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Waghara

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Waghara
'
Type
Synthetic
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g h1
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ʝ χ ʁ2
Affricate t͡s d͡z t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Tap ɾ
Trill r (ʀ̥ ʀ)2
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid ɛ œ ɔ
Near-open
Open a ɒ

AlphabetEdit

PhonotacticsEdit

GrammarEdit

Vowel Euphony

In Waghara there exists a lot of vowel mutation and euphony, most of which can be better understood using the following table.

Row 1 (short) Row 2 (long) Row 3 (diphthong)
í i ai
a u au
o ö oi
e ë ei

NOUNS

Nouns in Waghara decline for case and number, and are divided into two genders and seven declensions. There are 6 cases: nominative (nom); accusative (acc); alienable genetive (gen1); inalienable genetive (gen2); stative (stt); and purposive (pps). The nominative case is used for the subjects of transative and intransative verbs; and the accusative for the object of a transitive verb. The alienable genetive denotes seperable possession of something (like money, or a sword); while the inalienable genetive is used for things that are inseperable from something (without damaging it), such as parts of the body, blood relatives, or skills like intellect (though these vary  in what is considered 'alienable'). The stative case has a wide range of meaning, and can function as an essive ('as X'), a locative ('in X' - where X is a place), or even simply as a topic marker when beginning a sentence ('concerning/with regards to X').

The numbers are singular and plural, with a dual form in two declensions. The genders are masculine and feminine, as dictated by the final letter of the word - if the word ends in 'e','i','í','u' it is feminine, and all others are masculine.

In all declensions certain vowels are added to the noun stem depending on the final vowel or diphthong in the word. The added vowel is taken from one row left of the final vowel - namely, if a dipthong, take the Row 2 equivalent; if a long vowel, use the respective one from Row 1; and if the final vowel is short, it is repeated.

The first declension is for masculine nouns ending in vowels, and declines like so. It is one of two declensions that exhibits the dual form of nouns.

singular plural dual
acc barka barkab barkaba
nom barkaz barkabza barkabaz
gen1 barkagh barkabgha barkabagh
gen2 barkat barkabta barkabam
stt barkapa barkappa barkabapa
pps barkar barkabra barkabar

The second declension is for masculine nouns ending in 'hard' consonants: 'k','g','t','d','b','p','v','f','x','gh'.

singular plural
nom gonid gonidí
acc gonidízh gonidízhí
gen1 gonidív gonidíví
gen2 gonidíl gonidílí
stt gonidsí gonidís
pps gonidír gonidírí

The third declension is for masculine nouns ending in 'soft' consonants: 'r','s','z','l','sh','zh','n','m','w','y'. If an 'm' occurs before the 't_n' ending, it mutates into an 'n': "jem" -> "jenten"

singular plural
nom wuf wufa
acc wufak wufaka
gen1 wufaf wufafa
gen2 wufya wufaya
stt wuftan wuftana
pps wufam wufama

The fourth declension is for feminine nouns, ending in 'í','i','u','e'. This declension has a dual number.

singular plural dual
nom tokshe tokshep tokshepe
acc tokshesh tokshepshe tokshepesh
gen1 tokshek tokshepke tokshepek
gen2 tokshed tokshepde toksheped
stt tokshex tokshepxe tokshepex
pps tokshem tokshepme tokshepem

The fifth declension is for masculine nouns ending in a 'hard' consonant, which also have a short vowel and single consonant (not cluster) before it. In the plural the short vowel drops out, and the equivalent long vowel is added to the end of the word and is it declined as though it were singular.

singular plural
nom balík balki
acc balíkízh balkizh
gen1 balíkív balkiv
gen2 balíkíz balkiz
stt balíkísí balkisi
pps balíkír balkir

The sixth declension is for masculine nouns ending in a 'soft' consonant, which also have a short vowel and single consonant (not cluster) before it.

singular plural
nom pnitash pnitshu
acc pnitashak pnitshuk
gen1 pnitashaf pnitshuf
gen2 pnitashya pnitshyu
stt pnitashten pnitshtun
pps pnitasham pnitshum

