Fandom

Conlang

Vayardyio

3,199articles on
this wiki
Add New Page
Talk0 Share

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

Overview

SettingEdit

Vayardyio is an extra-terrestial language spoken by the humanoid population in the so-called Northwestern quadrant of the Great Continent on the planet called Tolouga (in V.: meaning 'world' or 'living space').  Tolouga circles its sun in more-or-less earthlike circumstances and (mostly due to lack of imagination of their creator) its animate species look and behave quite familiar to us. Vayardyio is the mother tongue of the Vayardi people (they who inhabit the country of Vayardo). Native speakers number approx. 49 mi. It is seen as the sole representative of the Western branch within the Coumrillian language family. Two more branches of this family exist in neighbouring countries: the Northern (or ‘High’) branch, consisting of Tozurian, Chirchian and Gabilian, and the Southern branch, with Avessite, Alemnic and Silmerian. All languages show a strong lexical and syntactical relationship, whereas rather prominent differences occur in the phonology and phonetics. Vayardyio shares with the Northern branch-languages features like a fully active nominal and pronominal declension in three cases, while it still displays rare phenomena other languages have lost, such as the use of a ‘4th person’ (often called: obviative). Also, only Vayardyio retains the original five verbal moods of the Old-Coumrillian root language. Vayardyio languages history tracks back some 2000 years, dating to the westward movement of Coumrillian tribes from the northern plains even before the Classical Civilisation of Coumrillia came to full bloom. Therefore, Vayardyio lexicon displays quite a few words and meanings which differ from words in all other modern Coumrillian languages, more heavily influenced bij the Classical Coumrillian speech. Here is an example of regular language change (incl consonant shifts) in several Coumrillian languages:

____________________________________________________________________________

Development of Coumrillian root words in various modern Coumrillian languages:

Coumr         Gabilian     Tozurian     Vayardyio   Avessitian        Alemnic       (meaning in English)

xεm              heum         him            yémo          jem            jemon          human creature, man

xεddün         houd          hüd            yido               judij'          jid                 year

xuaidas           gaud            huadi            ada              adea              ade                water   

xuonnas       hanna         heni           ana            ană            ana               woman  

bhæstarau    hestre        hestur         ésiara        festere        feste             to do, make

phaiger         fegru          fegur          figro           fijere           fejre            blue

___________________________________________________________________________________

Typology Edit

Vayardyio is a typical SOV-language, in which fronting constituents to the 'left' (head) of the sentence marks topicalization. Typically, negation is expressed by fronting the verb, preceded only by the general negation marker yé. The language is inflecting, according to regular patterns: declension of nouns and pronouns, conjugation of verbs, on a nominative-accusative basis. Verbs show five moods and display active and passive voice; nouns are distinguished by gender: -o class (male), -a class (female) while -o class being the default type. An earlier gender distinction in animate - inanimate has left only some remote traces in the language.

Although being a SOV-language in which the verb as a rule is sentence-final, Vayardyio retains prepositions in stead of postpositions, and modifiers generally preceed their heads in an apparent violation of the well-known language universals.

Phonology Edit

Vayardyio phonemic inventory consists of a set of six vowels: a, e, o, i, u and /schwa/; the latter only appears in inflected endings. It is obligatory in V. that  all (native) words end vocalic; also words rarely begin with  /i/, /o/ and /u/ .  Furthermore, strict rules inhibit the forming of allophones. Diphtongs are non-existant too: between any pair of vowels a pause is always observed.  

