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Verbum

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Verbum
'
Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Head First
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
NO
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

This is a simplified language meant to be easy to learn and easy to speak. In all it has less than 5,000 words. All other words beside root words are expressed through Derivational Morphemes that reflect the intent, emotion, degree and intensity of the speaker. So there is no real direct translation from Verbum to other languages but the Listener or Reader is allowed to insert a word that means what the morphemes are expressing. For example, look at the word for HAPPY (fek).

jū fek “I [am] happy.” 

jū ta gafek “I am very happy.” [joyful, cheerful, elated] 

jū ta sagafek “I am euphoric.”  

jū ta fekna “I am sad.” (the opposite of happy)

jū ta feksana “I am very sad, upset or discouraged”

jū ta feksanasa When necessary to express an extreme condition, you double the primary inflection. “I am despondent or suicidal”

jū sēta feksana Gives the impression of a certain word because of locality. Basically means an extreme sadness inside yourself. “I [have in me] [extreme sadness] depressed/depression.”

jū mōta fekna? “Are you upset?” mō get added to the verb 

By using Derivational Morphemes in this fashion hundreds of thousands of words can be expressed with only having to know a couple thousand. In addition, all root words are single syllable so they are easy to say or remember.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate ʧ ʤ
Approximant j
Trill
Flap or tap r
Lateral fric. ɬ
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close ɪ ʊ
Close-mid
Mid e
Open-mid
Near-open æ ʌ ɒ
Open a ɑː

Dipthongs Edit

eɪ, əʊ, aɪ

OrthographyEdit

Phoneme Grapheme
/ɑ/ a
/ â
/eɪ/ ā
/e/ e
/iː/ ē
/ɪ/ i
/aɪ/ ī
/ɒ/ o
/əʊ/ ō
/ʌ/ u
/ʊ/ û
/uː/ ū
/b/ b
/k/ k
/d/ d
/f/ f
/g/ g
/h/ h
/ʤ/ j
/l/ l
/ɬ/
/m/ m
/n/ n
/ŋ/ ng
/p/ p
/r/ r
/s/ s
/ʒ/ ŝ
/ʃ/ sh
/t/ t
/θ/ th
/ð/
/v/ v
/w/ w
/y/ y
/z/ z
/ʧ/ ch

PhonotacticsEdit

All syllables are spoken, they are not run together. For example, sagavēdōda is pronounced sa ga vē dō da. The verb root is stressed. So it is really sa ga vē  da. If multiple derivational morphemes are used, which causes two vowels to be together, they are spoken separately just like all other words. So if the or morpheme is used like in sagavēdōdaor the end of the sentence is not run together to create a sound similar to dower. Each syllable is spoken: sa ga vē dō da or.  

In verbum, each sound has a letter representation so it is not necessary to remember when a certain vowel or consonant sound should be used in a word. 

Phonological Constraints

(C)(C)V(C)(C)

In most cases, all root words are 5 characters or less and are single syllable. Roots can end in a vowel such as  (to have) and can be followed by a morpheme that begins with a vowel. As stated above, both syllables are spoken, but the speaker has the right to use a glottal stop between vowels to help make the words more understandable.

Derivational Morphemes Edit

Derivational Morphemes play an important part of the language. All meaning and intent of the speaker or writer is expressed through the morphemes. Morphemes can be either prefixes or suffices shown but the "-" at the front or end of the morpheme.

Type Morpheme
Similar Variant / Results of Action vē-
Role or Position / Associative Person -ra
One who Believes in -rā
An Inhabitant of -lā
Mental/Physical Place/Nature of Being -tēr
Place to do / Place where Something is Done mā-
A Long Term or Continual Process of ... mē-
Place or Thing Used for (Tool) la-
Make Complete or Become Final -nēr
Characterized or Pertaining to... -sō
Causative (Adjective) -or
Verb used as a Noun -sū
To form a Question (added to the Verb) mō-
Positive or Greater Meaning/Purpose/Intent ga-
Opposite or Negative Meaning/Purpose/Intent -na

There are additional Morphemes that have multiple choices depending ontheirr purpose. Theyaree listed below.

Hierarchy Edit

Type Morpheme
Lower Rank hēr-
Higher Rank -hēr
Sidelong hē-
Assistant to -hā

Relationships Edit

Type Morpheme
Child of rū-
Parent of -rū
Equivalent -rē
Joint rē-

Categorization Edit

Type Morpheme
Genre or Family of a Word jē-
Classification of a Word -jē

Quantity Edit

Type Morpheme
Singular nō-
Plurality -nō

Possessive Edit

Type Morpheme
Me or Mine or My Point of View lū-
You or Yours or from Your Point of View -lū

Locality Edit

Type Morpheme
In-On-Around-Near sē-
Out-Away-Far From -sē

Tense Edit

Tense is also used when Conjugating Verbs.

