| Name: Watteeterxo Rakkake
Number of genders: No
Wattēteroxo Rakake is one of the many languages of the Mureke [mu'rɛkɛ] planet. It is spoken by the Teroxo [t̪ɛr'ɔʔɔ] people. From their original Island, they have spread around the coastal area, and established communities in various nations and cities. The number of speakers is not known for sure, but it estimated to be between 700000 and 800000, about half of them live on their original Island, and about a quarter in the Northeastern provinces on the Southern Island, just south of their original Island. They are politically divided. A part of their original Island forms an independent state, a constitutional monarchy. The provinces on the Southern Island have some degree of self-government. Generally, the Teroxo tend to have pragmatic attitude towards politics.
The Teroxo people have traditionally been involved in trade. They have followed various religions, but today many of them are worshippers of the triumphant God-man. Many are missionaries, and they have often established schools and hospitals in various nations. There is an independent academy, originally created through a royal grant, which has a kind of "de facto" authority over the Watteeteroxo Rakkake language.
There are two main dialects, a southern and a norther. The northern dialect dominate on most of the Original Island, and the southern in the northeast provinces of the Southern Island (and also on many smaller Islands, in coastal communities on the main continent, and in some areas on the Original Island.)
|k /k/||x /ʔ/|
|Appr.||y /j/||w /ɰ/|
The consonants, except for /r/, /y/ and /ɰ/, may be geminate.
|High||i /i/||u /ɯ/|
|Mid||e /ɛ/||o /ɔ/|
There are four diphtongs: ai, ei, oi, ui.
The vowels may be long or short. There are also four diphtongs: ai, ei, oi and ui. The back vowels are usually less rounded tan in English, especially the close back vowel.
A syllable must consist of exactly one consonant, followed by exactly one vowel. The consonant may be a geminate. The vowel may be a long vowel or a diphtong.
Here I will use a romanized orthography, with the following letters:
A E I O U H K L M N G P R T W X Y
Long vowels are marked through a macron (ā, ē, ī, ō, ū). Geminates are marked by double consonants.
Nouns are not inflected. Number and definiteness are indicated by articles. There are six articles:
Ta - definite singular.
Tu - definite plural
La - indefinite specific singular.
Lu - indefinite specific plural
Ma - non-specific singular
Mu - non-specific plural
Plural is not marked on the nouns. Instead, plural is marked by:
- The article.
- Plural forms of verbs and prepositions.
There are no genders.
Case relations are marked through prepositions.
There are two kinds of prepositions in WR. Basic prepositions, and compound prepositions. Below is a list of the basic preposition. Note that there are (plural forms) of the prepositions.
Kī (kkī) - on, at, in. This is the most general locative prepositions. Depending on context, it can correspond to several different English prepositions.
Xe tuxu ttaka kī ta xarū - The mam sits in the chair.
Xe tuxu ta xōkā kī ta pūralaili. - The milk is in the chair.
Means of transportation
Xe xikkā ttaka kī ma kana. - The man travels by car.
Expressions of time
Kī pāna - today
Kī ta llagi - in the weekend (the weekend to come).
Tewa (ttewa) - for. This is used to denote the person or entity that benefits from an action.
Ko xūku Yesu ttewa mma - Jesus died for us.
Moxo (mmoxo)- to. This marks the recipient of an action, and correspond to the dative case in many languages.
Ko puxu nā xī ta xōkā moxo ta pūralaili. - He put the mill in the fridge.
Ko lika nā ttaka la koxi moxo ta xega. - The man gives the woman a flower - The man gives a flower to the woman.
Mō (mmō) - to, at, towards. This preposition marks the direction, destination or goal. Xe xikā nā mma mō ta toxogi. - We are walking to the store.
tā, (ttā) - from, of, out of, after
Nā, (nnā) - by (marks instrument, also frequently used for subject/agentive marking)
Xa (xā) - of, by (agentive marker
Mē (mmē) - during, around, about, with, of (various uses)
Pō (ppō) - at, by, of. Often used to express the genitive.
Xū (xū) - of. Might be used to express the genitive.
Pani (ppani) - without
Lē (llē) - with, and (marks companionship, also used for nominal conjunction)
Kē (kkē) - as, like.
Kīmu (kkīmu) - because of
The compound prepositions are made up by the general preposition ki, and some more specific (usually locational) word.
Kī ta loko xu - inside (in the inside of)
Kī ta kuima xu - outside (on the outside of)
Kī ta rele xu - near, close to
Mō ta loko xu - into (to the inside of)
Tā ta loko xu - out of (from the inside of)
The personal pronouns are as follows:
mane - 'some', 'something', 'someone' (non-specific)
munu - 'some' (plural, non-specific)
lame - 'some', 'something', 'someone' (specific)
lume - 'some' (plural, specific).
nīne - 'no', 'none', 'nothing', etc.
