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Veðirankĭ

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Name: Veðirankĭ

Type: Isolated

Alignment:

Head Direction: Head Final

Number of genders: 3-Masculine, Feminine, & Neuter

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No No No No No Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes No No No No No No
Numbers Yes No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb Yes No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle Yes No No No No No No No


SettingEdit

Vethirankii is a Germano-Slavic based language with influences from Latvian, Polish, Czech, Estonian,English, Icelandic, and German. There's no story to it, accept it's just an idea I came up with some years ago, and thought I might be able to make it reality by organizing everything online.

PhonologyEdit

Consonental Inventory (Pulmonic, and affricates)
Bilabial Labiodental Labio-Velar Dental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Palatal Palatal-Velar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive b p k͡p t d k g
Trill
Trilled Affricate
Tap or Flap ɾ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʝ ɧ x ɣ χ h
Affricate p̪͡f ts tʃ dʒ
Lateral Fricative ɬ ɮ
Lateral Affricate
Approximant w l j ɰ
Lateral Approximant


front central back
unrounded rounded
short long short long short long short long
close y
near-close ɪ
close-mid
mid ə
open-mid oral ɛ œ
nasal ɛ̃
near-open æ
open

The alphabet is as follows:

Majuscule Minisclue Cyrillic Maj. Cyrillic Min. Name Value
A a A a Ah /aː/
Ă ă Ă Ă Ăh /æ/
Ǣ ǣ Ӕ ӕ Ǣh /ai/
B b Б б /b/
C c C c /k/
Ch ch Ҳ ҳ Chă /χ/
D d Д д /d/
Dh dh Ѯ ѯ Dhă /x/
E e Э э Eh /ɛ/
Ě ě Ә ә Ěh /ə/
Ė ė Ӛ ӛ Ėh /ɛ̃/
F f Ф ф Efe /f/
Fh fh Я я Efhe /ʝ/
G g Г г /g/
Ҕ ҕ Ḡǐ /dɮ/
H h X x Ha /h/
Ӈ ӈ Ḫa /ɧ/
I i И и Ih /ɪ/
Ĭ ĭ Й й Ĭh /iː/
J j J j Jotě /j/
К к K k Ka /k/
L l Л л Ele /l/
Ll ll Ӆ ӆ Elle /ɬ/
M m M м Eme /m/
N n Н н Ene /n/
O o O o Oh /oː/
Ŏ ŏ Ӧ ӧ Ŏh /œ/
P p П п Pe /p/
R r P p Ar /ɾ/
S s Ц ц Ese /s/
T t T т /t/
Ð ð Ҭ ҭ Edh /ð/
U u У y Uh /uː/
Ŭ ŭ Ӱ ӱ Ŭh /y/
V v Ў/В ў/в Uve /w~v/
W w Ў/В ў/в Ewe /w~v/
Y y Ѥ/J ѥ/j Jotě-greku /iː~j/
Z z Ԏ/Ҭ/3 ԏ/ҭ/з Zeda /θ~z~ð/



PhonotacticsEdit

1. Any consonant can precede or succeed any vowel.

2. All consonant clusters cannot exceed 2 phonemes, affricates count as one sound.

3. All vowels with a breve (˘) are long.

4. A word may not end with [Ll] or [Z] but may end with the digraph [Kz].

5. A word may not begin with [Ǣ].

6. ['] represents a glottal stop.

Pronunciation RulesEdit

1. All vowels are pronounced as separate phonemes when clustered, as in Spanish.

2. The letter Z is prounounced /θ/ before or after i or e, /z/ before or after a or o and consonants, and /ð/ before or after u, this also applies to the variations of the vowels with breves.

3. Y is pronounced as as the approximant /j/ before or after a vowel, and as the vowel /iː/ before or after a consonant.

4. V and W are pronounced as /w/ before i or e, and /v/ before a,o,u, or the vowel-pronounced Y.

5. The "Wt" diagraph, after "L" is pronounced /ɧ/.

6. Other than that, the language is pronounced according to the phonemes listed with the alphabet.

7. When there is a three-consonant onset, a schwa vowel is added before the last consonant of the cluster so it doesn't overstep the two-consonant onset rule.

