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Vesës

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Vesiun
Vesēs
Type Agglutinative-Polysynthetic
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders None
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and DialectsEdit

Vesiun is the official language of the small tropical kingdom of Veiss. It is the modern colloquial form of the liturgical language of Lanaism, the major religion of the Vesiun people. The country being located at the bottom of the Misse Peninsula has caused the phonology to be heavily influenced by Ancient Missean and Sorvian. It is agglutinative, but words fuse together and cause the language to be considered polysynthetic. The basic word order is SVO.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g q ʔ
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x h
Approximant ɹ
Trill r
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral app. l
Phoneme Grapheme
/ŋ/ ń
/q/ ck
/ʔ/ '
/ʃ/ š
/ʒ/ ž
/x/ ch
/ts/ ć
/tʃ/ č
/dʒ/ ź
  • All other consonants are written as their symbols on the IPA (except for "r"; see allophony)

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Back
Close i y u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e o
Mid ə
Open-mid œ ʌ ɔ
Near-open æ
Open a
Phoneme Grapheme
/y/ ü
/ɪ/ ï
/ə/ ë
/œ/ ö
/ʌ/ ù
/ɔ/ ò
/æ/ ä
/ai/ î
  • All other vowels are written as their symbols on the IPA

PhonotacticsEdit

  • Words almost always begin with a consonant
  • The letter "r" cannot begin a word
  • "ck" (/q/) only ever comes at the end of a syllable or word

AllophonyEdit

  • The letter "r" has three different pronunciation depending on context: /ɹ/ when preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonant, /r/ when preceded by a consonant (that is part of the same word) and followed by a vowel, and /ɾ/ in any other unspecified situation.
  • "oi" is pronounced like a nasal "wa;" "oui" is pronounced /oi/.
  • Any "i" and "ï" next to each other in a word fuse together into one "i"

​The "Special T"Edit

A "t" at the end of a word sometimes behaves differently:Edit

  • -et/-ët -- pronounced "ei"/"ëi"
  • -aat -- pronounced "ai"
  • -it/-ît -- "t" becomes silent

In all other cases it is pronounced.

StressEdit

Stress always falls on the initial syllable and/or the syllable following a glottal stop: ĆÖnïva'ACKën

Writing System

Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound
  • This section is here if I or anyone reading this comes up with a writing system. It would most likely be an alphabet or abugida.

GrammarEdit

StemsEdit

All words in Vesiun have specific endings and stems based off of those endings (c = consonant, v = vowel):Edit

  • -it/-ît -- drops "t"
  • -aat -- becomes "ai"
  • -oi -- "oi" drops entirely (sometimes add "e"/"ë")
  • -vch -- becomes v'vck (pach to pa'ack)
  • -ń -- becomes "nin"/"nïn"
  • -svs -- becomes šv
  • -zvz -- becomes žv
  • -cvc -- final consonant swaps places with vowel and if vowel is "e," "ē," or "i," it becomes "ï" (jòlim to jòlmï)
  • -ën -- add "e" (södën to södëne)
  • -lcv -- drops consonant (pilka to pila)
  • -ag/-äg -- becomes -äge/-ägë
  • -et/-ët -- becomes -enï/-ënï
  • -vet (v =/= vowel in this case) -- becomes "veni"

NounsEdit

Nouns have a handful of cases as well as a plural form. Suffixes are appended to the noun's stem to form a case. Here are the most common ones:

Case Suffix Use Example Meaning
Nominative - - Döbëg The house
Genitive -vaat 's, of Döbgïvaat The house's
Direct-objective -lit marks direct object Döbgïlit To (something) the house
Indirect-objective -chit marks indirect object Döbgïchit To (something somthing else) to the house
Inessive -jaat inside of Döbgïjaat Inside of the house
Locative -nach at, on, in Döbgïnach At the house
Ablative -maat from, away from Döbgïmaat From the house
Lative -daat to, into, onto Döbgïdaat To the house
Temporal -stödën at, on (in time) Lijaćëstödën On Monday

Accusative of

Duration of Time

-zulag for (amount of time) Lijaćëzulag For one day
Instrumental

-štivan

by, with, via Zokištivan With the scissors
Causal -fiek because (of) Döbgïlärifiek Because the house is/was red
Causal-final -fiag for Döbgïfiag For the house
Comitative -teń with Lükketeń With the friend
Abessive -tòń without Lükketòń Without the friend
Translative -škòlić turn into Döbgïškòlić Turn into a house
Interjectional -dit expresses surprise

Lijaćëzulägedit

For a whole day(!?)
  • Inessive vs. Locative: inessive emphasizes INSIDE, locative is more vague. Locative is more common and has a broader use.

There are also possessive suffixes:

Singular Plural
First Person -glagën -glagënet
Second Person -ćattit -ćattïvet
Third Person -duag

-duäget

Plural FormEdit

    The plural form is usually pretty basic. The suffix "-vet" is added to the word stem; if the stem ends in an "e" or and "ë," then a "t" is simply added (see "Special T").

