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Viteberger

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[[]]
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Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Alphabet and Pronunciation - Tékenrol ok UtalEdit

Viteberger uses an alphabet similar to English, but missing the letters c, j, q, w, x, and z. The letters ä and ö are added, following a and o respectively on the alphabet order. The vowels marked with diacritic accents, á, é, í, ó, and ú are not considered separate letters in the alphabet but just a variation of the original vowels because all they do is mark the stressed syllable (or syllables) of a word.

On foreign words and names the letters c, j, q, w, x, and z are used, but not in any Viteberger words.

a = [a] = a – on the vast majority of words it is pronounced short, like a in the Spanish casa, on a few rare words it is pronounced long, as the letter a in the English far.

ä = [ɛː] = ä – pronounced similar to the ai in fair, the same as a German ä.

b = [b] - b – pronounced the same as in English.

d = [d] - d – same as English.

e = [ɛ] - e – pronounced as the e in deck, never as the e in deep.

f = [f] - f – same as in English.

g = [g] - g – always pronounced as the g in game with all vowels, never as the g in gesture.

h = [h] - h – same as in English.

i = [i] - i – always as the e in be.

k = [k] - k – same as in English.

l = [l] - l – similar to English, but the sound is made with a flat tongue, not with its tip curled back as in English.

ly = [ʎ] - ly – pronounced as the Portuguese digraph lh as in baralho.

m = [m] - m – same as in English.

n = [n] - n – same as in English.

o = [ɔ] - o – always as the o in forward.

ö = [œ] - ö – same as a German ö.

p = [p] – p - same as in English.

r = [ɾ] - r – pronounced like an English r but with a single strong thrill, similar to a Brazilian Portuguese r as in prato.

s = [s] - s – always as the s in same, never as the s in Asian.

sy = [ʃ] - sy – pronounced as the sh in sheet, always followed by a vowel.

t = [t] - t - similar to English, but the sound is not retroflex, which means it is done with a flat tongue, not with it curled back.

tv - [dv] - tv – the t is pronounced as a d, and the v is fully pronounced.

ty - [ʧ] - ty - pronounced as the ch in chili pepper, always followed by a vowel.

u = [u] - U – similar to the oo in boot but pronounced shorter.

v = [v] - v - same as in English

y = [j] - y – pronounced as the y in yellow, semi-vocalic.


GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


 

Word order - Ord OrdninEdit

The word order in Viteberger is SOV: subject, object, verb:

ey hen vet - I know her

The only exception to the word order is when forming questions, where the word order becomes VSO:

vet du hen? - do you know her?

Personal Pronouns - Persónlisk FörnávenEdit

There are two grammatical numbers, singular and plural; and three grammatical genders, masculine, feminine and neuter.

The masculine and feminine genders are used to denote any animal or human’s gender, the neuter gender is used for everything else. Exceptions are the use of the feminine gender for any means of transportation, and the masculine gender for all buildings or works of construction (roads, streets, bridges, etc). For insects the neuter gender is always used.

Viteberger has an unique personal pronoun on the third person singular called the Blankpérson “blank person”, that is used in situations where the gender of the third person is yet unknown, or when it is used in a generic sense. That is similar to when in English the word “one” is used to substitute a pronoun in the third person singular. For simplification purposes this pronoun will be translated as “one” henceforth.

Personal pronouns, nominative case

ey - I

du - you

han - he

hen - she

en - it

min - one (the blank person)

os - we

ney - you

dey - they

Personal pronouns, accusative case

mi - me

du - you

hon - him

hen - her

sin - it

min - one

vi - us

ni - you

dim - them

Personal pronouns, dative case

mir - to me

dir - to you

her - to him

her - to her

sir - to it

miner - to one

vir - to us

nir - to you

der - to them

Personal pronouns, genitive case

meyn - my, mine

din - your, yours

hans - his

hens - her, hers

sin - its

vin - our, ours

nin - your, yours

der - their, theirs

Nouns and grammatical cases - Substantiven ok gramatisk FalenEdit

As in German all nouns are always capitalized.