Tense, aspect and mood are indicated by preceding particles.
Xe - present tense.
Me - imperfective aspect
Ko - perfective aspect
Ma - future tense.
Ke - stative or resultative aspect
Xē - optative mood, also used for polite commands.
Xā - imperative mood.
Verbs must agree in number with their patients (the argument that is not marked with the agentive prepositions nā or xā, or with any preposition). Plurals are usually formed by reduplication of the first syllable.
Word order is relatively free. VSO is often considered to be the default word order. VOS and OVS are also possible. The subject, however, can not precede the verb.
"The man looks at the woman" might be expressed in the following ways:
Xe kipe xa ttaka ta xega. (VSO)
Xe kipe te xega xa ttaka. (VOS)
Ta xega xe kipe xa ttaka. (OVS)
The following ways, however, are ungrammatical:
Xa ttaka xe kipe ta xega. (SVO)
Xa ttaka ta xega xe kipe. (SOV)
Ta xega xa ttaka xe kipe. (OSV)
In Wattēteroxo, there is no clear-cut distinction between adjectives and verbs. In fact, when adjectives are used as predicatively, they behave like verbs.
Ta xega xatai
"The good woman"
Xe xatai ta xega
"The woman is good" ("Litterally, we might translated it like "the woman goods").
Note that the adjectives don't need any copula (like the English "is"), when they are used predicatively).
Like verbs, adjectives are inflected for number.
Tu xega xātai.
"The good women"
Xe xātai tu xega.
"The women are good"
To say "X is bigger than Y", one might used conjoined phrases, like "X is big, Y is small", or "X is big, Y is not".
Xe makkā ta payā gī, nītī ta payā gā
"This stone is bigger than that stone." (Lit. "is big the stone this, not-so the stone that.")
Xe makkā gā ta payā gī, xe payā gā.
"This stone is as big as that stone" ("Is that big this stone and that stone")
0 - Xekke
1 - Teki
2 - Koxa
3 - gure
4 - Xappa
5 - Xeuna
6 - Tainu
7 - Kītai
8 - Pōla
9 - Xuika
10 - Tegēna
11 - Tegēna teki
12 - Tegēna koxa
20 - Koxa tegēna
30 - Ngure tegēna
1000 Tengēna laipō
2000 Koxa tengēna laipō
2000 Koxa tengaipō
10000 Laipō Laipō
10000 Tengēna tengaipō
100000 Laipō tegaipō
Numerals come after the nouns:
Mu taka gure - 'three men'
To form ordinal numerals, one use the particle pa.
Ttaka pa gure - 'the third man'.
This is sometimes omitted in casual speech:
Ttaka gure - 'the third man'
To express the meaning 'each' or 'every', one must use the word 'kīla'
Ttaka kīla - every man
Kīla might be used pronominally:
Xe ttē nā kīla - everybody is working.
It might also be used adnominaly:
Xe ttē nā ttaka kīla - Every man is working.
It might also be used like this:
Xe ttē nā tu taka pāla, kīla. - All the men are working, each of them.
To say "five percent", one might say:
Xippa poxe laipō
Such expressions are mostly used with mass nouns.
To say "one fifth", "one of five", or similar, one may use a preposition:
Teki pō xippa "one in five"
Teki tā xippa "one of five"
Wai - where? Tewa wai - for whom/to whom?
Mō wai - whereto?
Tā wai? - wherefrom?
Nā wī? - Does who? By whom?
Wei - how?
Wī - who, what, which?
Xe paxū xī wai?
Where does she live?
Xe laka xī mō wai?
Where is he going?
Ma xāta mma wagi?
When will we leave?
Yes/no questions might be formed in two ways. One might put the word for "or" (koo or koono) at the end of the sentence. This is the common way in everyday language.
One might also put the question particle yo before the verb. This is typically used in more formal language.
The word ni (with varieties nni, nī, and nnī) can be translated approximately as 'not'
Ko ni kipe nā ttaka ta xenga.
'The man did not see the woman.'
Especially in spoken language, one might use double negation for emphasis:
Ko ni kipe nā ttaka ni ta xenga
Nī ma taka kī ta kana.
'There are no people in the car.'
In colloquial language, one might also use the word xeke ('zero', see the numerals above).
Ma taka xekke kī ta kana.
'There are no ('zero') people in the car.'
Xe kipe xeke nā mai
'I see nothing ('zero')', 'I don't see anything'.
Note: xeke don't go together with ni:
*Xe kipe xekke nā mai.
There are no relative pronouns in Watteeteroxo. For maximal clarity, one can write the relative clause as a full clause, with subject and object.
Xe kipe nā mai ta xega xilla xī nā mai
'I see the woman that I love.'