Singular Stem Plural Meaning
Jòlim Jòlmï- Jòlmïvet Trees
Latiktaat Latiktai- Latiktaivet Boxes
Stübën Stübëne- Stübënet Pencils
  • There is also a dual form of nouns for things that come it pairs (shoes, eyes, feet); "-praat" is simply attached to the stem with no irregularities. Milägëpraat - a pair of arms

PronounsEdit

There are two main sets of pronouns: subject, direct object, and indirect object pronouns. The latter two are used as suffixes to the predicate.

Subject Pronouns Singular Plural
First Person -Sag Säget
Second Person Silag Siläget
Third Person Sig

Sgïvet

Direct Object Pronouns Singular Plural
First Person -isal -islavet
Second Person -igën -igënet
Third Person -iń -inïnet

Indirect Object Pronouns

Singular Plural
First Person -ach -ackvet

Second Person

-ich -ickvet
Third Person -chaat

-chaivet

Adjective and AdverbsEdit

    Being polysynthetic, adverbs, tense, and various other adjuncts can all be attached to their adjective, noun, or verb stem, forming one word. Here are some examples (note: Vesiun is almost always head initial):

Head Stem Descriptor Full Word Meaning
Diet Dienï- kužel Dienïkužel New door
Döbëg Döbgï- chet Döbgïchnïvet Big houses
Zań Zanïn- lärit Zanïnlärit Red chair
Kidokoi Kidok- belkechag Kidokbelkechag To calmly read
Pach Pa'ack- fećit Pa'ackfećit To do later
Öniet Önienï- tügël Önienïtügël Very happy

VerbsEdit

    The Vesiun tense system is rather complicated. There are four tenses (unlike the English three) and there are variations of them.

Default Progressive Habitual Perfect Perfect-Habitual
Present      ✓          ✓       ✓      ✓             ✓
Past      ✓       ✓      ✓             ✓
Future      ✓       ✓      ✓             ✓
Adressive      ✓          ✓       ✓      ✓             ✓

    Adressive: adressing the timeframe that someone else mentions; "There's a party. Wanna come?" The response, "I can't because I'll be doing homework," would be in the adressive tense, not future. "I had the best nap ever last night." The response, "Really? I couldn't get a minute of sleep," would also be in the adressive tense. Books that are written in the past tense in English would most likely be in the adressive in Vesiun.

  • Default: the regular form of the tense, usually something that happens over a short period of time; "I'm fishing," (present) "I ran home," (past) and "I will go to Chicago next week," (future) would all be in this form of their respective tenses.
  • Progressive: it's happening right now and is usually a brief(ish) action. Unlike english, it's not very common (mostly replaced by the default form) and is only used to emphasize that it is now. Someone calls you over to their house, and you respond, "I'm having dinner (right now)." There are no past or future versions of this form, as the time is not definite.
  • Habitual: something that is generally a repeated action and happens over a longer period of time. "When I grow up, I'll be an astronout" would be in the future-habitual tense. "I walk around the block in the morning (everyday)" would be in the present-habitual tense, etc.
  • Perfect: something that is a completed action; the equivalent of "having done something." An example would be, "I have come all the way here."
  • Perfect-Habitual: habitual and perfect. "I had been exercising at the local gym" would be in the past-perfect-habitual tense.

    The respective ending is added to the verb stem to conjugate it to fit its corresponding subject, though for infinitives ending in a "Special T," the stem is the infinitive itself, and the "t" becomes pronounced (except for -aat verbs). Here are all of the conjugations of the eighteen tenses.

Present-Default: Singular Plural
First Person -zag -zäget
Second Person -zilag -ziläget
Third Person -zig -zgïvet
Past-Default: Singular Plural
First Person -viag -viäget
Second Person -vilag -viläget
Third Person -vanig -vangïvet
Future-Default: Singular Plural
First Person -tag -täget
Second Person -telag -teläget
Third Person -tig -tegvet
Adressive-Default: Singular Plural
First Person -bouig -bäget
Second Person -bielag -biläget
Third Person -bësouis -bëšouivet
Present-Progressive: Singular Plural
First Person -gädag -gädget
Second Person -gòlig -gòlgïvet
Third Person -gädit -gädïvet
Adressive-Progressive: Singular Plural
First Person -bedag -bedäget
Second Person -bòlag -bòläget
Third Person -bedit -bedïvet
Present-Habitual: Singular Plural
First Person -šag -šäget
Second Person -ćilag -ćiläget
Third Person -ćig -ćegvet
Past-Habitual: Singular Plural
First Person -zviag -zviäget
Second Person -zvilag -zviläget
Third Person -zvig -zvet
Future-Habitual: Singular Plural
First Person -stag -stäget
Second Person -stilag -stiläget
Third Person -stieg -stegvet
Adressive-Habitual: Singular Plural
First Person -zbäg -zbäget
Second Person -zbelag -zbeläget
Third Person -zbig -zbet
Present-Perfect: Singular Plural
First Person -leiag -leiäget
Second Person -lilag -liläget
Third Person -lieg -legvet
Past-Perfect: Singular Plural
First Person -letag -letäget
Second Person -litlag -litlaget
Third Person -lëtig -lëtgïvet

    *Not finished yet

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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