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Name: [[]]



Head Direction:

Number of genders:

Declensions: No

Conjugations: No

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No



There are two vowel phonemes, /e/ and /o/, with many allophones.


Basic GrammarEdit

Words are formed out of three-consonant roots, by inserting vowels and adding suffixes. Nouns (in their basic form) have the shape CeCeC (stress on the first syllable). Verbs, in their basic form, have the form CeCoV (stess on second/final syllable.) To this, various endings are attached to show various grammatical relations. Nouns are declined for case and number.

CéCeC - nouns, singular

CóCeC - nouns, plural

CeCóC - verbs

CeCé'eC - verbs, antipassive form

CeCéC - gerunds


There are two kinds of nouns, those who are formed out basic nominal roots, and those who are derived from verbs (gerunds). Pure nominal stems are stressed on the first syllable, gerunds on the second. Gerunds lack plural forms.

Meken [m'ækɪn] - 'man', absolutive

Mekenez [m'ækənɛz] ergative, instrumentaal

Mekenem [m'ækənem] dative

Mekenet [m'ækənet] allative

Mekenej [m'ækəneɪ] locative

Mekenev [m'ækənev] ablative

Mekenex [m'ækənɛx] genitive

Plurals are formed by changing the first vowel.

Meken - 'a man', 'the man'

Moken [m'okɪn] or [m'okɘn]- 'men', 'the men'

There is not marking of definiteness. It must be inferred from the context.


Verbs must agree with the absolutive argument.

Semor - 'to think' (intransitive)

Semoren - I think

Semorer - you think

Semoret - (s)he thinks

Semoro'on - we think

Semoro'or - you (pl.) think

Semoro'ot - they think

Serof - 'to read' (transitive)

Mekenez met'er serofen - 'The man reads the page'.

Mekenez mot'er serofo'en - 'The man reads the pages'.

There is an antipassive form of the verbs:

Meken sere'efen met'erem - 'The man is about to read the page'.

When using the antipassive form, the subject or agent take the absolutive (unmarked) case ('meken', the man), and the object or patient take the dative case (met'erem, 'to the pages')

There is no inflection for tense or aspect. It must be marked with adverbs or other independent words, or indicated by context.


Example textEdit

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