Type Morpheme
Past nē-
Future -nē

Intensity Edit

Type Morpheme
Positive sa-
Negative -sa

Examples of How Derivational Morphemes Work

We will use the work for MAN, ma

ENGLISH VERBUM
Man, as in a person - Men ma - manō
Man, as in the Race of... jēma
Male - Males vēma - vēmanō
Woman - Women mana - mananō
Female - Females vēmana - vēmananō
Boy - Girl hērma - hērmana
Person - People majē - majēnō
Child - Toddler - Newborn hērmajē - gahērmajē - sagahērmajē
Children hērmajēnō
Senior Citizen - Elder majēhēr - gamajēhēr
Son - Daughter rūma - rūmana
Father - Mother marū - manarū
Husband - Wife rēma - rēmana
Grandfather (Great) - Grandmother gamarū (sagamarū) - gamanarū
Brother - Sister marē - manarē
Uncle - Aunt mahērrē - manahērrē
Cousin (Male) - Cousin (Female) hēmarē - hēmanarē

It should be noted that Verbum has very few words and even though it is possible to translate an English word into Verbum, in reality, Verbum does not translate to specific words. Verbum imparts an intent, feeling, emotion and intensity. The listener or reader is left to judge what word from their language best represent the intent of the Verbum conjugation. We can demonstrate this with the verb “to See”, .

ENGLISH VERBUM
See
Look (results of action) vēdō
Watch (greater amount of Looking) gavēdō
Stare (look with great intensity) sagavēdō
Identify (from and by me) lūdō
Recognize (directed at you) dōlū
Sight (seeing belongs to...) jēdō
View (all that can be seen [group or collection]) dōjē
Examine (long term seeing) mēdō
Monocle (tool for seeing [not eyes]) ladōsū (eyes have their own word)
Spectacles [Glasses] ladōsūnō
Binoculars (to see far-out-away) ladōsūnōsē
Telescope (to see VERY far away) galadōsūsē
Microscope (to see in-near) sēladōsū
Seer (associative person) dōsūra
Oracle (great Seer) gadōsūra

Notice -sū being injected into word that are Nouns because the verb to See is being converted to a noun. So many English words can be represented by the morphemes. It should also be noted that each verbum morpheme conjugation can represent many words. For example, the English word EXAMINE. The Thesaurus lists consider, explore. Inspect, investigate, ponder, probe, review, scan, scrutinize, study, survey, along with many more as examples of EXAMINE. How the word is used in context provides the reader or listener with the means to choose what word best fits the situation.

Important Point to Realize

In the two charts above the ONLY words that were actually in the Verbum Dictionary were ma and

Numerals Edit

Number are fairly straight forward using a base 10 system but in reality there are only 6 numbers. The other numbers are compounds of the 6 "primes".

Number Verbum
0 âsh
1 ka
2
3
4 (Plural 2) kānō
5
6 (Plural 3 kēnō
7
8 (greater plural 2) gakānō
9 (greater plural 3) gakēnō
10 (plural 5) kōnō
Teens (20,30,etc)
Hundreds
Thousands pa
Millions
Billions
Trillions gapī
Quad-Quin-Sex-Sep etc ga[kāno]pī
Position (st-nd-rd-th) -ta

Examples of Numbers

Note that numbers are assembled using a ":"

Number Verbum
11 kōnō:ka
29 kāpū:gakēnō
145 kapē:kānōpū:kō
2,431 kāpa:kānōpē:kēpū:ka
52,485 kōpū:kāpū:kānōpē:gakānōpū:kō
25th kāpū:kōtō

Time Edit

Time is based on the day and words all evolve from there. Again, it should be noted that in many examples here, the only work actually in the dictionary is DAY, dē.

Telling Time Edit

Based on 24 hour clock. Time is an hour and a minute with the conjunction ‘il’.  Note that the ‘il’ is stressed hard. You only use the words to time ( ie., seconds) when you are referring to a portion of time. 

ENGLISH VERBUM
Day - Night dē - dēna
Hours hērdē
Minutes gahērdē
Seconds sagahērdē
Week dēkī
Month (Moon Day) mondē
Quarter (Moon Period) mondēsh
Year (Day of the Earth) dēmundū
Century (Year Hundred) dēmundūpē
Eon or Age (Year Thousand) dēmundūpa
ENGLISH VERBUM
4:25PM (16:25) kapū:kēno il kēpū:kō
6 O'Clock (the 6 hour) kēnō hērdē
[past tense] Week (Last Week) nēdēkī
[future tense] Month (Next Month) mondēnē

Days of Week Edit

ENGLISH VERBUM
Monday dēka
Tuesday dēkā
Wednesday dēkē
Thursday dēkānō
Friday dēkō
Saturday dēkēnō
Sunday (The Seventh Day) kīdē
Today (this day) ūsdē
Yesterday (past tense) nēūsdē
Tomorrow (future tense) ūsdēnē