8. There are some digraphs, though:

Di- & trigraphs
Ce /s/
Ci /f/
Ди Di /dʒ/
Гj Gj /ɣ/
Aj Ij /aɪ/
Jx Jh /p̪͡f/
Кп Kp /k͡p/
Кз Kz /ts/
Љ љ Lh /ɮ/
Лj Lj /ɬ/
Ӈ ӈ Ng /ŋ/
Ўлx Wlh /ɰ/
Ўт Wt /ɧ/

Basic GrammarEdit

The grammar of Vethirankii is very similar to most other Balto-Slavic languages. One difference is that it doesn't decline nouns into gender by animacy or personhood, only gender:

Vethirankii contains seven cases for which to decline nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and particles:

1. Nominative

2. Genitive

3. Dative

4. Accusative

5. Instrumental

6. Locative

7. Vocative

It also contains 3 degrees of comparison:

Positive

Comparitave

Superlative

It contains 2 aspects:

Perfective

Continuous

3 Genders:

Masculine

Feminine

Neuter

2 Numbers:

Singular

Plural

4 Tenses:

Future

Present

Past

Past Iterative

4 Moods:

Conditional

Imperative

Interrogative

Optative

and 2 Voices:

Active

Passive


DeclensionEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns are declined in the following ways with two cases.


Gender Nominative singular Accusative singular

Accusative

plural

Genitive


singular

Genitive

plural

Nominative plural

Instrumental Singular

Instrumental Plural

Locative Singular Locative Plural Meaning
Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun Noun
Masculine Putnjeku Putnjlu Putnjekcilu Putnjeka Putnjekcia Putnjekciu Putnjekt Putnjekcit Kputnjek Kputnjekci "student(s)"
Feminine Hunji Hunjla Hunjcilu Hunjh Huncijh Hundci Hunjiki Hunjiciki Khunj Khuncij "dog(s)"
Neuter Plut Plutlo Plutcilo Pluð Plucið Plucikz Pluti Plutci Kplu Kplciu "table(s)"

In the instrumental case, the noun's suffix is equal to the English "with" or "by" or "using." In the locative case, the noun's prefix corresponds to the English prepositions "in", "on", "at", and "by". So, "Kputnjeka es Plut" means "The student is on the table", literally "Student is table" but the prefix "K" acts as the preposition "on". Depending on how the word is used, it can correspond to any of the above-stated English prepositions. Now, the neuter table is in the Nominative, because it is being stood on, therefore, doing something, and so is the student, because she is doing something by standing on the table. So this noun has two cases it is declined to. The vocative case is not declined by an affix as in, say, Polish, but as in English where the vocative expression is adressed in the sentence. "Brutes, un tĭ?", which literally means "Brutus, even you?". In most English cases the vocative phrase is in a sentence this way: "Even you, Brutus", but in Vethirankii it's just the opposite. To make a noun plural, add "ci" to the end, gender inflection will come after the "ci". Posessives are defined under the accusative case, how you inflect posession depends on the gender. All nouns are capitalized, in proper nouns, and uncapitalized "b" is added to the beginning of the noun. The letter after the "b", unless a vowel, is elided.

VerbsEdit

Verbs are declined into four tenses Future, Present, Past, Past Participle.

Tense ->


Infinitive form

Future Present Past

Past


Part.

Meaning
jeka jeku jekz jedh jewt to be
sima simu simz sidh siwt to have
genga gengu genz gedh gewt to go

Verbs never take the infinitive form in a sentence. So you can never say "They are to run," as one would say when speaking in an imperative mood, it would just take the regular form "They will run," "Ver njitu". So, "I will go" is "Mi gengu," also "I will have left" is "Mi luku mjukztu," the word "lukz" takes the suffix "u" because the helping verb "mjukztu" is in the future tense. In Vethirankii the helping verb comes after the main verb.

The conjugation of the verb "Jeka (To be)" in the present:

Mi jekz - I am

Tĭ jukz - You are

Anu/Anjh/An jukz - He/she/it is

Mis jukz - We are

Tu jukz - You are (plural)

On/Onj* jukz - They are (masc./fem.)


The conjugation of "Jeka (To be)" in the past:

Mi jedh - I was

Tĭ jedh - You were

Anu/Anjh/An jedh- He/She/It was

Mis jedh - We were

Tu jedh - You were (plural)

On/Onj* jedh - They were (masculine/feminine)

  • If you are talking about two or more neuter objects doing somthing, the neuter takes the masculine gender by adding the case-appropriate affix.


The conjugation of "Jeka (To be)" in the past participle:

Mi jewt - I have been

Tĭ jewt - You have been

Anu/Anjh/An jewt - He/She/It has been

Mis jewt - We have been

Tu jewt - You have been (plural)

On/Onj jewt - They have been


The conjugation of "Jeka (To be)" in the future:

Mi jeku - I will be

Tĭ jeku - You will be

Anu/Anjh/An jeku - He/She/It will be

Mis jeku - We will be

Tu jeku - You will be (plural)

On/Onj jeku - They will be


The conjugation of the verb "Sima (To have)" in the present:

Mi simz - I have

Tĭ simz - You have

Anu/Anjh/An simt - He/she/it has

Mis simz - We have

Tu simz - You have (plural)

On/Onj simz - They have


The conjugation of the verb "Sima (To have)" in the past:

Mi sidh - I had

Tĭ sidh - You had

Anu/Anjh/An sidh - He/She/It had

Mis sidh - We have

Tu sidh - You have (plural)

On/Onj sidh - They have


The conjugation of the verb "Sima (To have)" in the past participle:

Mi siwt - I have had

Tĭ siwt - You have had

Anu/Anjh/An siwt - He/She/It has had

Mis siwt - We have had

Tu siwt - You have had (plural)

On/Onj siwt - They have had


The conjugation of the verb "Sima (To have)" in the future:

Mi simu - I will have

Tĭ simu - You will have

Anu/Anjh/An simu - He/She/It will have

Mis simu - We will have

Tu simu - You will have (plural)

On/Onj simu - They will have


The conjugation of the verb "Genga (To go) in the present:

Mi gengz - I go

Tĭ genz - You go

Anu/Anjh/An genz - He/She/It goes

Mis genz - We go

Tu genz - You go (Plural)

On/Onj genz - They go


The conjugation of the verb "Genga (To go) in the past:

Mi gedh - I went

Tĭ gedh - You went

Anu/Anjh/An gedh - He/She/It went:

Mis gedh - We went

Tu gedh - You went (plural)

On/Onj gedh - They went

The conjugation of the verb "Genga (To go) in the past participle:

Mi gewt - I have gone

Tĭ gewt - You have gone

An/Anjh/An gewt - He/She/It has gone

Mis gewt - We have gone

Tu gewt - You have gone (plural)

On/Onj gewt - They have gone

The conjugation of the verb "Genga (To go) in the future:

Mi gengu - I will go

Tĭ gengu - You will go

An/Anjh/An gengu - He/She/It will go

Mis gengu - We will go

Tu gengu - You will go

On/Onj gengu - They will go

Verbs do not relate to the agent it is describing as far as case goes. So if a pronoun is in the feminine singular, the verb will not be feminine singular.

Verb moodEdit

There are 4 moods to verbs. These moods can tell whether a person is yelling a sentence or simply saying it. Verbs are conjugated according to mood. If the sentence is in the imperative mood, the verb is conjugated according to mood and tense and the noun or pronoun will come after the verb, for example:

"Tu jutzu gengu."- "You should go."

would be: "Genguest tu."- "Go you."

