|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Wasmaxna is a bit of a homage to three languages I have learned by mixing them in a creative way, Japanese, Hebrew, and Chickasaw. The core grammar is Chickasaw (VSO), with the verbs having prefixes for the alignment roles and conjugated to tense, aspect, and mood. Verbs are on a root system like Hebrew, which get filled in with different vowels and sometimes adding a suffix to conjugate. Things like relative clauses and case-tags work like Japanese. All modifiers, including relative clauses, go before the noun ("The big train, which I saw" => "The seen-by-me big train"). I have got a basic structure, but it's still a work-in-progress.
S, N, H, C (ch), X (sh), P, R (lh), W, M, F, L, Y, B, T, K
|Flap or tap|
A (Ah), O (Oh), E (Eh), I (Ii), U (Oo)
Verbs are formed by 4-letter-roots, conjugated by time & form into templates, like Hebrew. (That is, you fill in different vowels to conjugate the root.) The verbs also have prefixes to add Subject & Object operators, like Chickasaw. The rest of the sentence adds phrases to fill the operator slots as well as other roles not in the verb, with tags at the end of the phrase for their role (a subject market, an object marker, direct object, and participles that work sort of like markers for objects of the prepositions, a bit like Japanese's use of "ha", "ga", "wo", etc.)
Basic example: John gave the book to Mary.
Wasmaxna form: He-it-gave John subj book obj Mary to.
I male single subject: Ya Me male single object: Fa
I female single subject Na Me female single object Sa
I neuter single subject Ka Me neuter single object Ta
You male single subject: Yo You male single object: Fo
You female single subject: No You female single object: So
You neuter single subject: Ko You neuter single object: To
He single subject: I [Yi] Him single object: Fi
She single subject: Ni Her single object: Si
It single subject: Ki It single object: Ti
We male plural subject: Yax Us male plural object: Fax
We female plural subject: Nax Us female plural object: Sax
We neuter plural subject: Kax Us neuter plural object: Tax
Y’all male plural subject: Yox Y’all male plural object: Fox
Y’all female plural subject: Nox Y’all female plural object: Sox
Y’all neuter plural subject: Kox Y’all neuter plural object: Tox
They male plural: Ix [Yix] Them male plural object: Fix
They female plural: Nix Them female plural object: Six
They neuter plural: Kix Them neuter plural object: Tix
Honorific plural subject: Bax
Honorific plural object: Bix
Example Root: X-L-M-P (to deceive)
Present simple: o:i Infinitive (to) form: a:a-fis Future simple: i:a
Xolmip Xalmap-fis Xilmap
Past simple: u:e Present progressive: o:i-bit Past progressive: u:e-bit
Xulmep Xolmip-bit Xulmep-bit
Future progressive: i:a-bit
Present perfect: o:i-pax Past perfect: u:e-pax Future Perfect: i:a-pax
Xolmip-pax xulmep-pax xilmap-pax
Subjunctive (if): a:a-lu Negative: <stem>-lai Imperative: a:a-halos
Xalmap-lu <stem>-lal xalmap-halos
Subjunctive (may) a:a-nofo
Subjunctive (must) a:a-pawo
Gerend (reify the action): o.u.o.
Xolumop (i.e., deceiving)
If a word ends in a vowel, a selected final (silent) consonant should follow it:
H for ah
W for oh
Y for ii
oo and eh cannot be final vowels
“Let’s __” form?
Subjects, Direct Objects, Indirect Objects, etc, get tagged with marker post-words (like the “et” in Hebrew for objects, or the “ga” in Japanese for subjects), as well as certain tags to set-off phrases; again, post-phrase tags (like “ni” in Japanese for to, “to” for quotes, etc). The sentence can also end with marker-words tagging the type of sentence (like “ka” in Japanese for questions).
Case (suffix) markers for nouns:
Copula complement tag: -sa
Direct object/accusitive: -ca
Indirect object/dative (objects of prepositions): -ko [kot]
Passive/Ablative: -wa (done by X)
Ideational/vocative: -bo [bot] (behold the …)
Plural: End with: P [or “ep”]
Definite: Add “e” to make it definite (“the”): mae, cae, koe, te’e, wae, boe
Plural: mape, cape, kope, tepe, wape, bope
Possessive [operates like ‘s]: -te
Personal possessive suffix (m/f):
My: teya / tena
Your: teyo / teno
His / her / its: teyi / teni / teki
Their: teyix, tenix, tekix
Our: teyax, tenax
That phrase: xu
Many sentences don’t need extra words because the sense is captured in the verb itself (e.g., he-her-saw). You don’t need extra words for “he” and “she” tagged with subject & object marker-words because they are captured in the verb. So just saying the verb completes the sentence. (However you can put the tagged words “he” and “she” in if you like, possibly for emphasis.)
But if you want to say “John saw Jane”, then you would say “he-her-saw John subj. Jane obj.” Because the roles are tagged, like Japanese you can switch them around and put the object first and subject second, e.g., for emphasis, as in “he-her-saw Jane obj John subj” to answer the question “he-it-saw what obj John subj question.”
He sees her: Yafisoplil.
John sees Jane: “Yafisoplil Can ma Cen ca.”
John gave Jane the book. “Yafihuxcey Can ma Cen ca hicane koe.”
John gave the book to Jane. “Yafihuxcey Can ma Cen fi hicane koe.”
