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Wexalian

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Feschle - Wexalian
Morphological Type: Agglutinative
Morphosyntactic Alignment: Nominative-Accusative
Linguistic Head: Mixed
Word Order: V2
Made by: Maxseptillion77

General InformatonEdit

Wexilian comes from Old High German. The speakers live on the islands of Terschelling, Vlieland, Ameland, and in a reletively large chunk of lang in the modern-day Netherlands in order of incorporation into the ethnic groups majority. The name came from the medevil name of the island, Wexalia. The Wexalian name for itself, Feschle [ˈfɛʃlə], comes from the native term wecsile

Phonology and OrthographyEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ¹
Plosive b p t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ x χ² h
Affricative t͡s d͡z
Liquid l j ʁ
¹ Also an allophone before /k/ or /g/
² Allophone of [x] finally

VowelEdit

Front Central Back
Close Tense i y y: u u:
Lax ɪ ʏ ə ʊ
Mid Lax øː
Tense ɛ ɛː œ œː ɔ ɔː
Open æ æ: ɑ
Phonemic Diphthongs: {aɪ̯ eɪ̯ oʏ̯ oɪ̯} 

[ʁ] allophonically becomes [a̯ˤ] in a closed syllable or [ə̯] in an open one. This
allophony doesn't occur in an initial open syllable.

StressEdit

Stress usually falls on the antepenultimate syllable. In syllables with three or less syllables, the closed syllable take precedence.

Yod MetaphonyEdit

The yod metaphony occurs when [i eː l j eɪ̯] occur in the adjacent syllable. It's going to referred to with +j in paradigms.

  • u > y
  • o/ɔ > ø/œ
  • ɑ > æ
  • ə > ɪ

OrthographyEdit

AlphabetEdit

Letter Sound Letter Sound
A a [ɑ] B b⁷ [b], [v], [b̥]⁹
C c¹ [k], [g̊]⁹ D d [d], [d̥]⁹, [d͡z]10
E e² [eː], [ɛ]⁶, [ə] F f [f]
G g [g], [g̊]⁹ H h⁵ [∅], [h]
I i [i], [ɪ]⁶ J j [j]
K k [k], [g̊]⁹ L l [l]
M m [m] N n [n]
O o² [oː], [ɔ]⁶ P p [p], [b̥]⁹
R r³ [ʁ], [ə~əˠ] S s⁴ [s], [z], [ʃ]
T t [t], [d]⁹, [t͡s]10 U u [u], [ʊ]⁶
Z z [t͡s], [d͡z]⁸, [d̥͡z̊]⁹

(1) Only appears in the digraph ck representing the old geminate K, but now that just means a short vowel before it (2) Stressed E and O in an open syllable are long. E is always [ɛ] in a closed syllable. Unstressed E in an open syllable is [ə]. E is [ə] finally. (3) [ʁ] allophonically becomes [ə̯ˠ] in a closed syllable or [ə̯] in an open one. This allophony doesn't occur in an initial open syllable. (4) S is [z]  intervocalically or pre-voiced consonant. S is [ʃ] before another consonant and initially. It's [s] finally. (5) H is always silent within a word, and serves to elongate a vowel in a closed syllable. Initially, it is [h] (6) Closed syllable. (7) [v] before another consonant (8) Before [ə], initially, finally after a consonant. (9) Initially. (10) In two conditions: finally before [ə ɪ ʏ ʊ]; and finally when not preceded by another 

The letters V, W, X, Q, and Y are used in loans

Diacritcs and MultigraphsEdit

  • Tz tz - [t͡s]
  • Ch ch - [x] ([ʃ] allophonically before [i y ɪ ʏ e: ø:]). It's [ʃ] finally or before [i y e: ø: ə] finally.
  • Cch cch - [x] or [ç] ([ç] allophonically before [i y ɪ ʏ e: ø:]) anywhere
  • Sch sch - [ʃ] anywhere
  • SS ß – [s] anywhere
  • Sz sz - [z] anywhere
  • (double letter) - pseudo-closed syllable
  • Ei ei - [aɪ̯]
  • Ie ie - [eɪ̯]
  • Eü eü - [y:], [ʏ] closed syllable 
  • Jee jee - [e:ə]
  • Oa oaEa ea, Öa öa - [ɔː ɛː œː]
  • Ä ä - [æ] ([ɛ] before [j])
  • Ü ü - [y], [ʏ] closed syllable
  • Ö ö - [øː], [œ] closed syllable
  • Ë ë - [ə]
  • -en, -el-er - [n̩/ən] [l̩/əl] [ə]
  • -eC - [əC] (where C = consonant)
  • Pr - [ʁ] (where P = plosive)
  • Bf bf - [v]
  • Ij ij - [i]
  • Uh uh, Üh uh, Eh eh, Äh äh, Eüh eüh - [u:, y:, e:, æ:, y:]

GrammarEdit

The superscript +j means that the yod metaphony is applied.

NounEdit

Noun DeclensionEdit

  • Nom-Acc : nominative and accusative
  • Gen : genitive/possessive
  • Prep : within a prepositional phrase (including dative)
Gerunds (ending with -eng from OHG -ung) are called "Class G." gen. -e | prep. -s | plural -en.
Class I – masculine a/o declensionEdit

It came from the a-stems (where the ja-stems merged). täj is from tag.

täj [d̥ɛj]  – day Singular Plural
Nom-Acc täj täjen
Gen täjs täjse
Prep täje täjen
Class II – eo declensionEdit

It came from the wa-stems. knjee is from kneo

knjee [kneːə] - knee Singular Plural
Nom-Acc knjee knjeen
Gen knjehfs knjefe
Prep knjefe knjefen
Class III – feminine a/o declensionEdit

It came from the ō-stems. gebe is from gëba.

gebe [g̊eːbə] – gift Singular Plural
Nom-Acc gebe geben
Gen gebe¹
Prep

¹ Since gebe already ends in [ə], the genitive form doesn't change. 

Class IV – long i-declensionEdit

It came from the "feminine abstract noun" declension. höch comes from hōhī

höhch [høːʃ] – height Singular Plural
Nom-Acc höhch höchen
Gen höcheine
Prep höchen
Class V – masculine i/0 declensionEdit

It came from the masculine i-declension. gäst is from gast

gast [g̊ɑʃt] –  guest Singular Plural
Nom-Acc gast gästen+j
Gen gastes gäste+j
Prep gaste gästen+j
Class VI – feminine i/0 declensionEdit

It came from the feminine i-declension. stad comes from stat.

stad [ʃtɑd] – place Singular Plural
Nom-Acc stad stäzen+j
Gen stäze+j stäze+j
Prep stäzen+j

Staz and others like it (where the word ends in /ɑC/ where C = {f x}) suffer a regular irregularity where in the nom-acc form, they're their standard form (stad), but /ɑ/ becomes /æ/ and the fricative if fortified to {p k}.

Class VII – n-declensionEdit

It came from the n-stem weak declension. All of the gendered declensions fused in declension, but not in gender. herze comes from hërza.

herze [hɛa̯ˤd͡zə] – heart Singular Plural
Nom-Acc herze herzen
Gen herzen herzon
Prep
Class VIII – fused declensionEdit

It came from the masculine and feminine monosyllabic declensions and applies to the old OHG -nt declension. man came from man.

man [mɑn] – man Singular Plural
Nom-Acc man manen
Gen mans mane
Prep man manen
Class IX – r-declensionEdit

It came from the -r declension. fazer came from fater.

fazer [fɑd͡zə] – father Singular Plural
Nom-Acc fazer fazern
Gen
Prep
Class X – os/es declensionEdit

It came form the os/es declension. lam came from lamb

lam [lɑm] – lamb Singular Plural
Nom-Acc lam lämihr+j
Gen lams lämihre+j
Prep lame lämihrn+j

Adjective DeclensionEdit

Class I – MasculineEdit

Applies to Noun Classes I, II, V, VII, IX, X, and G. blinter comes from OHG blintēr.

blinter [b̥lɪnt͡sə] - blind Singular Plural
Nom blinter blinte
Gen blintes blintere
Acc-Prep blinten blinte
Class II - Feminine / NeuterEdit

Applies to Noun Classes III, IV, VI, and VIII.

blinter [b̥lɪnt͡sə] - blind Singular Plural
Nom blint blinte
Gen blintre
Acc-Prep blinten

ArticleEdit

The only article in Wexalian is the definite article which acts similar the one in Modern Standard Arabic in that it is used in contexs where the applied noun has been previously mentioned and/or the noun is specific. The lack of an article (or the zero article) acts as referring to any single noun (if singular) or a mass noun (if plural). 

Singular Plural
Nom der dihn
Acc den
Gen des* dihr
Prep dem dihm

(*) Often becomes [ʃ] before another consonant in familiar speech

PronounsEdit

The 5th person conjugates to the third person
PersonalEdit

Because the accusative and dative forms of fir and ihr can be confused, they may be marked zf-unz and zf-eü respectively (from combination with the preposition zfu, to). 

Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 5th 1st 2nd 3rd
Mas. Fem. Neu. Mas. Fem. Neu.
Nom ich du er sie ihs eimmen fir ihr sjee söa seü
Acc mich dich ihn sjee eimmich unz
Poss mien dien sien ihre eimmin üntear eüer ihren
Dat mir dir ihme eimme unz ihmiren
PossessiveEdit
Nom Acc Prep
Mas Fem Mas Fem Mas Fem
Singular 1st miener mieneü mienen miene mienem mienere
2nd diener dieneü dienen diene dienem dienere
3rd siener sieneü sienen siene sienem sienere
Plural 1st ünter ünteü unten unte untem untere
2nd eüer eüe eüen eüe eüem eüere
3rd ihrer ihreü ihren ihre ihrem ihrerer
ReflexiveEdit

Attach these suffixes to the possessive pronoun.

Suffix
Nom -siche
Acc -sich
Gen -sichen
Prep -sichihr
Interrogative / Relative*Edit
Animate (who) Inanimte (which)
Nom* fer faß
Acc fen
Gen fes
Prep fem feü

VerbsEdit

The Subjunctive is much more common in Wexalian than most Germanic languages because it began to mean anything that's irrealis. This can be used in various paraphrastic phrases for more moods such as the conditional and exhorative among others. Verb conjugations have been standardized to two sets of suffixes based on the first and second weak conjugations (though, there are a few irregulars for many common verbs such zenken, to think, furken, to work, and häven, to have).

The change from present to preterite and past participle has an ablaut (which is affected by the yod metaphony):

Ablaut
Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5
Ia ie [eɪ] ie [eɪ] ei [aɪ] i/i_ [ɪ] i/i_ [ɪ]
Ib ie [eɪ] ie [eɪ] e/eh, ea [e:, ɛ:] i/i_ [ɪ] i/i_ [ɪ]
II [y:] [y:] jee, je/e, jea/ea [e:ə, e:, ɛ:] eü/eü_ [ʏ] eü/eü_ [ʏ]
IIIa ö, öa [ø:, œ:] ö, öa [ø:, œ:] ü/üh [y:] ü/ü_ [ʏ] ö/ö_ [œ]
IIIb ö, öa [ø:, œ:] ü/üh [y:] o, oa [o:, ɔ:] u/u_ [ʊ] o/o_ [ɔ]
IV u/uh [u:] u/uh [u:] u/uh [u:] u/uh [u:] o/o_ [ɔ]
Va i [ɪ] i [ɪ] a [ɑ] u/u_ [ʊ] u/u_ [ʊ]
Vb e/e_ [ɛ] i [ɪ] a [ɑ] u/u_ [ʊ] o/o_ [ɔ]
VIa e/e_ [ɛ] i [ɪ] a [ɑ] ah [ɑ] o/o_ [ɔ]
VIb e/e_, i [ɛ, ɪ] i [ɪ] a [ɑ] ah [ɑ] e/e_ [ɛ]
VII a [ɑ] a [ɑ] oa [ɔ:] a [ɑ] o/o_ [ɔ]
VIII e/e_ [ɛ] e/e_ [ɛ] oa [ɔ:] a [ɑ] o/o_ [ɔ]
IX a, ah [ɑ] a [ɑ] je/je_ [jɛ] a [ɑ] a [ɑ]
X ei [aɪ] ei [aɪ] je/je_ [jɛ] ei [aɪ] ei [aɪ]
XI u/uh [u] u/uh [u] ö/öh [ø:] u/uh [u] u/uh [u]
XII o/oh [o:] o/oh [o:] ö/öh [ø:] o/oh [o:] o/oh [o:]
XIII oa [ɔ:] oa [ɔ:] ö/öh [ø:] oa [ɔ:] oa [ɔ:]

Grades

  • Grade 0 : no ablaut
  • Grade 1 : infinitive 
  • Grade 2 : present singular, imperitive singular
  • Grade 3 : preterite singular
  • Grade 4 : preterite plural
  • Grade 5 : past participle

Paraphrastic Phrases

  • Passive Voice

will add in later

……

Strong VerbsEdit

All strong verbs have an ablaut (weak verbs, comparatively, may be a 0-ablaut) and are conjugated thusly. nehmen, str. VIa, to take, from OHG nëman.

nehmen [nɛmən] Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Present Indicative nimme nimmis+j nimmit+j nehmem nehmet nehment
Subjunctive nehme nehmes nehme nehmem nehmet nehmen
Imperitive nim nehmet
Preterite Indicative nam näme+j nam nahmem nahmet nahmen
Subjunctive nähme+j nähme+j nähme+j nähmem+j nähmet+j nähmen+j
  • Infinitive: nehmen
  • Present Participle: nehminz
  • Past Participle: g'nomt

Weak VerbsEdit

Class IEdit

From the OHG -en verbs. retten, weak, to save, from OHG retten

retten [ʁɛt͡sən] Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Present Indicative rette rettis+j rettit+j rettem rettet rettent
Subjunctive rette rettes+j rette rettem rettet retten
Imperitive rette+j rettet
Preterite Indicative rette rettes rette rettem rettet retten
Subjunctive rettze+j rettzis+j rettze+j rettzim+j rettzit+j rettzin+j
  • Infinitive: retten
  • Present Participle: rettinz
  • Past Participle: g'rettit+j
Class IIEdit

From the OHG -ōn verbs. sälben, weak, to anoint, from OHG salbōn.

sälben [ʃælbn̩] Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Present Indicative sälbem sälbes sälb sälben sälb sälbent
Subjunctive sälbe sälbes sälbe sälbem sälb sälben
Imperitive sälbe sälb
Preterite Indicative sälbeze sälbezes sälbeze sälbezem sälbezeß sälbezen
Subjunctive sälbizie sälbizies sälbizie sälbiziem sälbizieß sälbizien
  • Infinitive: sälben
  • Present Participle: sälbönz
  • Past Participle: g'sälb
Class IIIEdit

From OHG -ēn verbs. bibfen, weak, to shake, from OHG bibēn

bibfen [b̥ɪvn̩] Singular Plural
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Present Indicative bibfem+j bibfes+j bibf+j bibfen+j bibf+j bibfent+j
Subjunctive bibfe bibfes+j bibfe bibfen+j bibf+j bibfen+j
Imperitive bibfe bibf+j
Preterite Indicative bibfehze+j bibfehzes+j bibfehze+j bibfehzem+j bibfehzeß+j bibfehze+j
Subjunctive bibfehzie+j bibfehzies+j bibfehzie+j bibfehziem+j bibfehzieß+j bibfehzien+j
  • Infinitive: bibfen
  • Present Participle: bibfinz+j
  • Past Participle: g'bibf+j

SyntaxEdit

Word Order and Head DirectionEdit

Wexalian is V2 where the word order is SV₁(P₁)IO(P₂)V₂ in the proper language (S - subject, V₁ - conjugated verb, V₂ - infinitive (followed by participles), I - indirect object, O - direct object, P₁ - preposition, P₂ - postposition). Wexalian is a null subject language like Spanish where the subject pronoun is removed due to the conjugation revealing the grammatical information already. 

The head direction depends completely on its placement within the sentence and the number of verbs. When there is one verb and no indirect object, the sentence is head final (rückkemmeng). When there are two verbs (or one verb with a direct and indirect object), in the beginning of the sentence, from the subject to the indirect object, the head direction is final (rückkemmeng) whereas the direct object to the second verb is head initial (leizeng). Adpositions also follow this patter where there are preposition for the former and postpositions for the latter.

The former is called rückkemmeng and the latter leizeng in Wexalian and how they will be referred to for the rest of the article. rückkemmeng is rücke, back, plus kemmen, to come, plus -eng, gerund suffix. leizeng is leizen, to lead, plus -eng, gerund suffix. Another more accurate definition is that rückkemmeng is head final sentence structure such as Japanese and leizeng is head initial like French.

Non-Dative Objects: Adpositional phrases that are not dative go after the object following leizeng order in any order. Though, with one verb, it follows rückkemmeng order after the verb/object.

Noun PhraseEdit

Adjectives: In rückkemmeng, adjectives are placed before the head noun, whereas in leizeng, adjectives are placed after the head noun. Adjectives take the case of their head noun.

Article: In rückkemmeng, they go before the entire noun phrase and after the preposition. In leizeng, they go directly before the noun. 

Adverbs: They're placed directly before their head noun. If the noun has a definite article, the adverb goes before the article.

Adpositions: In rückkemmeng, they go before the entire noun phrase and article, and vice versa in leizeng.

Genitives: A genitive phrase is (owned + fen + owner) or simply the possessive pronoun and the owned noun in the correct head direction. The owner takes whatever case it's in and the owned takes the genitive.

Verb PhraseEdit

Adverbs: They act just like in noun phrases where they go before the verb.

Reflexive and Causative: Reflexitive verbs are made through the use of the reflexive pronoun in the accusative or dative (they're are in Pronouns). Causative verbs use the causative suffixes (explained in Verbs)

Passive: Formed in a paraphrastic phrase (explained in Verbs)

Copula: The copula is fessen. This is used as a "filler verb" where it is describing the subject having a noun or being an adjective. Such as der man ich blinter (the man is blind) where ich is connecting man and blinter. Note that the adjective will take the accusative in these types of sentence.

ClausesEdit

Independent: This follows the standard word order

Dependent: The dependent clause marker (words such as whenbecauseafter, etc.) is placed before the standard word order akin to a clausal preposition. 

Introductory: The adpositional phrase, gerund, participle, or supine is put in the front of the sentence in leizeng (head initial word order).

Embedded: Unlike most Germanic languages, the standard word order is upheld in an embedded clause.

Interrogative: The placement of a question word or a rise in voice intonation creates a question. Though, there is a formal question "particle," steimen, which is placed at the head of the clause having the question.

Relative: These are introduced with relative pronouns and "where," far. The following dependent clauses follow the standard word order.

Lexicon and TextsEdit

Lord's PrayerEdit

Der gibit fen Got
Wexalian IPA English OHG German
Unter fazer in himmle, /ˈʊnt͡zə ˈfɑd͡zə ɪn ˈhɪmlə/ Our Father, who art in heaven, Fater unser du dar bist in himil, Vater unser im Himmel,
our.NOM father in heaven.PREP
gëhellegt sei name dien.  /g̊əˈhɛlɪkt͡s ʃaɪ̯ ˈnɑmə d̥eɪ̯n/ Hallowed be thy Name. Si giheilagot din namo, geheiligt werde dein Name.
hallow.PAST-PART be.SUBJ-3rd-sing nameyou.POSS
Dien Reich kumm /d̥eɪ̯n ʁeɪ̯ʃ g̊ʊm/ Thy Kingdom come; Kweme dīn rīhhi, Dein Reich komme;
you.POSS come.SUBJ-3rd-sing
Dien fill immächtit /d̥eɪ̯n fɪl ɪmˈmæχt͡sɪt͡s/ Thy will be done Si dīn willo Dein Wille geschehe;
you.POSS will be-done.3rd-sing
fjee in himmle Erde in fjee. /fe:ə ɪn hɪmlə fe:ə ɪn ɛa̯ˤd͡zə/ On Earth as it is in Heaven. sō hēr in himile ist, Sō si hēr in erdu Wie im Himmel so auf Erden.
as in heaven.PREP earth.PREP in as
Gib unz broß täglich unte heüte /g̊ɪb̥ ʊnt͡s ʁo:s d̥æglɪʃ ʊnt͡sə hy:t͡sə/ Give us this day our daily bread, Unsar brōt tagalihhaȥ gīb uns hiutu, Unser tägliches Brot gib uns heute.
give.IMP-sing we.DAT bread.ACC day.ADV our.ACC-fem today
Ünz fergib unz skülten untere /ʏnt͡s fəˈg̊ɪb̥ ʊnt͡s ʃkʏlt͡sn̩ ʊnt͡səʁə/ And forgive us our trespasses Inti furlaȥ uns unsar sculdi, Und vergib uns unsere Schuld,
and forgive.IMP-sing us.ACC faults.PLUR.PREP our.PREP-fem 
fjee fir fergebfem zf-unz skülten. /fe:ə fɪɐˤ fəg̊ɛvəm t͡sfʊnt͡s ʃkʏlt͡sn̩/ As we forgive those who trespass against us; Sō wīr fūrlaȥemes unsaren sculdigon; wie auch wir vergeben unsern Schuldigern;
as we.NOM forgive.1st-plur we.DAT faults.PLUR.ACC
Ünz leize unz nöfich in zuzöcchung [ʏnt͡s laɪ̯d͡zə ʊnt͡s nœfɪʃ ɪn t͡sə̥t͡sø:xŋ̍] And lead us not into temptation, Inti ni geleistest unsih in costunga Und führe uns nicht in Versuchung,
But deliver us from evil. Ūnzouh ārlosi unih fōn ubile sondern erlöse uns von dem Bösen.
Amen Amen Amen

Other LinksEdit




Sound ChangesEdit

C - consonant; V - vowel; grave - unstressed; acute - stressed; Ɵ - closed syllable; O - open syllable; C̬ - {b d g l m n}; P - plosive

/a/ is recognized as [ä]. /r/ is recognized as [r~ɾ]. /s/ and /s̱/ are recognized as [s̪] and [s~s̱]. 

