|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Vithhal is a language spoken by the Vithhal people in the nation of Vithhal, as well as in Congia, Fa'ung, and Thaloth. There is an estimated 13 billion speakers of Vithhal, with around 8 billion native speakers. It uses many different types of writing systems, but Vithhal Romanized Script is the most common form, as it is used in books, store signs, and advertisements outside of Vithhal.
Classification and DialectsEdit
There are many dialects of Vithhal, including Vithhaloc Congliu (Conglian Vithhal, 135 million speakers), Vithhalovh Vha/ung (Fa'ungian Vithhal, 47 million speakers), and Thalothhiv Vithhal. (Thalothian Vithhal, 39 million speakers)
Dialects are often based on the region, but can also vary among social classes. For example, Vithhal High Standard is a dialect of Vithhal Standard. Many consider it to be an accent, however, it has very subtle differences in grammar and vocabulary.
Vithhal Standard is the most common dialect, and 97% of Vithhal speakers are fluent in this dialect.
Vithhal developed from Iangbrestonian, (also called Iabrian) which is an extinct language of the ancient civilization that used to rule a large area of over 150 billion people. Vithhal shares similar vocabulary and grammar patterns with Iabrian, but is still very different from its extinct ancestor.
Vithhal has 13 consonants, including the glottal stop.
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||d͡z||ʒ||h|
|Flap or tap||ʔ|
Vithhal has 5 vowels.
Vithhal Romanized Script is the basic and most common writing system used with Vithhal.
Nouns in Vithhal fall into two categories: Iabrovithhalian nouns and Vithhalian nouns.Iabrovithhalian nouns are nouns that have their roots from the extinct language of Iabrian and make up around 5% of all nouns in the Vithhalian language. The remaining 95% is filled with Vithhalian nouns, which are nouns that are native to Vithhalian. Iabrovithhalian nouns often end with a '-u', which is a noun ending.
Verbs in Vithhal are conjugated in the past, present, or future. They are conjugated to fit with three pronouns: Ji (I,me), fo (you), or cu (it). If the subject of a sentence is not one of those three pronouns or their plural counterparts, the verb is conjugated using the pronoun cu (it). All verbs in Vithhal end with the letter 'ng' in the infinitive form.
To conjugate regular verbs, remove the 'ng' at the end of the verb and replace it with the given verb endings below. The chart is called a conjugation chart.
For example, the verb 'cifeong' means 'to suffer'. If you want to say "It suffered," you would write "cifeovi cu." (The word order in Vithhal is OVS)
There are many exceptions in Vithhal, and children in school learn a new conjugation chart for each irregular verb.Below are some examples of irregular verbs.
|thhamang (to be)||Ji||fo||cu|
|vecing (to be born)||Ji||fo||cu|
Vithhal is an Object-Verb-Subject language, so the sentence "I eat an apple" would be "apple eat I". Adjectives are put before the noun, no matter where the noun is in a sentence. However, in more complex sentences, word order is more flexible.
Example text Edit
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article I)
Elithha la thovi Jaf thhingthi la elithhahio vecothac evo ngalojov. La hingo la zonghingo hoci ngacu o li ngacu ha coa haJi la evilo oz zangicoa.Literal translation: All humans are born free and equal for dignity and rights. They are provided reason and conscience and should communicate towards them with a setting of friendship.