The consonants are: b, k, d, f, g, ç, j, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, θ, v, z. Of these, /b/, /j/ and /z/ are sparsely distributed. Written č represents the dental fricative /θ/ as in English or Spanish. The two glides /j/ and /ç/ (palatalized) are written gi+(vowel) an y respectively in “terrestial” orthography; whenever g preceding i+(vowel) should not be pronounced /j/, it is written ğ. In scheme, the consonants are distributed like this: 

____________________________________________________________

                   bilabial               labio-            dental      palatal        velar 

                                              dental

 

stop             p       b                                    t        d                          k      γ

 

fricative                                  f        v          s   θ   z           ç      

         

nasal          m                                                   n                               ŋ

 

liquid                                      l         r



glide            w                                                       j

____________________________________________________________



Several consonant clusters are allowed at the beginning of words, including clusters like /sf/, /sm/, /scr/, /spr/ or /str/, but the language as a whole favours syllable formation of the type  CV, CVC or VC. Base words mostly have no more than three syllables, however throug inflection and suffixing, strings up to six syllables can exist.

Basic GrammarEdit

the verb Edit

In Vayardyio, the verb is a very significant category. Two conjugations exist: verbs ending in -ani and those ending in -ara. The latter comprises all transitive verbs, verbs ending in -ani without any exception are intransitive. Both conjugations differ only slightly, however. All verbs are conjugated for

tense

Present and past tense are the most marked. Actions or events in near future are mostly expressed in present tense, while a choice of adverbs make the future notion more specific. Future tense proper in modern Vayardyio actually has merged with the optative mood (see below).

aspect

Vayardyio retains the original Coumrillian three-way aspect system: imperfect, progressive/durative, and perfect. Durative is widely used, much like in English, to express ongoing actions, mostly with no specific relation to time or completion.

mood

Any verb comes in five moods: indicative, subjunctive/conjunctive, hortative, potential/optative, infinitive. Hortative is used to express imperative statements and orders; potential-optative, which signals a (future) possibility, has become the means to express all actions or events which are likely to happen in near or more remote future.

voice

Passive and medio-passive are fully developed in terms of morphology, but tend to be avoided in everyday speech. A trend towards a more analytic realization of passive or medio-passive voice is attested, mostly by using the copula stiara (to be (brought) in a state) + participle.

the noun; article, adjective Edit

Here is a table of nominal declensions.

Nouns come in two genders, those ending in –o or –i; and those ending in –a; there are three cases:

Nom = nominative case (1st )(subject)

Obl = oblique case (2nd)(direct and indirect object)

Gen = genitive case (3d)(genetive proper and partitive);


the use of the partitive construction is widespread:

mo tanilou i adi sépe - he drank a cup of water

épia adi sépe - he drank some water

soio ado lisépita - he has drunk all the water

Note that when a part of speech or NP is negated, it also figures in the 3d case. Hence, the preposition fata '('without') governs the 3nd case, while almost all other prepositions govern the 2nd:

O ano giésitia - I have seen the woman

i ani giésitia - I have not seen the woman


Fata casyi acastio gravanye - he vanished without leaving a trace

(lit.: 'without a trace leaving he disappeared')

Note that adjectives agree in gender and case with nouns. When the noun is definite, the adjective preceeds it. If it is indefinite, the adjective follows the noun; in this case, inflected endings on the adjective are less marked. Sequences of adjectives can be ranged to both sides of the noun, depending on their salience:

Ma séfia frissa Vayardya - a young Vayardese girl

Mo acadio paravou fario troge - he bought a new red car (his old car was red as well)

Mo paravou fario acadio troge - he bought a new red car (he bought a new car which -accidentally- was red)

Namio acadio paravou troge - he bought this (particular) red car

Edit

Nominal declension: noun, adjective, article Edit

Edit

A. definite

example: é négo cadino (the big town); gia tira magissa (the small village)

singular   

1e nv.      é              négo         cadino                   gia            tira           magissa

2e nv.      o              négio       cadinou                   o              tirio         magisso

3e nv.      i               négi         cadini                      i               tiri           magissi                   



plural

1e nv.      nie          négie       cadinéne                 ge            tirie         magisse

2e nv.      ne           négine     cadinone                 se            tiride       magissase

3e nv.      ni            négi         cadinéni                  si             tirise       magisséi

