqinde /tʼintai/ [ˈtʼɪndɐɪ]
  • akqin /aakʼin/ [ˈj̈ɐkʼɪŋ]
  • huettsu /witsʰo/ [ˈwɪʰtsoː]

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

Classification Edit

Verbs are classified by number of syllables, number of stem-final consonants, and length of the last stem vowel for conjugation purposes. For example, zarri "to cut" is monosyllabic, ends in one consonant, and the last stem vowel is short.

Nonfinite forms Edit

The Infinitive, is the dictionary form of a verb. Its ending is -Ci (C is a doubled final consonant) if the stem ends in a single consonant after a short vowel, -i if the stem ends in multiple consonants or a single consonant after a long vowel, -qi if the stem ends in a long vowel, or -qqi if the stem ends in a short vowel.

Clusivity Edit

There are two first person plurals in Varrit, an exclusive and an inclusive. The exclusive is used when the listener is not included as the subject, and conversely, the inclusive is used when the listener is included as part of the subject. ex. Demuvat ke dzerebratqyon! "Me and you won the lottery!" vs Qoorsaq un dem demuvan ke yorg! "Sister and I won the game!"

Zeroth Person Edit

The zeroth person is used when there is no subject, such as in impersonal verbs. ex. Pfeddeku "It's raining"

Present tenseEdit

Verb stems change in order to preserve their vowels length.

sg pl
1 ex -pf -(a)t3
in -(a)n3
2 -s/z/01 -(s)ue4
3 -02 -(t)te5
0 -(k)ku5
  1. In the 2s, the ending voices after m, n, and v, and voices after m, n, v, and r after monosyllables. The 2s becomes the same as the 3s when the stem ends in a sibilant. Monosyllabic stem verbs vowels are lengthened in the 3s.
  2. In the 3rd sg, the last vowel, if short and becomes the last phoneme in the word in the 3rd sg, will lengthen. A short vowel will also lengthen in the 3rd sg of monosyllabic verbs.
  3. The <a> in the 1st pls only appear if the verb stem ends in a consonant.
  4. The <s> in the 2nd pl only appears if the verb stem ends in a vowel.
  5. The doubled consonant version of the 3p and zeroth person endings is used if the verb stem ends in a short vowel.

Negative Edit

Negation of verbs is expressed with a dedicated verb form using an infix ⟨jo⟩ which is placed directly after the stressed vowel and lengthens the stressed vowel if possible. All negative verbs are polysyllabic, short vowel verbs.

ex. zarri "to cut, slash, slice" --> zajorri [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾeː]

sg pl sg pl
1 ex zajorpf zajorrat [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾf] [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾɐʰt]
in zajorran [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾɐŋ]
2 zajors zajorue [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾs] [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾwɐɪ]
3 zajor zajorte [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾ] [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾtʰɐɪ]
0 zajorku [ˈzj̈ɐxʊɾkʰoː]

Examples Edit

Polysyllabic short vowel stem verb: tqindeqqi "to eat" [ˈtʼɪndɪʔeː], neg tqijondeqqi

sg pl sg pl
1 ex tqindepf tqindet [ˈtʼɪndɪf] [ˈtʼɪndɪʰt]
in tqinden [ˈtʼɪndɪŋ]
2 tqindes tqindesue [ˈtʼɪndɪs] [ˈtʼɪndɪswɐɪ]
3 tqinde tqindette [ˈtʼɪndɐɪ] [ˈtʼɪndɪtʰɐɪ]
0 tqindekku [ˈtʼɪndɪkʰoː]

Monosyllabic long vowel stem verb: niqi "to start, begin, commence" [ˈneːʔeː], neg nijoqqi

sg pl sg pl
1 ex niipf niit [ˈneːf] [ˈneːʰt]
in niin [ˈneːŋ]
2 niiz niisue [ˈneːz] [ˈneːswɐɪ]
3 ni nite [ˈneː] [ˈneːʰtɐɪ]
0 niku [ˈneːʰkoː]

Polysyllabic short one consonant stem verb: berzarri "to bifurcate, branch, fork" [ˈpɪɾzɐɾeː], neg berzajorri

sg pl sg pl
1 ex berzarpf berzarrat [ˈpɪɾzɐɾf] [ˈpɪɾzɐɾɐʰt]
in berzarran [ˈpɪɾzɐɾɐŋ]
2 berzars berzarue [ˈpɪɾzɐɾs] [ˈpɪɾzɐɾwɐɪ]
3 berzar berzarte [ˈpɪɾzɐɾ] [ˈpɪɾzɐɾtʰɐɪ]
0 berzarku [ˈpɪɾzɐɾkʰoː]

Monosyllabic short one consonant stem verb: zarri "to cut, slash, slice" [ˈzɐɾeː], neg zajorri

sg pl sg pl
1 ex zarpf zarrat [ˈzɐɾf] [ˈzɐɾɐʰt]
in zarran [ˈzɐɾɐŋ]
2 zarz zarue [ˈzɐɾz] [ˈzɐɾwɐɪ]
3 zaar zarte [ˈzj̈ɐɾ] [ˈzɐɾtʰɐɪ]
0 zarku [ˈzɐɾkʰoː]

Irregular verb: atsi "to go" [ˈj̈ɐʰtseː], neg ajotsi

sg pl sg pl
1 ex aapf atsat [ˈj̈ɐf] [ˈj̈ɐʰtsɐʰt]
in atsan [ˈj̈ɐʰtsɐŋ]
2 aats aatue [ˈj̈ɐʰts] [ˈj̈ɐʰtwɐɪ]
3 ats ate [ˈj̈ɐʰts] [ˈj̈ɐʰtɐɪ]
0 atikku [ˈj̈ɐʰtɪʰkoː]

SyntaxEdit

VocabularyEdit

NumbersEdit

# name 8+# 8*#
0 biddiin [ˈpɪdeːn] pfrin [ˈfɾɪŋ] biddiin [ˈpɪdeːn]
1 vij [ˈvɪx] qam [ˈʔɐm] pfrin [ˈfɾɪŋ]
2 berz [ˈpɪɾz] dzapfs [ˈtsɐfs] kqardo [ˈkʼɐɾdɐʊ]
3 moon [ˈmɐʊŋ] monfriin [ˈmʊɱfɾeːŋ] kqardo-pfrin [ˈkʼɐɾdɐʊfɾɪŋ]
4 tqe [ˈtʼɐɪ] tqefriin [ˈtʼɪfɾeːŋ] junders [ˈxʊndɪɾs]
5 qigs [ˈʔɪks] qigsfriin [ˈʔɪksfɾeːŋ] junders-pfrin [ˈxʊndɪɾsfɾɪŋ]
6 qassar [ˈʔɐsɐɾ] qassarfriin [ˈʔɐsɐɾfɾeːŋ] juuvz
7 zetto [ˈzɪʰtɐʊ] zettofriin [ˈzɪʰtʊfɾeːŋ] juuvz-pfrin
8 pfrin [ˈfɾɪŋ] kqardo [ˈkʼɐɾdɐʊ] jemissed

Example textEdit

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