Cases - Falen

Cases are denoted simply by the ending of a noun. In Viteberger most nouns are declined. There are 3 genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) and 4 strong cases (nominative, accusative, dative and genitive), and one weak case (locative). There are also three grammatical articles: unspecified, indefinite and definite. Each noun gets declensed according to gender, case, article and number.

Viteberger is not largely a grammatical language, but instead a lexical language. This means that is it is verbs and prepositions which govern cases, rather than sentence position. If there is both a verb and preposition in the sentence it will be the preposition rather than the verb which decides the case.

Masculine noun: Vater - father

Feminine noun: Moder – mother

Neuter: Hund – dog

Case table, click on the picture below for a larger version:

[1]

Váterur - father (accusative, unspecified, singular)

Váterun - a father (accusative, indefinite, singular)

Váterut - the father (accusative, definite, singular)

Móderant - the mothers (accusative, definite, plural)

Móderist - the mothers’ (genitive, definite, plural)

Móderet - the mother (nominative, definite, singular)

Hundus - dog’s, the dog’s (genitive, unspecified or definite, singular)

Hundur - dogs’, some dogs’ (genitive, unspecified or indefinite, plural)

Hundnet - the dogs (accusative, definite, plural)

The Viteberger locative case is called a weak case because it is used only when used for the English equivalent preposition in for all other prepositions used for location (near, at, on top of, etc) the locative case is not used. The locative case is also the only case that is also added to another case, so that a noun in the locative case may also be in the nominative, accusative, dative or genitive case:

Váteris Naveneti - in the name of the father

In the above sentence the word Váteris is on the genitive, definite, singular (Vater+is), while the word Naveneti is on the accusative, definite, singular, locative (Naven+et+i).

Vokál skifin Flörtal - Vowel shift plural

On nouns ending in -en there is usually a vowel shift on the syllable preceding the last. 

a > ä

e or i  > no change

o > ö

u > ü

Example of a vowel shift plural:

Vapen - weapon

Väpen - weapons

Marten - marten

Märten - martens

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1IContionary_Wiki
2you (singular)Contionary_Wiki
3heContionary_Wiki
4weContionary_Wiki
5you (plural)Contionary_Wiki
6theyContionary_Wiki
7thisContionary_Wiki
8thatContionary_Wiki
9hereContionary_Wiki
10thereContionary_Wiki
11whoContionary_Wiki
12whatContionary_Wiki
13whereContionary_Wiki
14whenContionary_Wiki
15howContionary_Wiki
16notContionary_Wiki
17allContionary_Wiki
18manyContionary_Wiki
19someContionary_Wiki
20fewContionary_Wiki
21otherContionary_Wiki
22oneContionary_Wiki
23twoContionary_Wiki
24threeContionary_Wiki
25fourContionary_Wiki
26fiveContionary_Wiki
27bigContionary_Wiki
28longContionary_Wiki
29wideContionary_Wiki
30thickContionary_Wiki
31heavyContionary_Wiki
32smallContionary_Wiki
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowContionary_Wiki
35thinContionary_Wiki
36womanContionary_Wiki
37man (adult male)Contionary_Wiki
38man (human being)Contionary_Wiki
39childContionary_Wiki
40wifeContionary_Wiki
41husbandContionary_Wiki
42motherContionary_Wiki
43fatherContionary_Wiki
44animalContionary_Wiki
45fishContionary_Wiki
46birdContionary_Wiki
47dogContionary_Wiki
48louseContionary_Wiki
49snakeContionary_Wiki
50wormContionary_Wiki
51treeContionary_Wiki
52forestContionary_Wiki
53stickContionary_Wiki
54fruitContionary_Wiki
55seedContionary_Wiki
56leafContionary_Wiki
57rootContionary_Wiki
58barkContionary_Wiki
59flowerContionary_Wiki
60grassContionary_Wiki
61ropeContionary_Wiki
62skinContionary_Wiki
63meatContionary_Wiki
64bloodContionary_Wiki
65boneContionary_Wiki
66fatContionary_Wiki
67eggContionary_Wiki
68hornContionary_Wiki
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherContionary_Wiki
71hairContionary_Wiki
72headContionary_Wiki
73earContionary_Wiki
74eyeContionary_Wiki
75noseContionary_Wiki
76mouthContionary_Wiki
77toothContionary_Wiki
78tongueContionary_Wiki
79fingernailContionary_Wiki
80footContionary_Wiki
81legContionary_Wiki
82kneeContionary_Wiki
83handContionary_Wiki
84wingContionary_Wiki
85bellyContionary_Wiki
86gutsContionary_Wiki
87neckContionary_Wiki
88backContionary_Wiki
89breastContionary_Wiki
90heartContionary_Wiki
91liverContionary_Wiki
92drinkContionary_Wiki
93eatContionary_Wiki
94biteContionary_Wiki
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitContionary_Wiki
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowContionary_Wiki
99breatheContionary_Wiki
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeContionary_Wiki
102hearContionary_Wiki
103knowContionary_Wiki
104thinkContionary_Wiki
105smellContionary_Wiki
106fearContionary_Wiki
107sleepContionary_Wiki
108liveContionary_Wiki
109dieContionary_Wiki
110killContionary_Wiki
111fightContionary_Wiki
112huntContionary_Wiki
113hitContionary_Wiki
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digContionary_Wiki
119swimContionary_Wiki
120flyContionary_Wiki
121walkContionary_Wiki
122comeContionary_Wiki
123lieContionary_Wiki
124sitContionary_Wiki
125standContionary_Wiki
126turnContionary_Wiki
127fallContionary_Wiki
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdContionary_Wiki
130squeezeContionary_Wiki
131rubContionary_Wiki
132washContionary_Wiki
133wipeContionary_Wiki
134pullContionary_Wiki
135pushContionary_Wiki
136throwContionary_Wiki
137tieContionary_Wiki
138sewContionary_Wiki
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayContionary_Wiki
141singContionary_Wiki
142playContionary_Wiki
143floatContionary_Wiki
144flowContionary_Wiki
145freezeContionary_Wiki
146swellContionary_Wiki
147sunContionary_Wiki
148moonContionary_Wiki
149starContionary_Wiki
150waterContionary_Wiki
151rainContionary_Wiki
152riverContionary_Wiki
153lakeContionary_Wiki
154seaContionary_Wiki
155saltContionary_Wiki
156stoneContionary_Wiki
157sandContionary_Wiki
158dustContionary_Wiki
159earthContionary_Wiki
160cloudContionary_Wiki
161fogContionary_Wiki
162skyContionary_Wiki
163windContionary_Wiki
164snowContionary_Wiki
165iceContionary_Wiki
166smokeContionary_Wiki
167fireContionary_Wiki
168ashContionary_Wiki
169burnContionary_Wiki
170roadContionary_Wiki
171mountainContionary_Wiki
172redContionary_Wiki
173greenContionary_Wiki
174yellowContionary_Wiki
175whiteContionary_Wiki
176blackContionary_Wiki
177nightContionary_Wiki
178dayContionary_Wiki
179yearContionary_Wiki
180warmContionary_Wiki
181coldContionary_Wiki
182fullContionary_Wiki
183newContionary_Wiki
184oldContionary_Wiki
185goodContionary_Wiki
186badContionary_Wiki
187rottenContionary_Wiki
188dirtyContionary_Wiki
189straightContionary_Wiki
190roundContionary_Wiki
191sharpContionary_Wiki
192dullContionary_Wiki
193smoothContionary_Wiki
194wetContionary_Wiki
195dryContionary_Wiki
196correctContionary_Wiki
197nearContionary_Wiki
198farContionary_Wiki
199rightContionary_Wiki
200leftContionary_Wiki
201atContionary_Wiki
202inContionary_Wiki
203withContionary_Wiki
204andContionary_Wiki
205ifContionary_Wiki
206becauseContionary_Wiki
207nameContionary_Wiki


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