'

B. indefinite

singular

1e nv.      mé           cadino      négo                                      ma           magissa tira         

2e nv.      mo           cadinou   négio                                       mo           magisso tirio        

3e nv.      mi            cadini      négi                                        mi            magissi  tiri  

                                              

plural   

1e nv.                      cadinéne négi                                                         magisse                 tiri          

2e nv.                      cadinone  nége                                                       magissase             tire         

3e nv.                      cadinéni   négi                                                        magisséi                tiri          




pronouns Edit

These are inflected mostly like adjectives. Personal pronouns are commonly omitted in spoken language and in written language also. Sometimes however, the personal pronouns are retained for stress or in literal and poetic purposes.

In third person singular as well as plural, natural gender is observed. Also there is a third person 'unpersonal' (or  inanimate) pronoun which is closely related to the definite article and which is also used as a 'filler' particle.

A very specific feature of Vayaryio is the use of 'proximate' and 'obviative' forms, the latter mostly referred to as 'fourth person'.

'obviative' forms are used whenever two (or more) persons are mentioned in one sentence, to avoid ambiguity. For example:

O giarou giéso - I saw the man

Ono giéso - I saw him

Etou giése - he (prox.) saw him (obv.)

Here is the full set of personal pronouns:

yagia I
véa you
io / éto he (prox / obv)
néa / ésa she (prox / obv)
é it
anni we
astani you (pl)
iéni / étini they (m prox / obv)
ati / ési they (f prox / obv)

adverbs Edit

Adverbs are not inflected for case or gender. They do not differ formally from adjectives, except manner adverbs. These take the suffix -ima to mark them as modifier of a verb:

Gia frissa ofra nia - she is a careful girl

O salmou ofrima scéname - he was carefully (warily) climbing the tree

['the tree 2nd case careful-ly he-was-climbing']

Some adverbs occur together with a preposition to form a fixed expression:

Ono da mélio vali - he fares badly

['to him for worse is doing/happening']

Scores of adverbs behave more or less like particles, like

ya - somewhat

alla - once

ita - soon, shortly

ya si - surely

etc.

conjunctions Edit

prepositions Edit

particles Edit

affixation Edit

syntactical matters Edit

DictionaryEdit

men and family Edit

body parts Edit

pronouns and prepositions Edit

geographical features Edit

some important adjectives and adverbs Edit

colours Edit

some important verbs Edit

swadesh list Edit

 

I

yagia

you (singular)

véa

he / she

io / néa

we

anni

you (plural)

astani

they m / f

iéni / ati

this

namo/nama

that

aséo/asa

here

ido

there

tama

who

tio

what

ata

where

casi

when

difiédo

how

fi

not

all

soa

many

topa

some

amanie (pl.)

few

épia

other

toa

one

amana

two

antana

three

sila

four

sava

five

dio

big

négo

long

scalta

wide

émyio

thick

spéa; stéva

heavy

télado

small

tira

short

sita; siéta (time)

narrow

téna

thin

pina

woman

ana

man (adult male)

giaro

man (human being)

amro

child

néfalo; niva

wife

prissana

husband

priésiso

mother

anouia

father

édo

animal

létro

fish

moya

tree

salmo

forest

asto

stick

baro

fruit

gočina

seed

oplisa

leaf

loga

root

payiro

bark (of a tree)

gralo

flower

gafro

grass

yala

rope

strama

skin

yaro

meat

spiso; léca (edible)

blood

acro

bone

cana

fat (noun)

spésa

tail

goména

hair

rana; (on head) ranaléo

head

dovina

ear

lio

eye

yri

nose

séglo

mouth

gona

tooth

oga

tongue (organ)

giléna

fingernail

litéo

foot

séo

leg

séviro

knee

cassa

hand

nano

wing

couréa

belly

lénisma

guts

limpra

neck

sfigo

back

névaco

breast

vasédo; (woman) péla

heart

sirdo

liver

silpa

to drink

sépara

to eat

cagara; gavani (to dine)