Other pronouns (correlatives)
Query This That Some No Every
Adj (which) (this) (that) (some) (no) (every)
kul hiul xul [Paxepe] tayo [sowa] Fecle nono[xowe]
(that there) any: xayi
Person (who) (this one) (that one) (someone) (no one) (everyone)
Kro[fe] hrofe xrofe tayorofe Feclerofe nonorofe
Thing (what) (this) (that) (something) (nothing) (everything)
kul hiul xul tayokul feclekul nonokul
Place (where) (here) (there) (someplace) (nowhere) (everywhere)
kixi Hixi xuxi [Cene] tayokixi feclekixi nonokixi
Time (when) (now) (then) (sometime) (never) (always)
kok hiok xuok tayokok feclekok nonokok
Way (how) (thus) (somehow)
Xecuha hixecuha tayoxecuha
Reason(why) (because this) (because that)
Kulfi hinufi xulnufi
1 to 10
Three-hundred two-ten five
Modifiers go before the noun. It is absolute head-final like Japanese & Turkish.
This goes for modifying relative clauses also, as described below.
-er (more): X [Adj-ce] more [than] Y. X ADJ-ce[haya] Y-ra.
-est (most): X most. X ADJ-maxufi
As … As: (hixe) X ADJ nemuselo hixe Y-li.
X [adj] compares as to Y,
Opposite (un-) Xax-
Lack (-less) (hocuno) Hocu-
inhabitant (-er, -ian, -an, -ese)
weakening meaning (-ish)
strengthening meaning (uber-)
Convert adjective to noun (-ness)
Head-final (place all modifiers before, head-noun is last)
The ten very happy bar-exam passed robots
10[xina] – very – Mayeha(happy) Bar-exam Kix-LuSHeS robot-bope.
Relative prepositional phrase (whom, which, that…):
Try similar to Japanese. Again, like the head-final adjectives, relative phrases will be placed in front of the head-noun or phrase to describe it, as if adjectives (as the happy robots example shows).
When the relative clause uses a new verb, the slot of the noun getting modified is replaced with an interrogative word to designate its grammatical role for that verb. So for example, for the sentence "The train, which I saw, was running.", we want to say something like "the seen-by-me train was running".
The head verb is "was running" with TRAIN is in the subject slot. But the train is also in the object-slot of the modifying relative clause ("I saw it"). To communicate it being in this object slot, we do a similar trick as English. We substitute the prefix slot of the train with "WHAT". So instead of saying "I-it-SAW" like a normal verb, we say "I-what-SAW".
For Wasmaxna, we start with the head verb, with the prefix slots for the roles [It-it-RUN-past-progressive]. The next word will be the verb for the relative clause, with WHAT in the slot for the modified noun, here the TRAIN. [I-what-SAW]. Then finally we have the modified noun, [TRAIN]. Then after that we put the tag for a subject (since TRAIN is a subject of the head noun RUN). If we had another adjective, like BIG, we'd put that just before the TRAIN after the relative clause. So "The big train, which I saw" would be "[I-what-SAW] [BIG] [TRAIN] [Subject-definite tag]". "Yakul-suplel hiceka liya mae". "To see" is SPLL. We add u-e vowels to make it past. It gets two prefixes, a male-subject-first-person "Ya" for I, and "kul" in the object slot for "what" (the noun we are modifying). The TRAIN is "liya", and it takes the subject tag "ma", which applies to the head verb (RUN, not in this phrase), NOT the object tag "ca" for "to see". The TRAIN is both a subject & object of two verbs. The way we know the TRAIN is the object of the 2nd verb, to see, is because of the "What" (kul) put in its object slot, and then the train (liya) fills that spot. Hiceka means "big", to show that adjectives go after modifying relative clauses.
If we wanted to make a full sentence out of it, "The big train which I saw was running", we'd add the head verb "It was running" verb at the front. "To go" is the root YCHW. We add u-e vowels for past tense (yuchew), then "bit" to make it progressive. It takes the "ki" prefix for the subject (neuter, the TRAIN).
Ki-yuchew-bit yakul-suplel hiceka liya mae.
The man John hit yesterday prefers beer to wine.
[He-it-PREFERS] [he-who-HIT] [JOHN] [Subject marker] [yesterday] [MAN] [Subject marker] [BEER] [object-definite marker] [WINE] [OVER] [(object-of-"over" marker)].
Yi-ti-conwip yi-kro-nepyum Can ma pohepewo yubyu mae molewe cae uina nenos.
The girl you think I love is absent.
[she-it-IS] [you-THINK] [THAT] [I-who-LOVE] [GIRL] [Subject marker] [ABSENT] [Copula marker].
The neighbor whose son I teased wants to see you.
[he-it-WANTS] [I-him-TEASED] [WHOSE] [SON] [object marker] [NEIGHBOR] [Subject-definite marker] [him-you-SEE-infinitive].
The cat I said Alison brought home is stuck now in the tree.
[it-it-IS] [I-it-SAID] [THAT] [she-who-BROUGHT] [ALISON] [Subject marker] [Home] [To] [CAT] [Subject marker] [NOW] [TREE] [Object-definite] [STUCK] [copula].
The man that plowed my field is coming over here.
[He-COMING] [who-it-PLOWED] [FIELD] [object-my] [MAN] [subject] [HERE] [TO].
"The big train, which I saw, was going fast."
[It-WAS GOING] [I-what-SAW] [BIG] [TRAIN] [subject-definite] [fast]
Ki-kuybexbit kikul-suplel hiceka liya mae babate.
Adjectives / Adverbs
Adjectives and adverbs directly follow their target words.
[No need to follow gender or number]
What – kul
That - xul
When – kok
Then - xuok
Where – kixi
There - xixi
Why – To-what – kulfi
Because [To-that] - xulfi
Prepositional Phrases (which, who/m)
I have a 70 page dictionary so far. I'm trying to get it online a bit at a time. (Google Docs/Drive is fiddly.)
I'm in the process of translating Ralph Waldo Emerson's "Self Reliance" in the language to develop it. I will try to upload it here periodically: