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| Name: Veðirankĭ
Head Direction: Head Final
Number of genders: 3-Masculine, Feminine, & Neuter
Vethirankii is a Germano-Slavic based language with influences from Latvian, Polish, Czech, Estonian,English, Icelandic, and German. There's no story to it, accept it's just an idea I came up with some years ago, and thought I might be able to make it reality by organizing everything online.
|Plosive||b p||k͡p||t d||k g|
|Tap or Flap||ɾ|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||ʝ||ɧ||x ɣ||χ||h|
|Lateral Fricative||ɬ ɮ|
The alphabet is as follows:
|Majuscule||Minisclue||Cyrillic Maj.||Cyrillic Min.||Name||Value|
1. Any consonant can precede or succeed any vowel.
2. All consonant clusters cannot exceed 2 phonemes, affricates count as one sound.
3. All vowels with a breve (˘) are long.
4. A word may not end with [Ll] or [Z] but may end with the digraph [Kz].
5. A word may not begin with [Ǣ].
6. ['] represents a glottal stop.
1. All vowels are pronounced as separate phonemes when clustered, as in Spanish.
2. The letter Z is prounounced /θ/ before or after i or e, /z/ before or after a or o and consonants, and /ð/ before or after u, this also applies to the variations of the vowels with breves.
3. Y is pronounced as as the approximant /j/ before or after a vowel, and as the vowel /iː/ before or after a consonant.
4. V and W are pronounced as /w/ before i or e, and /v/ before a,o,u, or the vowel-pronounced Y.
5. The "Wt" diagraph, after "L" is pronounced /ɧ/.
6. Other than that, the language is pronounced according to the phonemes listed with the alphabet.
7. When there is a three-consonant onset, a schwa vowel is added before the last consonant of the cluster so it doesn't overstep the two-consonant onset rule.
8. There are some digraphs, though:
The grammar of Vethirankii is very similar to most other Balto-Slavic languages. One difference is that it doesn't decline nouns into gender by animacy or personhood, only gender:
Vethirankii contains seven cases for which to decline nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and particles:
It also contains 3 degrees of comparison:
It contains 2 aspects:
and 2 Voices:
Nouns are declined in the following ways with two cases.
|Gender||Nominative singular||Accusative singular||
|Locative Singular||Locative Plural||Meaning|
In the instrumental case, the noun's suffix is equal to the English "with" or "by" or "using." In the locative case, the noun's prefix corresponds to the English prepositions "in", "on", "at", and "by". So, "Kputnjeka es Plut" means "The student is on the table", literally "Student is table" but the prefix "K" acts as the preposition "on". Depending on how the word is used, it can correspond to any of the above-stated English prepositions. Now, the neuter table is in the Nominative, because it is being stood on, therefore, doing something, and so is the student, because she is doing something by standing on the table. So this noun has two cases it is declined to. The vocative case is not declined by an affix as in, say, Polish, but as in English where the vocative expression is adressed in the sentence. "Brutes, un tĭ?", which literally means "Brutus, even you?". In most English cases the vocative phrase is in a sentence this way: "Even you, Brutus", but in Vethirankii it's just the opposite. To make a noun plural, add "ci" to the end, gender inflection will come after the "ci". Posessives are defined under the accusative case, how you inflect posession depends on the gender. All nouns are capitalized, in proper nouns, and uncapitalized "b" is added to the beginning of the noun. The letter after the "b", unless a vowel, is elided.
Verbs are declined into four tenses Future, Present, Past, Past Participle.
Verbs never take the infinitive form in a sentence. So you can never say "They are to run," as one would say when speaking in an imperative mood, it would just take the regular form "They will run," "Ver njitu". So, "I will go" is "Mi gengu," also "I will have left" is "Mi luku mjukztu," the word "lukz" takes the suffix "u" because the helping verb "mjukztu" is in the future tense. In Vethirankii the helping verb comes after the main verb.
The conjugation of the verb "Jeka (To be)" in the present:
Mi jekz - I am
Tĭ jukz - You are
Anu/Anjh/An jukz - He/she/it is
Mis jukz - We are
Tu jukz - You are (plural)
On/Onj* jukz - They are (masc./fem.)
The conjugation of "Jeka (To be)" in the past:
Mi jedh - I was
Tĭ jedh - You were
Anu/Anjh/An jedh- He/She/It was
Mis jedh - We were
Tu jedh - You were (plural)
On/Onj* jedh - They were (masculine/feminine)
- If you are talking about two or more neuter objects doing somthing, the neuter takes the masculine gender by adding the case-appropriate affix.
