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Wendlandish

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Wendlandish
lyngra Vinnurlænska
Type Synthetic
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Head-final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 45%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 30%
Adjectives 50%
Syntax 27%
Words 30 of 1500
Creator Liah21
Wendlandish, natively Vinnurlænska or lyngra Vinnurlænska, is a Romance language spoken in an alternative history version of Earth, in the area of real-world Pomerania.

The only member of the Northern Romance branch, Wendlandish has, due to relative and long isolation from the rest of the Romance-speaking world, followed its own path of evolution and has absorbed lots of words, grammatical features, and influence on phonology, from its neighboring languages: most prominently Old Norse, but also Proto-Slavic, Baltic languages, Low German and, more recently, Standard High German and Polish.


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k (g)
Fricative f θ ð s z ʃ x ɣ h
Affricate ts
Approximant ʋ (v) j
Trill r
Lateral app. l

/g/ is not a native phoneme of Wendlandish, but some people use it in unassimilated loanwords which originally had it. For example granís "border" is a totally assimilated loanword (from Polish granica) and is pronounced [ɣraˈniːs], while gató "cake (in specific contexts)" (from French gâteau) isn't and may be pronounced [gaˈtoː], but more commonly is [ɣaˈtoː].

Similarly, /v/ is used by some speakers instead of /ʋ/ (and its coda allophone [ʊ̯]) in words of Polish origin, even in "assimilated" loanwords, like javnosj "public" [ˈjɑːvnɔʃ] (from jawność) or tjervon "red" [tʃɛrˈvoːn] (from czerwony). This does not happen, anyway, with loanwords from any other source. In standard Wendlandish, [v] otherwise only appears as an allophone of /ʋ/ after /k/ — even if this too only happens in borrowings, usually learned Latin words like kvæstsura "public office" [kvæsˈtsuːra] (reborrowing from quaestūra), kvadrats "square" [kvaˈdrats] (reb. < quadrātum), or inkvizitjona "research group; scientific research; Inquisition" [iŋkviziˈtʃoːna] (reb. < inquīsītiōnem); but also from other sources, including Polish /w/, like zakvat "factory" [ˈzɑːkvat], (< zakład). Note that foreign /gv/ is usually borrowed as /kv/ too, or /ɣ/ before /u/ or /o/ (e.g. the two assimilated loanwords kvjast "star" [ˈkvjast] < Pol. gwiazda; and gosj "nail" [ˈɣoːʃ] < Pol. gwóźdź).

Phonemic /v/ is however much more common than phonemic /g/, even if used by a minority of speakers.

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Central Back
High iː yː ʉ
Near-high ɪ ʏ
High-mid e eː ø
Mid
Low-mid œ ɔ
Near-low æ æː
Low a ɑː
Diphthongs eɪ̯ ɛɪ̯ aɪ̯ aʊ̯ ɔʊ̯

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

Letter Aa Bb Dd Ðð Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Kh kh
Sound /a/ /ɑː/ /b/ /d/ /ð/ /e/ /eː/ /f/ /ɣ/ /h/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /j/ /k/ /x/
Letter Ll Mm Nn ng Oo Pp Rr Ss Sj sj Tt Tj tj Ts ts
Sound /l/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɔ/ /oː/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /tʃ/ /ts/
Letter Þþ Uu Vv Yy Zz Ææ Øø
Sound /θ/ /ʉ/ /uː/ /v/ /ʏ/ /yː/ /z/ /æ/ /æː/ /œ/ /øː/

The digraphs aj, au, ej, ou, and æj represent the diphthongs /aɪ̯ aʊ̯ eɪ̯ ɔʊ̯ ɛɪ̯/ but are not treated as separate letters, unlike digraphs for consonants.

ng does not have an upper-case version as it does not appear at the beginning of words.

Loanwords are usually adapted without exceptions, like e.g. Polish zakład > zakvat "factory", or German Übermensch > ybermensj. Foreign surnames from languages written in the Latin alphabet are usually however kept the same (except for a few personalities whose names are completely adapted, like Kristsafir Kolum (Christopher Columbus) or Jøna ið Ark (Joan of Arc)); names from other languages were formerly romanized into Wendlandish from their pronunciation (e.g. Лермонтов > Ljermantaf), nowadays pure transliterations are preferred (e.g. Горбачёв > Gorbatjov, pronounced either [gɔɐ̯baˈtʃɔʊ̯] or [ˈɣɔɐ̯batʃɔʊ̯]).