Conjugation of mood will always come after conjugation for tense. The rules for conjugating according to the 4 moods are as follows:

1. For the conditional mood add "-ist"

2. For the imperative mood add "-est"

3. For the interrogative mood add "ust"

4. For the optative mood add "ast"

I will describe as best I can the functions of these moods.

Conditional Mood- This mood refers to a hypothetical state of affairs. (courtesy: Wikipedia- Conditional Mood)

"I would have gone to the store but I fell asleep."

Imperative Mood- This mood expresses direct commands or requests. (Courtesy: Wikipedia- Imperative Mood)

"Go to the store."

Interrogative Mood- This mood makes the sentence ask a question

"Can you go to the store?"

Optative Mood- Is a mood in Ancient Greek used to express wishes, I thought it would be fun to have a mood just for that.

"If only I would have gone to the store."

Change in StateEdit

A change in state corresponds to the English affixes "un-" and "re-" as in "undo (to make not done)", and "redo (to do again). In Vethirankii, there are no affixes, just adverbs to describe what change in state the noun has gone through. These adverbs come before the verb. Here are some examples of conjugation

nella ---> ḡopetlyḫ nella lit. "againly do" - "redo"

PronounsEdit

Pronouns come before the verb, as in English. Pronouns are split into two groups: definite and indefinite. The following are all the pronouns in their various forms.

Definite SingularEdit

Mi - I

Tĭ - You

Anu - He

Anjh - She

An - It

Definite PluralEdit

Mis - We

Tu - You (Plural)

On - They (Masculine)

Onj - They (Feminine)


There is no neuter form of "On" that would correspond with "An". so, when you are talking about a group of neuter pronouns doing something you use the masculine.

Indefinite SingularEdit

There are as many of these as in English, in other words, quite a few:

Demonstrative PronounsEdit

Demonstrative pronouns put emphasis on a certain noun.

This - Ach

That - Nu

These - Ăch

Those - Nŭ

Yonder - Jonder

Possessive PronounsEdit

For the most part an "n" is added to the end of a pronoun to make possessive, as follows:

Mi ---> Min - My

Tĭ ---> Tin - Your

Anu ---> Anun - Her

Anjh ---> Anjhen - His

An ---> Anen - Its

Mis ---> Misen - Our

Tu ---> Tun - Your (Plural)

On ---> Onn - Their (Fem.)

Onj ---> Onjen - Their (Masc.)

When a pronoun ends with a consonant "-en" is added

Dummy PronounsEdit

Dummy pronouns are pronouns that refer to no subject. Vethirankii is a pro-drop language, in that when a dummy pronoun occurs, it is dropped from the sentence:

"Jukz ciez" --- literally "Is raining", notice how "An" is dropped, as it is the dummy pronoun of the sentence.

AdjectivesEdit

Attributive adjectives and adjective casesEdit

Adjectives come after the nouns they describe. There is a certain order to attributive adjectives that is as follows:

1. Article or possessive pronoun

2. Modified noun and modifier(s)

3. Color

4. Age

5. Shape

6. Size

7. Quality

8. Proper adjective (Nationality or other place of origin)

Example: Min huna syna starĭa umferða fetura keljua Amrikanska

(lit. My dog blue old round fat nice American)

(My nice, fat, old, round, blue, American dog)

Notice all adjectives are in the genitive case because the pronoun is a possessive one, the pronoun is not made genitive because it is already possessive.

What follows is the declension of adjectives to the three genders and various cases of Vethirankii:


Gender Nominative singular Accusative singular Accusative Plural Nominative plural

Instrumental Singular

Instrumental Plural

Locative Singular Locative Plural Meaning
Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective Adjective
Masculine Starĭu Starĭa Starĭcia Starĭciu Starĭt Starĭcit Kpstarĭ Kpstarĭci Fat
Feminine Puikji Puijh Puicijh Puici Puiki Puiciki Kpuinj Kpuicij Pretty
Neuter Puit Pluið Puicið Puicit Puikz Puicikz Kpuiu Kpuiciu Fast

Adjectives take on the exact same cases as the noun or pronoun it describes.