Or, 'See I the woman, love the woman I.'
But it is often practical to omit either the subject or the object, when no practical ambiguity might arise:
Xe kipe nā mai ta xega xila xī.
'See I the woman, love her.'
Xe kipe nā mai ta xega xila nā mai.
'See I the woman, love I.'
Note that no tense or aspect marker is needed i the relative clause.
Often the boundary between relative clauses and adjectives is very fuzzy.
If the verb in the relative clause has the same tense as the verb in the main clause, one may omit the tense marker. Of the verbs have different tenses/aspects, one must use tense markers with both verbs.
Ko kipe nā mai ta xega xe xila xī nā mai.
'I saw the woman that I love'.
In wattēteroxo, there is a difference between nominal and verbal conjunctions. For nominal conjunctions, one use the word "le", which might mean either "and" or "with".
Ko kipe nā mai ta xega le ttaka.
I saw the woman and the man. (Note the plural inflection of the verb, since there are two objects!)
For verbal conjunctions, one repeats the tense marker.
Ko kipe nā mai ttaka, ko kipe nā ttaka mai.
I saw the man, and the man saw me.
Sometimes, one might use both construnctions in otherwise similar sentences, giving them a slightly different meaning.
Ko kipe nā mai ta xega lo ttaka.
I saw the woman, and I saw the man. (Note the singular inflection of the verb. Even if it refers to two events, each event has only one object!)
I you use 'le', you indicate that you saw the man and the woman together, in a single event. If you use 'lo' you indicate that it was actually two different events.
The word for 'or' i s kōor kōno
Ta xega kō ttaka.
The man or the woman.
There is no word corresponding to the English 'neither'.
Ni ta xega, ni ttaka.
Not the woman, not the man.
To form an exclusive disjunction (either… or), one might use one of the following expressions:
Ta xega kō ttaka, ni tu lukka.
'The woman or the man, not the both of them'
Ta xega kō ttaka, ttepa teki.
The man or the woman, only one.
Xe pākēre ttaka nā rei.
Reflexive and Reciprocal ConstructionsEdit
Xe pākēre ttaka nā rei.
The man washes himself.
Xe ppākēre tui taka nā rei.
The men wash themselvers
There is a reciprocal pronoun rāxā.
Xe ppākēre ta xega nnā rāxā.
The women are washing each other.
Xe pākēre nā ttaka rei
Xe pākēre nā rei ttaka.
Xe pākēre rei nā ttaka.
In Wattēteroxo, a reflective clause is much like a transitive clause, it's just that the agent and the patient happen to be identical. Therefore, all the constructions above are grammatical, the differences are pragmatic and stylistic.
NOTE: rei is a 'singular pronoun', even when referring to more than one person. Neither the verb nor the agentive particle inflect for the plural. Raxaa is always a plural pronoun; verbs, prepositions, and the agentive particle must be in the plural.
tūni - beginning
pāpoko - create
Ta Wāta - God
gōxa - heaven
tawa - earth
rakipi - void, empty, deserted
moti - void, formless, disordered, insubstantial
gotto - darkness
xapo - over, above
pūre - deep
llapāle - hover
kimu - spirit
nire - surface
manō - water
kenei - say
poko - become
xīlai - light
kipe - see
ge - that (conj.)
xatai - good
kiraxe - separate (transitive), be separate (intransitive)
wekai - to call
wāna - day
nuru - night
tomo - to come, to be, to become, to turn into
nikku - evening
pinā - morning
teki - one
Kī ta tūni ko ppāpoko xa Ta Wāta ta goxa lē ttawa. Me rakipi me moti ttawa, me gotto kī ta xapo xu ta pāre, me llapāle ta kimu xu Ta Wāta kī ta xapo xu ta nire pō ta manō. Ko kenei xa Ta Wāta ge "xē poko ma xīlai", ko poko ma xīlai. Ko kipe xa Ta Wāta ge me xatai ta xīlai, ko kiraxe xa Ta Wāta ta xīlai tā ta gotto. Ko wekai xa Ta Wāta "wāna" tewa ta xīlai, ko wekai xa Ta Wāta tewa ta gotto "nuru". Ko tomo ma nikku, ko tomo ma pinā, ta wāna pa teki.
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth, and the earth was void and formless, and the Spirit of God was hovering upon the face of the waters. And God said, "let there be light". And there was light. And God saw, that the light was good, and God separated the the light from the dark. And God called the light "day", and the darkness he called "night". And there was evening, and there was morning, the first day.
(Unsure if Bible texts are known on Mureke. I put this here mostly to give people a "taste" of how the language might look in written form. Strangely however, it seems like many legends and stories bear a striking resemblance to those found in the Bible, or in various forms of "Earthly" mythology.)