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

Wendlandish verbs inherit the four conjugations of Latin, but has categorized them in different classes as sound changes greatly modified the original verbs. The four main verb classes are:

  1. -æjr verbs, that is, descendants of the Latin first conjugation, like mæjr "to love" (< amāre) or ømlæjr "to walk" (< ambulāre);
  2. -ajr verbs, descendants of the Latin second conjugation, like viðajr "to see" (< vidēre) or sfajr "to be aware" (< sapēre);
  3. -ir verbs, descendants of the Latin third and fourth conjugations - like hrajðir "to believe" (< crēdere), hnovskir "to know" (< gnōscere), or dirmir "to sleep" (< dormīre), inørnir "to intervene" (< intervenīre). Those which descend from the third conjugation are called the -øymur group as their first person plural present indicative ends like that (e.g. hriðøymur "we believe"), while those which descend from the fourth one are the -ymur group (e.g. dirmymur "we sleep").
  4. -ær/-er verbs, which do not descend from Latin but are instead made by a generalization of the pre-Wendlandish -er infinitive suffix added to other roots, like milær "to smile" (< Old Norse smíla). This is the only currently productive conjugation - e.g. colloquial daunloder "to download", sælfijer "to take a selfie".

Note that verbs from the first three conjugation usually have four principal parts, for infinitive, present, preterite, and participle.

Present indicative Edit

ømlæjr "to walk" viðajr "to see" hnovskir "to know" inørnir "to intervene" milær "to smile"
jag øml vajðe hnovsk inørjæn milæ
tsu ømlur vajðir hnovskir inørjænir milær
if / ifja / ifju ømlit vajðit hnovskit inørjænit milæt
novr ømlømur viðøymur hnuskøymur inørnymur miløymur
vovr ømlætir viðætir hnuskætir inørnitir milætir
ifi / ifjæ / ifja ømlints vajðints hnovskunts inørjænts milænts
(impersonal/passive) ømlitse vajðitse hnovskitse inørjænitse milætse

Irregular verbs Edit

To say (ditsir) and to talk (prilufir) Edit

Two common irregular verbs are ditsir (to say) and prilufir (to talk). Both of them are suppletive: ditsir mostly comes from Latin dīcere, but the present and the past participle are from the originally deponent defective fārī (completed by analogy), and the present participle jajnts is from aiēns, the present participle of āiō. Prilufir mostly comes from forms of prōloquī, through an analogically rebuilt active paradigm *prōloquere, but the participles are the ones of the unprefixed verb — lusjens and lukuts from loquēns and locūtus respectively. Ditsir is also one of the few verbs that still has a commonly used synthetic past.

ditsir (to say) Present Imperfect Synth. Past Past Future Pluperfect Fut. Perfect
jag fir ditsajv dik hamu føts kap ditsir højm føts hamu kafts ditsir
tsu færs ditsemar dikajst hants føts kapir ditsir hømist føts hants kafts ditsir
if / ifja / ifju førd ditsed diht hand føts kaft ditsir hømit føts hand kafts ditsir
novr føm ditsmør dikyrm hvønts føts køymur ditsir hømur føts hvønts kafts ditsir
vovr fæmin ditsmært dikistir hvits føts kapætir ditsir hømstir føts hvits kafts ditsir
ifi / ifjæ / ifja førnt ditjond dikyrtn haments føts køpunts ditsir hømyrtn føts haments kafts ditsir
(impersonal) førdse ditsedse dihtse handse føts kaftse ditsir hømitse føts handse kafts ditsir
Pres. participle jajnts
Past participle føts
prilufir (to talk) Present Imperfect Past Future Pluperfect Fut. Perfect
jag priluf prilusjajv hamu lukuts kap prilufir højm lukuts hamu kafts prilufir
tsu prilør prilusjemar hants lukuts kapir prilufir hømist lukuts hants kafts prilufir
if / ifja / ifju priløft prilusjed hand lukuts kaft prilufir hømit lukuts hand kafts prilufir
novr priløfmur prilusjmør hvønts lukuts køymur prilufir hømur lukuts hvønts kafts prilufir
vovr priløftir prilusjmært hvits lukuts kapætir prilufir hømstir lukuts hvits kafts prilufir
ifi / ifjæ / ifja prilukunts prilusjond haments lukuts køpunts prilufir hømyrtn lukuts haments kafts prilufir
(impersonal) priløftse prilusjedse handse lukuts kaftse prilufir hømitse lukuts handse kafts prilufir
Pres. participle lusjens
Past participle lukuts

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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