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Vataian (Nkawg Hvaad Taij Eecj)

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Vataian
Nkawg Hvaad Taij Eecj
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Direct
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

Vataian (Nkawg Hvaad Taij Eecj) is a tonal language created by Aekari Tennou for his fictional world. Vataian is the official language of the Kingdom of Vataiankt. Vataian is inspired by the real-world Hmong language. 

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Orthography is indicated in parentheses next to the phoneme.

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m (m) n (n) ɲ (ny) ŋ (ng)
Plosive Tenuis p (p) t (t) c (c) k (k) ʔ (')
Aspirated pʰ (ph) tʰ (th) cʰ (ch) kʰ (kh)
Prenasalized ᵐb (np) ⁿd (nt) ᶮɟ (nc) ᵑɡ (nk)
ᵐbʰ (nph) ⁿdʰ (nth) ᶮɟʰ (nch) ᵑɡʰ (nkh)
Fricative Voiceless ɸ (hf) f (f) s (s) ʂ (x) ç (sy) h (h)
Voiced β (hv) v (v) z (z) ʝ (zy)
Prenasalized ⁿʐ (nx)
Affricate Tenuis ts (ts) ʈʂ (tx) cç (tsy)
Aspirated tsʰ (tsh) ʈʂʰ (txh) cçʰ (tsyh)
Prenasalized ⁿdz (nts) ⁿɖʐ (ntx) ⁿɟʝ (ntsy)
ⁿdzʰ (ntsh) ᶯɖʐʰ (ntxh) ⁿɟʝʰ (ntsyh)
Approximant w (w) j (y) (w)
Tap ɾ (r)

VowelsEdit

Orthography is indicated in parentheses next to the phoneme.

Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Oral Nasal Oral Nasal Oral Oral Nasal
Close i (i) ĩ (ii) ɨ (eu) ɯ (ew) u (u) ũ (uu)
Close-Mid e (e) ẽ (ee) o (o) õ (oo)
Open-Mid œ (oe) ɔ (aw)
Open a (a) ã (aa)

DiphthongsEdit

Diphthong (IPA) Orthography
ɨi eui
iu iu
ei ei
œi oei
ai ai
aeu
aew
ao ao
ɯi ewi

AlphabetEdit

Vataian is written using the 26 letters of the English alphabet in combinations shown above in the consonant and vowel charts. Because the Deesawtonian colonizers, who spoke American English, introduced an alphabet and the concept of "spelling" (and indeed the word itself) to Vataian, all of the names are derived from their American English names. 

Name Pronunciation
A a Ei /ei˧/
B b Bi /bi˧/
C c Si /si˧/
D d Di /di˧/
E e I /i˧/
F f Ef /ef˧/
G g Ntxi /ⁿdʐi˧/
H h Eitx /eitʂ˧/
I i Ai /ai˧/
J j Ntxei /ⁿdʐei˧/
K k Khei /kʰei˧/
L l El /e˦/
M m Em /em˧/
N n En /en˧/
O o O /o˧/
P p Phi /pʰi˧/
Q q Khyu /kʰju˧/
R r Ar /aɾ˧/
S s Es /es˧/
T t Thi /tʰi˧/
U u Yu /ju˧/
V v Vi /vi˧/
W w Nta-Npul-Yu /ⁿda˧ ⁿbu˦ ju˧/
X x Ek-Soe /ek˧ sœ˧/
Y y Wai /wai˧/
Z z Zi /zi˧/

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllable structureEdit

There are four possible syllable types in Vataian. A vowel is required to serve as a nucleus, and both onsets and codas are optional. Consonant clusters are not permitted in Vataian.

1. V

2. CV

3. VC

4. CVC

Properties of each syllable partEdit

1. The nucleus of a syllable must be a vowel. Any Vataian vowel may serve as the nucleus of a syllable. A consonant cannot serve as the nucleus.

2. The onset of a syllable may be any Vataian consonant. 

3. The coda of a syllable, in the orthography, may be taken by any Vataian consonant except for /h/, /w/ or /j/. However, when the word is spoken, only 13 consonants may be used as codas in almost all cases. The following rules (collectively called "The Coda Rules") are observed:

  • Case 1: If you are saying the names of letters or spelling something...
    • The coda is pronounced as written.
    • Some speakers may opt to follow the rules below instead, considering an entire spelling to be one lexical item so that the names of letters before the final letter are pronounced as written, and the last letter is pronounced following rule 3 if applicable.
  • Case 2: If the syllable ends with /m/, /n/, /ɲ/, /ŋ/, or /ʔ/, or the syllable is not the last element of a lexical item (i.e. a "word")...
    • The coda is pronounced as written.
  • Case 3: If the syllable is the last element of a lexical item (i.e. a "word") or at the end of an utterance...
    • The coda must be devoiced.
    • The coda must be deaspirated.
    • A non-prenasalized coda must be converted into the corresponding tenuis plosive, and a prenasalized coda must be converted into the corresponding prenasalized voiceless unaspirated consonant, according to place of articulation, as shown in the charts below.

Bilabial and Labiodental Consonants

Underlying Representation -> Pronunciation
p -> p
->
ɸ ->
β ->
f ->
v ->
ᵐb -> ᵐp
ᵐbʰ ->

Alveolar and Retroflex Consonants

Underlying Representation -> Pronunciation
t -> t
->
s ->
z ->
ts ->
tsʰ ->
ɾ ->
ʂ ->
ʈʂ ->
ʈʂʰ ->
ⁿd -> ⁿt
ⁿdʰ ->
ⁿdz ->
ⁿdzʰ ->
ⁿʐ ->
ⁿɖʐ ->
ᶯɖʐʰ ->

Palatal Consonants

Underlying Representation -> Pronunciation
c -> c
->
ç ->
ʝ ->
->
cçʰ ->
ᶮɟ -> ᶮc
ᶮɟʰ ->
ⁿɟʝ ->
ⁿɟʝʰ ->

Velar Consonants

Underlying Representation -> Pronunciation
k -> k
->
ᵑɡ -> ᵑk
ᵑɡʰ ->

Coda Rule Examples:Edit

Case 1. Soe-Phel-Ring nyaoq ngooj, Haf Ras, Eitx-Ei-Ef Ar-Ei-Es [eitʂ˧ ei˧ ef˧ aɾ˧ ei˧ es˧]. = The spelling of my name, Haf Ras, is H-A-F R-A-S. 

  • Note that all of the names of the letters are pronounced as written and do not undergo phonological change.

Case 2. Hfeung [ɸɨŋ˧] rewi hod haig Rosq Sya'j [ɾos˥˩ çaʔ˨˦]. = Your friend lives in the Kingdom. 

  • Because "hfeung" ends in /ŋ/, it is pronounced as written.
  • Because "Rosq Sya'j" is a compound word, the first part "Rosq" is not the final element of the word and therefore its coda is pronounced as written. 
  • Because "Sya'j" ends in /ʔ/, it is pronounced as written.

Case 3. Ntxingd Taoj-Yeiq rosq [ɾot˥˩]. Ntal aontsh [aoⁿt˧] xoi xifl [ʂip˦]. = Tao-Yei Ching is the king. He is kind and passionate. 

  • Because "rosq" appears at the end of the utterance, the /s/ is changed into a [t].
  • Because "aontsh" is the last (indeed, only) lexical element of that word, the /ⁿdzʰ/ is devoiced, deaspirated, and converted into the corresponding plosive [ⁿt], while leaving prenasalization intact.
  • Because "xifl" is both at the end of the utterance and is the last (only) lexical element of that word, the /f/ is devoiced and converted into the corresponding plosive [p].

ToneEdit

Vataian has seven tones.

Tonechart

Tone Chart for Vataian which shows the relative pitch changes for each tone. 1 is the lowest level and 5 is the highest level.