Months Edit

ENGLISH VERBUM
January (New Year) bōn dēmundū
February (2 month) kāmondē
March (3 month) kēmondē
April (New Spring) bōn ver
May (5 month) kōmondē
June (mid year) med dēmundū
July (New Summer) bōn âsta
August (8 month) gakānōmondē
September (9 month) gakēnōmondē
October (New Fall) bōn atū
November (New Feast ) bōn ēdōlō
December (comes Winter) pōna hīm

Colors Edit

Colors are named after the 3 base colors Red (rō), Blue (bū) and Yellow (yē).  Combining base colors makes secondary color names.  Combining secondary colors with base colors created tertiary colors.  Note however, that combining base and secondary colors will create a name with two of one color ( i.e, rō rō).  Tertiary names always places the single name in between the double name. 

Along with the base colors are White (bī) and Black (dū). They combine to make Gray (bī:dū) and the base colors combine to make the special color, Brown (rō:yē:bū).

Base Colors

ENGLISH VERBUM
Red
Blue
Yellow
White
Black

Secondary Colors

ENGLISH VERBUM
Violet rō:bū
Orange rō:yē
Green bū:yē
Gray bī:dū

Tertiary Colors

ENGLISH VERBUM
Magenta rō:bū:rō
Scarlet rō:yē;rō
Teal bū:yē:bū
Purple bū:rō:bū
Amber yē:rō:yē
Olive yē:bū:yē
Brown rō:yē:bū

After the standard colors above, the tint and shade modifiers essentially define all the main colors.  Tint is the color plus White and shade is the color plus Black.  There are 6 levels of tint and shade so the modifier is combined with a number from 1 – 6 to represent which tint or shade of that color you are talking about. So the third tint of Purple is bīkō’bū:rō:bū while the fourth shade of Orange is rō:yē’dūkēnō.

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Adjectives No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes Yes Yes No No
Adverb No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes
Pronouns No No No No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

NounsEdit

Nouns are always a minimum of 3 characters long and follow the model CVC. They can be up to 5 characters long using the full model CCVCC. Nouns always end with a consonant unless the noun is a verb being used as a noun. For example, the verb to FILM. Verbum has a Derivational Morpheme suffix that turns a verb into a noun. This morpheme is -sū. In this case, the nouns would end in a vowel and could possibly be larger then the 5 character limit.

VerbsEdit

Verbs follow the model (C)(C)V(C)(C). They are a minimum of 2 characters, can end in a vowel or consent and can be up to 5 characters in length.

Conjugation of verbs uses Derivational Morphemes to express the intent. Listed below are the conjugation morphemes in addition to Tense from above.      

Type Morpheme
Continuous -da
Perfect -tē
Conditional ūn-

Examples of Verb Conjugation 

We will use the verb [to] DO which is ba   

Conjugation English Verbum
Present Indicative DO ba
Perfect Indicative have DONE batē
Past Indicative DID nēba
Past Perfect Indicative had DONE nēbatē
Future Indicative will DO banē
Future Perfect Indicative will have DONE batēnē
Present Conditional would DO ūnba
Perfect Conditional would have DONE ūnbatē
Present Indicative Continuous DOING bada
Perfect Indicative Continuous have been DOING badatē
Past Continuous was DOING nēbada
Past Perfect Continuous had been DOING nēbadatē
Future Continuous will be DOING badanē
Future Perfect Continuous will have been DOING badatēnē
Present Conditional Continuous would be DOING ūnbada
Perfect Conditional Continuous would have been DOING ūnbadatē

SyntaxEdit

Very similar to English using SVO

VocabularyEdit


No. English Verbum
1Ijū (I/ME)
2you (singular)jūna (not I)
3hejūl
4wejūnō
5you (plural)jūnanō
6theyjūnōna
7thisūs
8thatūsna
9hereon
10thereonna
11whomōma
12whatmōka
13wheremōsē
14whenmōtā
15howmōyosh
16notnaz
17allgajūnō
18manynitch
19somenitchna
20fewnitchsana
21other
22oneka
23two
24three
25fourkānō
26five
27bigmag
28longlon
29widefûs
30thickfûs
31heavygran
32smallmagna
33shortlonna
34narrowfûsna
35thinfûsna
36womanmana
37man (adult male)ma
38man (human being)jēma
39childhrēmajē
40wiferēmana
41husbandrēma
42mothermanarū
43fathermarū
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eatēdō
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moonmon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earthmundū
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173greenbū:yē
174yellow
175white
176black
177nightdēna
178day
179yeardēmundū
180warm
181cold
182full
183newbōn
184oldbōnna
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197nearmōl
198farmōlna
199right
200left
201atat
202in[sē-]
203withach
204andil
205ifachna
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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