The seventh declension is for masculine or feminine nouns ending in a vowel or diphthong followed by a soft consonant and another vowel or diphthong. The plural form is made by duplicating the final syllable.

singular plural
nom kala kalala
acc kalaz kalalaz
gen1 kalagh kalalagh
gen2 kalat kalalat
stt kalapa kalalapa
pps kalar kalalar

PRONOUNS

Waghara has a large number of personal pronouns numbering ten in total. There is the first person singular (1s); second person singular masculine (2sm); second person singular feminine (2sf); third person singular masculine (3sm); third person singular feminine (3sf); first person plural inclusive (1pinc); first person plural exclusive (1pex); second person plural inclusive (2pinc); second person plural exclusive (2pex); and third person plural (3p). The 1pinc is used when the 'we' being referred to includes the listener(s), and the 1pex when not. The 2pinc is used when the people addressed are present and known (or in letters as they are seen as an extension of conversaions), while the 2pex is for an absent or not fully known audience and so is sued in speeches, radio broadcasts, and 'How To' manuals.

1s 2sm 2sf 3sm 3sf
nom osh sha shi kaz kes
acc zhe shash shish kazh kesh
gen1 shan shashan shishan

kazzan

(kazn_)

kessan

(kesn_)

gen2 zhol sharr shirr kal kil
stt shíb shak shik chak chik
pps shor shar shar chara chira
1pinc 1pex 2pinc 2pex 3p
nom posh zosh it ist ko
acc bizh zozh kwí ski to
gen1 bishan zovan kuyan skian kon
gen2 bishal zovol kual skal kol
stt poshet zovet tíb stík jok
pps bíshir zovör itar istar joro

There also exists a number of other pronouns, such as relative pronouns, interogative pronouns, and so on. They are formed by and large regularly with a prefix and suffix and join to one another to form a word. For instance, 'ki' is the interogative prefix, while 'pa' is the person suffix, thus 'kipa' means 'who?'. See the table below:

place

person

thing adj time reason method
ko pa/pi (m/f) nid zan plëz knutra
question ki kiko kipa kinid (knid) kizan (ksan) kidö kiplëz kiknutra
where? who? what? which? when? why? how?
this az azíko (azgo) azípa (azba) aznid azzan azdö
here this person this thing this now
that ad adíko adpa adned adzan addö adplëz adknutra
there that person that thing that then thus that way
yonder bu buko bupa bunid buzan budö
yonder yonder person yonder thing yonder that (distant) time
relative zíko zípa zínid (znid) zídö (zdö)
where who which when
negative n(a)(i) naiko (nako) naipa nainíd naizan (nizan) naidö
nowhere no one nothing no nowhere
all ev evíko (evgo) evba evnid evzan evdö evknutra
everywhere everyone everything every always every way
some ro roko ropa ronid rosan rodö roknutra
somewhere someone something some sometime somehow

VERBS

Verbs in Waghara take a number of different prefixes and suffixes to denote the subject, object, tense, aspect, and the static/dynamic distinctions of the verb, and each verb can be broken down into three parts: subject/object prefixes; stem; and the aspectual suffix. For example:

narasetël

[na-ra]-[set]-[ël]

1.sub.pst-3sm.obj.pst-'do'-prf.stc

"I/we did it."

Prefixes

Waghara is unsual in that the prefixes for the subject and object also show the tense of the verb, and are as follows.

Present subj. Present obj. Past subj. Past obj.
1 í (y) zhe na noz
2 sha sa ga ma(n)
3sm ka ta ja ra
3sf ki ti je
3p ko to jo ro

Regardless of whether the subject or object is singlular or plural inclusive or plural exclusive, for the 1st and 2nd persons only a single unified prefix is used, and a full pronoun will explain clearly what is occuring if not otherwise obvious from contaxt. Verbs that are intransitive take no object prefix, but certain verbs which in English can be considered intransitive, like 'sing' and 'drink', are always transitive in Waghara and are treated as such by the addition of a generic object "ta/ra" when the object is unspecific or unstated. Some other verbs also take an obligatory object, such as 'shuk' (to think) or 'zík' (to speak).

e.g.

chara narazaikël. = "I told (it) [to] him."

