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Viteberger

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[[]]
'
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Alphabet and Pronunciation - Tékenrol ok UtalEdit

Viteberger uses an alphabet similar to English, but missing the letters c, j, q, w, x, and z. The letters ä and ö are added, following a and o respectively on the alphabet order. The vowels marked with diacritic accents, á, é, í, ó, and ú are not considered separate letters in the alphabet but just a variation of the original vowels because all they do is mark the stressed syllable (or syllables) of a word.

On foreign words and names the letters c, j, q, w, x, and z are used, but not in any Viteberger words.

a = [a] = a – on the vast majority of words it is pronounced short, like a in the Spanish casa, on a few rare words it is pronounced long, as the letter a in the English far.

ä = [ɛː] = ä – pronounced similar to the ai in fair, the same as a German ä.

b = [b] - b – pronounced the same as in English.

d = [d] - d – same as English.

e = [ɛ] - e – pronounced as the e in deck, never as the e in deep.

f = [f] - f – same as in English.

g = [g] - g – always pronounced as the g in game with all vowels, never as the g in gesture.

h = [h] - h – same as in English.

i = [i] - i – always as the e in be.

k = [k] - k – same as in English.

l = [l] - l – similar to English, but the sound is made with a flat tongue, not with its tip curled back as in English.

ly = [ʎ] - ly – pronounced as the Portuguese digraph lh as in baralho.

m = [m] - m – same as in English.

n = [n] - n – same as in English.

o = [ɔ] - o – always as the o in forward.

ö = [œ] - ö – same as a German ö.

p = [p] – p - same as in English.

r = [ɾ] - r – pronounced like an English r but with a single strong thrill, similar to a Brazilian Portuguese r as in prato.

s = [s] - s – always as the s in same, never as the s in Asian.

sy = [ʃ] - sy – pronounced as the sh in sheet, always followed by a vowel.

t = [t] - t - similar to English, but the sound is not retroflex, which means it is done with a flat tongue, not with it curled back.

tv - [dv] - tv – the t is pronounced as a d, and the v is fully pronounced.

ty - [ʧ] - ty - pronounced as the ch in chili pepper, always followed by a vowel.

u = [u] - U – similar to the oo in boot but pronounced shorter.

v = [v] - v - same as in English

y = [j] - y – pronounced as the y in yellow, semi-vocalic.


GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


 

Word order - Ord OrdninEdit

The word order in Viteberger is SOV: subject, object, verb:

ey hen vet - I know her

The only exception to the word order is when forming questions, where the word order becomes VSO:

vet du hen? - do you know her?

Personal Pronouns - Persónlisk FörnávenEdit

There are two grammatical numbers, singular and plural; and three grammatical genders, masculine, feminine and neuter.

The masculine and feminine genders are used to denote any animal or human’s gender, the neuter gender is used for everything else. Exceptions are the use of the feminine gender for any means of transportation, and the masculine gender for all buildings or works of construction (roads, streets, bridges, etc). For insects the neuter gender is always used.

Viteberger has an unique personal pronoun on the third person singular called the Blankpérson “blank person”, that is used in situations where the gender of the third person is yet unknown, or when it is used in a generic sense. That is similar to when in English the word “one” is used to substitute a pronoun in the third person singular. For simplification purposes this pronoun will be translated as “one” henceforth.

Personal pronouns, nominative case

ey - I

du - you

han - he

hen - she

en - it

min - one (the blank person)

os - we

ney - you

dey - they

Personal pronouns, accusative case

mi - me

du - you

hon - him

hen - her

sin - it

min - one

vi - us

ni - you

dim - them

Personal pronouns, dative case

mir - to me

dir - to you

her - to him

her - to her

sir - to it

miner - to one

vir - to us

nir - to you

der - to them

Personal pronouns, genitive case

meyn - my, mine

din - your, yours

hans - his

hens - her, hers

sin - its

vin - our, ours

nin - your, yours

der - their, theirs

Nouns and grammatical cases - Substantiven ok gramatisk FalenEdit

As in German all nouns are always capitalized.

Cases - Falen

Cases are denoted simply by the ending of a noun. In Viteberger most nouns are declined. There are 3 genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) and 4 strong cases (nominative, accusative, dative and genitive), and one weak case (locative). There are also three grammatical articles: unspecified, indefinite and definite. Each noun gets declensed according to gender, case, article and number.

Viteberger is not largely a grammatical language, but instead a lexical language. This means that is it is verbs and prepositions which govern cases, rather than sentence position. If there is both a verb and preposition in the sentence it will be the preposition rather than the verb which decides the case.

Masculine noun: Vater - father

Feminine noun: Moder – mother

Neuter: Hund – dog

Case table, click on the picture below for a larger version:

[1]

Váterur - father (accusative, unspecified, singular)

Váterun - a father (accusative, indefinite, singular)

Váterut - the father (accusative, definite, singular)

Móderant - the mothers (accusative, definite, plural)

Móderist - the mothers’ (genitive, definite, plural)

Móderet - the mother (nominative, definite, singular)

Hundus - dog’s, the dog’s (genitive, unspecified or definite, singular)

Hundur - dogs’, some dogs’ (genitive, unspecified or indefinite, plural)

Hundnet - the dogs (accusative, definite, plural)

The Viteberger locative case is called a weak case because it is used only when used for the English equivalent preposition in for all other prepositions used for location (near, at, on top of, etc) the locative case is not used. The locative case is also the only case that is also added to another case, so that a noun in the locative case may also be in the nominative, accusative, dative or genitive case:

Váteris Naveneti - in the name of the father

In the above sentence the word Váteris is on the genitive, definite, singular (Vater+is), while the word Naveneti is on the accusative, definite, singular, locative (Naven+et+i).

Vokál skifin Flörtal - Vowel shift plural

On nouns ending in -en there is usually a vowel shift on the syllable preceding the last. 

a > ä

e or i  > no change

o > ö

u > ü

Example of a vowel shift plural:

Vapen - weapon

Väpen - weapons

Marten - marten

Märten - martens

VocabularyEdit


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

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