s̱ > ʃ / _C   *s̱co:no > ʃko:no
ʃk > ʃ / _#  *fis̱k > fiʃk > fiʃ
w > v / #_  *wīs > vīs
t > t͡s / V_{i i: u u: ɛ e:}  *xiutu > xiut͡su
g > ɣ / V_V, _#  *skuldigon > ʃkuldiɣon 
{p k} > {f x} / _C  *weksile > vexsile
d > θ / C_#
t > θ / #_VCV, C_VCV, VC_#
x > ç / before or after {i e ī ē}  *ri:x:i > ri:ç:i
ou̯ > u:
uo̯ > ɔ:
–New Stress Rules¹–
Cw{a i ɛ u ɔ} > C{ɔ ʏ œ _u: _ɔ:} 
Cw{a: i: e: u: o:} > C{ɔ: i: e: _u: _u:} 
Old Dutch, Latin, and some Old French Loans
ɣ > ∅ ! (_# , #_) > j ³
yod metaphony²: {u u: o o: a:} > {y y: ø ø: æ æ:} / _${i i: e: l j}  *ubile > ybilə
V̀ > ə / C_# ! V: *ʃko:nɔ > ʃko:nə
CV̀{n l r} > Cə{n l r} / _# ! i > ɪ  *ʃkuldiɣon > ʃkuldiɣən
{e a o} > ə / Ɵ_#
a: > ɑ ɑ:  *furlas > fyrlɑs
t > t͡s / _(ə?)n#
loss of intertonic vowel⁴  *ybilə > yblə
{i y ø u} > {ɪ ʏ œ ʊ} / Ɵ , V_#  *fyrlæs > fʏrlæs
æ > ɛ / _j
V́ > V́: ! Ɵ
s > ʃ / #_
eɪ̯ > aɪ̯ ! _{l j} > ɛ
ie̯ > i:
io̯, ɪo̯ > ø:, œ
i:u̯, ɪu̯ > y:, ʏ
e:o̯ > e:ə
r > ʁ
v > f  *vīs > fīs
i: > eɪ̯ ! _{m n ʁ l z} > ɛ
{è: ò: ø̀:} > {ɛ ɔ œ}
{æ: ɑ: u: y:} > {æ ɑ u y} 
t: > t͡:s | ç: > ʃ | x: > xk
C: > C
Modern French Loans
xs > ʃ  *wexsile > fɛʃlə
{e: o: ø:} > {ɛ: ɔ: œ:} / Ɵ
(p t k) > (f θ x) / ɑ_# *stad > ʃtɑθ
ə > ∅ / Ɵ_  *sterno > ʃtɛʁn.ə > ʃtɛʁn
b > v / V_C, V_Cə{n l} , V_V̀ *yblə > yvlə
d > d͡z / V_V̀  *fater > fɑd͡zəʁ | d > d͡z / #_{i e: e ɛ æ}
t͡s > d͡z / V_V̀ , #_
s > z / V_V, _C̬ , _# *a:rlosi > ɑʁlœzə
θ > ð / V_V, #_  *tagalix:as > ðælʃæz
Vʁ > Va̯ˤ / Ɵ | Vʁ > Və̯ / O _C  *fʏʁlæs > fʏə̯læz
ə > ɪ / {i ɪ e: l j}$_ (yod metaphony)
ç > ʃ / {i e:}_# , _{l t s t͡s i y e: ø:}#  *ʁiʃi
ən, əl > n̩, l̩
{x k} > h / #_ | ç > h
x > χ / _# <- allophonic
{V: V́ V́:}t > {V: V́ V́:}s / _#  *bro:t > bro:s 
English Loans
{θ ð} > t d
{ɛ̀ ɔ̀ ɑ̀ ù ì ỳ ø̀}  > {ə ə ə ʊ ɪ ʏ ə} (in small, unstressed words such as adpositions)
{b d g} > {v d͡z ʁ} / #_ , _# , V_V̀ (in small, unstressed words such as prepositions or the article)
{p b t d k g} > {b̥ b̥ d̥ d̥ g̊ g̊} / #_
éɪ̯ > aɪ̯

-The popular dialectal changes such as the English t-glottalization-

Pʁ > ʁ (similar to t-glottalization in English where it's unofficial but widespread)
{t d} > {t͡s d͡z} / _{ə ɪ ʊ ʏ}# , _# ! C_  (in the case of _# without a vowel, it can also be writ as {tˢ dˢ} though most people, i.e. me, simply write {t͡s d͡z})

¹ Stress usually falls on the antepenultimate syllable. In syllables with three or less syllables, the closed syllable take precedence.

² The yod metaphony in Wexalian occurs if an adjacent syllable contains one of {i i: e: l j}.

³  When lost intervocalically, vowels fuse into diphthongs and two of the same vowels become long

⁴ Short intertonic vowels are lost. Long intertonic vowels are shortened and simplified to their schwa sound, {ɪ ɪ ə ə ə ə ə} for {i y ø e o ɑ/æ u}. This is nullified if it would create a triple consonant cluster.  

⁵ Applies to {b d g z}

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Some words

  • machken weak 2 - to do, to make (OHG mahhōn)
  • immachten weak 1 - to be done, to be completed, to be finished (OHG in-, in/into, mahhon, to do [past participle], -en, weak verb suffix)
  • fjee - as, like, as such, such
  • Erde class III, f - Earth (OHG erda)
  • gebfen str. VIb - to give (OHG geben)
  • broß class VIII, n - bread (OHG brōt)
  • fergebfen str. VIb - to forgive (OHG far-geben)
  • skült class IX, f - debt, fault, guilt (OHG sculd)
  • leizen weak 1 - to lead (OHG leiten)
  • zöcchen str. IIIb - to pull, to draw towards, to lead s/th towards (w/ dative); to migrate, to move towards (w/ prepositional) (OHG ziohan
  • zuzöcchen str. IIIb - to pull towards s/th, to draw s/th to s/th, to attract, to bring toward s/th
  • ußzöcchen str. IIIb - to pull away from, to draw s/th from s/th, to push away, to remove from

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