ítashuk Jim riskean. = "I think (it) Jim is girly."

Suffixes

The verbal suffixes are used for marking the aspect of the verb - perfect, imperfect, and repetitive - and whether it is static or dynamic. The perect aspect is used for completed actions, the imperfect for ongoing ones, and the repetitive aspect for things that occur regularly. Verbs fall into two categories: Type 1 verbs exhibit no change in transitivity between their static and dynamic forms, while Type 2 verbs do.

Type 1 perfect imperfect repetitive
static ël - kzë
dynamic al at ksa
Type 2 perfect imperfect repetitive
static ël - kzë
dynamic öl, ol ot ksö

The difference between 'static' and 'dynamic' verbs varies quite widely among Wagharan verbs, but generally follows these rules.

1. If the verb is an unconcious action, the dynamic form will be its concious counterpart with the feeling of added intention, such as 'hear' vs. 'listen' (zhi), 'see' vs. 'watch' (ok), or 'know' vs. 'investigate' (ral).

2. If the verb is absolutely intransitive, its dynamic form will be transitive. For instance, 'float' vs. 'buoy', or 'swell' vs. 'make swell'.

3. Otherwise you just have to learn the irregulars: 'eat' vs. 'feed' (bokh), 'hit/punch' vs. 'fight/struggle' (dra).

Lastly, to negate a verb, the ending 'nai' is added after the aspect suffix.

Bvoto kasofnai. = Bvoto is not clean.

Stems

The stem of the verb contains the main meaning of the verb. For basic verbs, the stems are all monosyllables, but base stems can combine with each other or with adjectives and even nouns to form new stems. Nouns alone can function as verbal stems as well, which exhibit great productivity, both in informal spoken contexts and in liturature, but little in formal writing. The overwhelming majority of stems never change regardless of use (except vowel shifts in the past participles), but there are a handful of archaic irregular which entertain vowel mutations, such as 'to say': 'zík' -> 'zaik' in the past tense.

Tenses

The past and present tenses are explicitely marked with the verbal prefixes, while the future tense can be formed in two ways. The first is to use the verb 'no' (to come) with a generic 'ka' prefix, followed by the subject in the purposive case, followed by the verb in question with the necessary prefixes in the present tense.

kano shor tëdoz ítabokh.

lit. "It comes to me to eat the salt."

I will eat the salt.

The second way to form the future is to use the present prefixes with a perfect suffix. Because actions happening presently cannot be complete, this generate a semantic disjunct and so such verbs are considered to be in the future.

ítasetël. = "I will do it."