The conjugation of "Jeka (To be)" in the past participle:
Mi jewt - I have been
Tĭ jewt - You have been
Anu/Anjh/An jewt - He/She/It has been
Mis jewt - We have been
Tu jewt - You have been (plural)
On/Onj jewt - They have been
The conjugation of "Jeka (To be)" in the future:
Mi jeku - I will be
Tĭ jeku - You will be
Anu/Anjh/An jeku - He/She/It will be
Mis jeku - We will be
Tu jeku - You will be (plural)
On/Onj jeku - They will be
The conjugation of the verb "Sima (To have)" in the present:
Mi simz - I have
Tĭ simz - You have
Anu/Anjh/An simt - He/she/it has
Mis simz - We have
Tu simz - You have (plural)
On/Onj simz - They have
The conjugation of the verb "Sima (To have)" in the past:
Mi sidh - I had
Tĭ sidh - You had
Anu/Anjh/An sidh - He/She/It had
Mis sidh - We have
Tu sidh - You have (plural)
On/Onj sidh - They have
The conjugation of the verb "Sima (To have)" in the past participle:
Mi siwt - I have had
Tĭ siwt - You have had
Anu/Anjh/An siwt - He/She/It has had
Mis siwt - We have had
Tu siwt - You have had (plural)
On/Onj siwt - They have had
The conjugation of the verb "Sima (To have)" in the future:
Mi simu - I will have
Tĭ simu - You will have
Anu/Anjh/An simu - He/She/It will have
Mis simu - We will have
Tu simu - You will have (plural)
On/Onj simu - They will have
The conjugation of the verb "Genga (To go) in the present:
Mi gengz - I go
Tĭ genz - You go
Anu/Anjh/An genz - He/She/It goes
Mis genz - We go
Tu genz - You go (Plural)
On/Onj genz - They go
The conjugation of the verb "Genga (To go) in the past:
Mi gedh - I went
Tĭ gedh - You went
Anu/Anjh/An gedh - He/She/It went:
Mis gedh - We went
Tu gedh - You went (plural)
On/Onj gedh - They went
The conjugation of the verb "Genga (To go) in the past participle:
Mi gewt - I have gone
Tĭ gewt - You have gone
An/Anjh/An gewt - He/She/It has gone
Mis gewt - We have gone
Tu gewt - You have gone (plural)
On/Onj gewt - They have gone
The conjugation of the verb "Genga (To go) in the future:
Mi gengu - I will go
Tĭ gengu - You will go
An/Anjh/An gengu - He/She/It will go
Mis gengu - We will go
Tu gengu - You will go
On/Onj gengu - They will go
Verbs do not relate to the agent it is describing as far as case goes. So if a pronoun is in the feminine singular, the verb will not be feminine singular.
There are 4 moods to verbs. These moods can tell whether a person is yelling a sentence or simply saying it. Verbs are conjugated according to mood. If the sentence is in the imperative mood, the verb is conjugated according to mood and tense and the noun or pronoun will come after the verb, for example:
"Tu jutzu gengu."- "You should go."
would be: "Genguest tu."- "Go you."
Conjugation of mood will always come after conjugation for tense. The rules for conjugating according to the 4 moods are as follows:
1. For the conditional mood add "-ist"
2. For the imperative mood add "-est"
3. For the interrogative mood add "ust"
4. For the optative mood add "ast"
I will describe as best I can the functions of these moods.
Conditional Mood- This mood refers to a hypothetical state of affairs. (courtesy: Wikipedia- Conditional Mood)
"I would have gone to the store but I fell asleep."
Imperative Mood- This mood expresses direct commands or requests. (Courtesy: Wikipedia- Imperative Mood)
"Go to the store."
Interrogative Mood- This mood makes the sentence ask a question
"Can you go to the store?"
Optative Mood- Is a mood in Ancient Greek used to express wishes, I thought it would be fun to have a mood just for that.
"If only I would have gone to the store."
Change in StateEdit
A change in state corresponds to the English affixes "un-" and "re-" as in "undo (to make not done)", and "redo (to do again). In Vethirankii, there are no affixes, just adverbs to describe what change in state the noun has gone through. These adverbs come before the verb. Here are some examples of conjugation
nella ---> ḡopetlyḫ nella lit. "againly do" - "redo"
Pronouns come before the verb, as in English. Pronouns are split into two groups: definite and indefinite. The following are all the pronouns in their various forms.
Mi - I
Tĭ - You
Anu - He
Anjh - She
An - It
Mis - We
Tu - You (Plural)
On - They (Masculine)
Onj - They (Feminine)
There is no neuter form of "On" that would correspond with "An". so, when you are talking about a group of neuter pronouns doing something you use the masculine.
There are as many of these as in English, in other words, quite a few:
- another – Buska
- anybody – Visjak
- anyone – Kukp
- anything – Kokalŭ
- each – Vusk
- either – Nju
- enough – Itab
- everybody - Hurks
- everyone - Hurks
- everything - Soinj
- less – .Menus
- little – Menus
- much – Gruss
- neither – Nă
- no one – Niḫnjks
- nobody – Niḫnjks
- nothing – Njeks
- one – Un
- other – Oder
- plenty – Mas
- somebody – Kuzku
- someone – Kuzku
- something – Kazka
- what – Koku
- whatever – Kokulwik
- whoever – Kokulwt
- which - Kaz
- whichever – Kazdi
Demonstrative pronouns put emphasis on a certain noun.