Tone Alphabet Letter Contour Tone Letter Name in Nkawg Hvaad-Taij-Eecj
l High ˦
d High falling ˥˧
j Rising ˨˦
(no marker) Mid ˧
q Falling ˥˩
b Low rising ˩˧
g Low ˨

GrammarEdit

Word OrderEdit

Vataian's neutral word order is subject-verb-object.

Example 1

Sentence Nyoj caod thab.
Gloss We like cat
Translation We like cats.

This word order is maintained in all clauses, whether they are independent or dependent, as shown below.

Example 2

Sentence Ngooj caod ntaj kents caod ngooj.
Gloss I like you who like me.
Translation I like you who likes me.

Example TextsEdit

VocabularyEdit

Lexical VocabularyEdit

Verbs are listed in infinitive form in English and should be looked up by the first letter of the root, i.e. "to look" should be looked up in "L," not "T.

English Word class/Part of Speech Nkawg Hvaad Taij Eecj
A
Alphabet N. Eibisi
B
Blue Adj. Seeb
Book N. Haiq hail haid
Brother N. Fantxhj
C
Car N. Kha
Cat N. Thab
Country N. Sya'j
D
To do V. Haib
F
Flower N. hfaad
Friend N. Hfeung
G
To give V. 'ahvq
H
He N. Ntal
I
I N. Ngooj
K
Kind Adj. Aontsh
King N. Rosq
Kingdom N. Rosq Sya'j
L
Language N. Nkawg
To Like V. Caod
To Live V. Hod
N
Name N. Nyaoq
New Adj. Tsyhao
North N./Adj. Hoei'
Not Adv. Ood
Nothing N. Fu
O
Ocean N. Minyb
Old Adj. Nphoij
P
Paper N. Hail
Passionate Adj. Xifl
People N. Ntsyhewb
S
She N. Ntaj
South N./Adj. Nchaewl
Spelling N. Soe-Phel-Ring
T
Tie N. Haiq
V
W
We N. Nyoj
Who, which Relative pronoun Kents
Writing N. Haid
Y
You N. Rewi

NumbersEdit

Number Nkawg Hvaad Taij Eecj Pronunciation
0 Fu
1 Ntseej
2 Phatg
3 Ringj
4 Siib
5 Nphal
6 Tuuj
7 Syikl
8 Npheingd
9 Ntub
10 Tas
11 Tas ntseej
12 Tas phatg
20 Phatg tas
30 Ringj tas
40 Siib tas
100 Taml
101 Taml ntseej
102 Taml phatg
110 Taml tas
111 Taml tas ntseej
1000 Tooq
10000 Tas tooq
100000 Taml tooq
1000000 Tooq tooq
5000000 Nphal tooq tooq

Proper NamesEdit

Nkawg Hvaad Taij Eecj Word class English Rendering
A
B
C
D
Nti-Saw-Toen Country Name Deesawton
F
G
H
Haij Personal name Hai
Hoei'd Ntshaab Syoi Adminstrative region name Northern Janshoi
I
K
Khod Nthewi Administrative region name Kodui
L
N
Ncawb Ran Currency name Ncawb Ran, Doran
Nchaewl Ntshaab Syoi Administrative region name Southern Janshoi
Ngehvj Administrative region name Ngev
Nphoij Nchaewl Tse Nken Capital of Vataian Old Southern Tsenken
O
P
Q
Rosq Sya'j Hvaad-Taij-Eecj Country Name Kingdom of Vataian
S
T
Tsyhao Ar-Khei-Nti-A Administrative region name New Arcadia
V
Hvaad-Taij-Eecj Country name Vataian, Vataiankt
W
Y
Z
Zag Haongb Administrative region name Zahaong

Functional VocabularyEdit

English Word class/Part of Speech Nkawg Hvaad Taij Eecj
A
(aspect marker - past) Particle Nchi
And Conj. Xeui
B
C
D
F
G
H
I
In Prep. Haig
K
L
N
O
P
S
T
(Trace Marker - See Emphasis) Particle Nxe
To Prep. Le
V
W
Y

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