to bite

dagara

to suck

youfriara

to spit

pispani

to vomit

mallagani

to blow

faldara

to breathe

sofriani

to laugh

couniani

to see

giésara

to hear

étadara

to know

clisara

to think

siprani

to smell

ésintara

to fear

crémara

to sleep

pésani

to live

sélinani

to die

tarvani

to kill

ratarvésara

to fight

épravani; réspirrara

to hunt

mantyara

to hit

placara

to cut

fédara

to split

éfouniani; étrancara

to stab

dicara

to scratch

tritara; scrintani

to dig

potiara

to swim

sétirani

to fly

dévani; (planes) stratani

to walk

igara

to come

iani

to lie (as in a bed)

pandani

to sit

ésani

to stand

figani

to turn (intransitive)

cantani

to fall

cogani

to give

ponara

to hold

tigara

to squeeze

cliftara

to rub

firrara

to wash

calvara

to wipe

patara; léyasara

to pull

rigara

to push

sistara

to throw

cadara

to tie

finara

to sew

sémirara

to count

répitara

to say

vésara

to sing

pigara

to play

vilagani

to float

mouniani

to flow

pédani

to freeze

calgani

to swell

émalyani, accotani

sun

éouso

moon

figémo

star

étilla

water

oya

rain

taso

river

galo

lake

étélo

sea

lamo

salt

callo

stone

sicla; lantro

sand

soma

dust

spivo

earth

tolouğia

cloud

lévola

fog

foudra

sky

odra

wind

gialvo

snow

alna

ice

niglo

smoke

fona

fire

lira

ash

couma

to burn

farčillara

road

vaso

mountain

andro

red

acado

green

iréo

yellow

névilo

white

dato

black

asco

night

évona

day

syo

year

diro

warm

risa

cold

gréo

full

lata

new

fara

old

parnia

good

talo

bad

méa

rotten

palta

dirty

louya

straight

cadita

round

lémo

sharp (as a knife)

ačita

dull (as a knife)

garnia

smooth

sélissa

wet

gisa

dry

rita

correct

ésada

near

nairio

far

lésa

right

foura

left

étana

at

di; té

in

vé, vi

with

a

and

if

né; édia

because

déca

name

détéo

north sétra
south lésira
east louna
west lava

Example textEdit

 

Soie yémine isméie sé vi télénissou sé stodissou étio progémintie stiari. Ini a rato sé

All    creatures free  and in dignity         and right equal born they-stand.           To them reason and



assonariou légita,                    si giésa atoa vé livastissou dissarnara sédassire.

conscience it-has-been-given,     and in-face each-other in solidarity behave they-should.

 

`All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.`


He lay flat on the brown, pine-needled floor of the forest,

Té solio asti rédénou i logisi apprédisto, scaltésata pandame,'

On brown forest floor leaves covered-with, stretched-out he was laying down



his chin on his folded arms,

alta pouta té rémase rédiviste,'

his chin on (at) arms folded,



and high overhead the wind blew in the tops of the pine trees

sé nyo sig’ono é gialvo vi salmisi otrélase velantame.'

and high above him the wind in trees tops it-was-blowing.



The mountainside sloped gently where he lay;

Gie andri réna vé fiğio lama pandame, régantima élése;

The mountain side [in-place-that] he was lying, gently(mildly) sloped;



But below it was steep and he could see

tasima topa séda riva nie sé giésara sate

but more-remote (yonder) steep it-was and see he-was-able



the dark of the oiled road winding through the pass.

i barnisti vasi alvisso paréči o calisso andanio.





(E. Hemingway; For whom the bell tolls; opening sentence)

Note: of course on Tolougia no pine-trees grow, so neither is the forest floor covered with needles.

Literal translation is added in the third sentences

Also on Fandom

Random Wiki