AbsoluteEdit

Absolute adjectives do not belong to a larger construction. English has this in the following sentence

"She was happy with the dog"

Happy doesn't describe either of the two nouns, therefore it is absolute. In this Vethirankii sentence, it works the same way:

"Anjh lumig mun i Hunjt."

Notice how Vethirankii has no dative case to inflect the object, so as in English, "i (the)", is used.

ProperEdit

Proper adjectives describe a noun's religion, place of origin, organization, etc. Proper adjectives derive from the root noun, as in English. The rules are as follows

Ends in suffix or interfix
a, o, u, con. -skĭ
e, i -ju-; is added as 2nd syllable.
one-syllable, ends in e, or, i -sku
Numerative AdjectivesEdit

Numerative adjectives are numbers. 1-10 are as follows:

Ain

Tvir

Ðrir

Fer

Fife

Sech

Sjŏ

Wosem

Diwat

Shi

Higher numbers are created like this:

11 - Shi'ain (10+1)

20 - Tvir'shi (2x10)

21 - Tvir'shi'ain (2x10+1)

100 - Shi'shi (10x10)

101 - Shi'shi'ain

1,000 - Ain Tuzend

10,000 - Shi'tuzend

100,000 - Shi'shi'tuzend

1,000,000 - Ain millon

Et Cetera

AdverbsEdit

Adverbs describe in what way a verb does something. Many a derived from a verb by adding the suffix -liḫ or -lyḫ, depending on what comes before the suffix. In Vethirankii, adverbs are delined according to gender and case. The words "ji (yes)" and "ni (no)" are adjectives. The following are the rules for adding an adverb suffix:

Comes After Suffix used
vowels a, o, or u -liḫ
vowels e, i, and consonants -lyḫ


ExamplesEdit

Gŭzlyḫ - Beautifully, comes from the verb "guza", which means "to be beautiful".

Pursd'ðaliḫ - Stunningly, comes from the verb "Pursd'ða, which means "to stun".

AdpositionsEdit

Adpositions tell the location of a noun. The Locative case is used in concordance with an adposition on both the subject and direct or indirect object to show the subject or object is being modified by the adposition. In Vethirankii, the preposition comes before the noun. Postpositions come after the noun. Most adpositions are prepositions. A few examples of adpositions in sentences follow and are highlighted. An adposition is subgrouped by whether it comes before or after the object of the transitive verb.

Preposition:Edit

"Khunj jukz d'jel Kputnjek."

"The dog is on the table"

Postposition:Edit

"Tĭ genzest sturlu ĭ"

"(You) go in the store."

ArticlesEdit

Articles are declined according to gender and the noun's case, there are no indefinate articles.

Conjunctions are not their own part of speech, but are called Conjunctive Articles. Also Interjections are articles called Interjective Articles.



Gender Nominative singular Accusative singular

Accusative

plural

Genitive


singular

Genitive

plural

Nominative plural

Instrumental Singular

Instrumental Plural

Locative Singular Locative Plural Meaning
Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article Article
Masculine Nau Nalu Nacilu Na'a Nacia Naciu Nakt Nacit Naek Kpaci "The"
Feminine Nala Nala Nacilu Najh Nacijh Nadci Naki Naciki Kha Khacij "The"
Neuter Na Nalo Nacilo Nað Nacið Nacikz Nai Naci Kpa Kpaciu "The"


Conjunctive ArticlesEdit

Conjunctive articles are not declined in any sense. They act the same as English conjunctions connecting two parts of a sentence.

Interjective ArticlesEdit

Interjective articles are the same as English interjections, and are not declined in any sense. Usually any word or words spoken in a surprised manner can be classified as interjective articles.

Example textEdit

We hold these Truths to be self-evident that all Men are created equal...


Mis hedh ăch kpisci selstskŏðerd, vis manciu kriadh jukz echðelciu...

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