This - Ach
That - Nu
These - Ăch
Those - Nŭ
Yonder - Jonder
For the most part an "n" is added to the end of a pronoun to make possessive, as follows:
Mi ---> Min - My
Tĭ ---> Tin - Your
Anu ---> Anun - Her
Anjh ---> Anjhen - His
An ---> Anen - Its
Mis ---> Misen - Our
Tu ---> Tun - Your (Plural)
On ---> Onn - Their (Fem.)
Onj ---> Onjen - Their (Masc.)
When a pronoun ends with a consonant "-en" is added
Dummy pronouns are pronouns that refer to no subject. Vethirankii is a pro-drop language, in that when a dummy pronoun occurs, it is dropped from the sentence:
"Jukz ciez" --- literally "Is raining", notice how "An" is dropped, as it is the dummy pronoun of the sentence.
Attributive adjectives and adjective casesEdit
Adjectives come after the nouns they describe. There is a certain order to attributive adjectives that is as follows:
1. Article or possessive pronoun
2. Modified noun and modifier(s)
8. Proper adjective (Nationality or other place of origin)
Example: Min huna syna starĭa umferða fetura keljua Amrikanska
(lit. My dog blue old round fat nice American)
(My nice, fat, old, round, blue, American dog)
Notice all adjectives are in the genitive case because the pronoun is a possessive one, the pronoun is not made genitive because it is already possessive.
What follows is the declension of adjectives to the three genders and various cases of Vethirankii:
|Gender||Nominative singular||Accusative singular||Accusative Plural||Nominative plural||
|Locative Singular||Locative Plural||Meaning|
Adjectives take on the exact same cases as the noun or pronoun it describes.
Absolute adjectives do not belong to a larger construction. English has this in the following sentence
"She was happy with the dog"
Happy doesn't describe either of the two nouns, therefore it is absolute. In this Vethirankii sentence, it works the same way:
"Anjh lumig mun i Hunjt."
Notice how Vethirankii has no dative case to inflect the object, so as in English, "i (the)", is used.
Proper adjectives describe a noun's religion, place of origin, organization, etc. Proper adjectives derive from the root noun, as in English. The rules are as follows
|Ends in||suffix or interfix|
|a, o, u, con.||-skĭ|
|e, i||-ju-; is added as 2nd syllable.|
|one-syllable, ends in e, or, i||-sku|
Numerative adjectives are numbers. 1-10 are as follows:
Higher numbers are created like this:
11 - Shi'ain (10+1)
20 - Tvir'shi (2x10)
21 - Tvir'shi'ain (2x10+1)
100 - Shi'shi (10x10)
101 - Shi'shi'ain
1,000 - Ain Tuzend
10,000 - Shi'tuzend
100,000 - Shi'shi'tuzend
1,000,000 - Ain millon
Adverbs describe in what way a verb does something. Many a derived from a verb by adding the suffix -liḫ or -lyḫ, depending on what comes before the suffix. In Vethirankii, adverbs are delined according to gender and case. The words "ji (yes)" and "ni (no)" are adjectives. The following are the rules for adding an adverb suffix:
|Comes After||Suffix used|
|vowels a, o, or u||-liḫ|
|vowels e, i, and consonants||-lyḫ|
Gŭzlyḫ - Beautifully, comes from the verb "guza", which means "to be beautiful".
Pursd'ðaliḫ - Stunningly, comes from the verb "Pursd'ða, which means "to stun".
Adpositions tell the location of a noun. The Locative case is used in concordance with an adposition on both the subject and direct or indirect object to show the subject or object is being modified by the adposition. In Vethirankii, the preposition comes before the noun. Postpositions come after the noun. Most adpositions are prepositions. A few examples of adpositions in sentences follow and are highlighted. An adposition is subgrouped by whether it comes before or after the object of the transitive verb.
"Khunj jukz d'jel Kputnjek."
"The dog is on the table"
"Tĭ genzest sturlu ĭ"
"(You) go in the store."
Articles are declined according to gender and the noun's case, there are no indefinate articles.
Conjunctions are not their own part of speech, but are called Conjunctive Articles. Also Interjections are articles called Interjective Articles.
|Gender||Nominative singular||Accusative singular||
|Locative Singular||Locative Plural||Meaning|
Conjunctive articles are not declined in any sense. They act the same as English conjunctions connecting two parts of a sentence.
Interjective articles are the same as English interjections, and are not declined in any sense. Usually any word or words spoken in a surprised manner can be classified as interjective articles.
We hold these Truths to be self-evident that all Men are created equal...
Mis hedh ăch kpisci selstskŏðerd, vis manciu kriadh jukz echðelciu...