VocabularyEdit


No. English Waghara
1Iosh
2you (singular)sha (masc), shi (fem)
3hekaz
4weposh (incl), zosh (excl)
5you (plural)it
6theyko
7thisazzan
8thatadzan
9hereazíko, azgo
10thereadíko
11whokipa (q)
12whatkinid, knid (q)
13wherekiko (q)
14whenkidö (q)
15howkiknutra (q)
16not_nai (vb suffix)
17allevsan
18manysuknan
19somerosan
20fewipan
21otheryilban
22one
23twobnu
24threekop
25fourblaëv
26fivekri
27bigzaazan
28longbyayan
29wideildyan
30thicknadan
31heavydvëk
32smalledan
33shortContionary_Wiki
34narrowpañan
35thintaushan
36womannëksi
37man (adult male)ulok
38man (human being)kízesa
39childroto
40wifetokshe
41husbandgzhozo
42mothermami
43fatherpapa
44animaldzagzha
45fishdílözh
46birdsheek
47dogwuf
48lousegni
49snakedaal
50wormpsho
51treenímal
52forestkvola
53sticksho
54fruitníkyadro
55seeddwekní
56leafgrawi
57rootnëk
58barkízrok
59floweríkade
60grasschishaak
61ropemíb
62skinvak
63meatkawet
64bloodëdaug
65bonegnu
66fatkshëdekë
67eggksheon
68horngriíptrë
69tailContionary_Wiki
70featherkashuaz
71hairxëshex
72headdzë
73earaf
74eyeaton
75noseshoa
76mouthksome
77toothduot
78tonguewaghara
79fingernailyëdot
80foottfabe
81legwi
82kneebyu
83hand
84wingöbbzi
85bellyikke
86gutsëdaz
87neckkna
88backpíde
89breasttsodza
90heartkvídu
91liverëlpshi
92drinkap
93eatbox
94bitegnak
95suckContionary_Wiki
96spitked
97vomitContionary_Wiki
98blowiv
99breatheiv
100laughContionary_Wiki
101seeok
102hearzhi
103knowral
104thinkshuk
105smellñí
106fearnov
107sleepzad
108liveëf
109diezoum
110killuz
111fightdra
112hunttfi
113hitdra
114cutContionary_Wiki
115splitContionary_Wiki
116stabContionary_Wiki
117scratchContionary_Wiki
118digut
119swimdzuul
120flybye
121walk
122comeno
123liebnu (lie down)
124sitsíl
125standvla
126turnpva
127falluf
128giveContionary_Wiki
129holdgo
130squeezeme
131rubsaazh
132washsof
133wipesaazh
134pulldul
135pushme
136throwbye
137tieghul
138sewchu
139countContionary_Wiki
140sayzak
141singda
142playpöl
143floatgfe
144flowkya
145freezeleel
146swellwa
147sunkëub
148moontadi
149starContionary_Wiki
150watersazhë
151rainzhashe
152rivertyíka
153lakedghota
154seaadbzu
155salttëdo
156stonetuílaz
157sandzíal
158dustufro
159earthzhachaal
160cloudpnitash
161fogshishawksgha
162skyëlëz
163windwoafkë
164snowilol
165icetomake
166smokeotcheteko
167fireutchí
168ashpyujo
169burnchax
170roadzed
171mountainsedí
172redgvígan
173greenozzan
174yellowmoëvan
175whiteíldzan
176blacknuan
177nightkupad
178daybwaf
179yeareshshös
180warmkvean
181coldoltan
182fulltaban
183newsheechenan
184oldteefan
185goodëljo, jo
186badovíl
187rottendwinan
188dirtybetojan
189straightpshukan
190roundëzhghëdzan
191sharpsheshan
192dulltluan
193smoothuzkorían
194wetözgnan
195drykolean
196correctdeshyan
197neareltan
198farrezheelan
199righttosta
200leftkyoil
201at(use stv case)
202inos
203withëk
204andyaní
205ifabzaiz
206becausemetrë
207namenödu, pshikë, patyaklue


Example textEdit

A translation of the Tower of Babel story:


Budör jo zazugh wyana zakzhana yaní meokani zakzhani.2 Zídör kízesasa meko rëdar jodash, gleyush Shinartan jorínökël yaní azíköpo joëfal.Jorazaikël yolzor, “No, kríkshíninish ítosetël yaní daghubnuv ítochaxël.” Kríkshíninish tuílzum joroploël yaní ghupsesh gonidír.Ífne jorazaikël, “No, bíshir gheeltañaz ítaupël, zyanat dzëmo gvëano ëlëzek, shekfa bíshir pshikeiz ítaset. Abzaiznai, kano nu bzíx ghubnanut zazut kozheildyawd.Sechi Ghapso jakghenoël shekfa gheeltañaz kataok yaní dzëmoz zyanoz kízesasa joraup.Ghapso jarazaikël, “Abzaiz wyanapa kízesasapa zakozapa wyanaz zakzhanaz aznidízh jorabosetël, kano joro nainíd, zínidízh kotashesset, welnayan.No, íkghedashël yaní kol zakzhanaz ítalemshukël shekfa kano joro yolzoz kotozhishuknai.”Ëk azplëzem Ghapso drööd adíkor nu ghubnanur zazur jaroildyawdël, yaní gheeltañaz joranefupël.Ëk adplëzem Babel jotapshik, koknol Ghapso zakzhanaz ghubnanugh zazugh jaralemshukël. Drööd adíkor Ghapso nu bzíx ghubnanut zazut jaroildyawdël.

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