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Xara
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations Yes
Genders 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Rainierroitayam

Side Notes and Related Links Edit

  1. Translator - I'm also making an English to Xara translator using Lingojam. The link to the translator is here, but don't expect to be able to translate any word. Xara's Translated Vocabulary is at about 200-400, which could be large, but you hardly even can understand some simple sentences if you had that vocabulary. So please don't sent a suggest message every time you see a word isn't translated, it is still ongoing.

Classification and DialectsEdit

Xara (pronounced as [ˈxaɹa] or [ˈhaɹa] of you can't pronounce the consonant [x]) is the language of the Kyarans in the countries Kyana and Figania. It is also sometimes the secondary language of the Figanii People also in Figania. It is related to Vigia and share a single family, called Proto-Vixara (pronounced as [ˈproʊtoˈviˌhaɹa]). There are also plenty of borrowings from Kapaupa, but indirectly. First Vigia borrows the words from Kapaupa and then Xara borrows some words from Vigia. This is useful especially if their own ancestor language does not have words for some words like "road" and some words are just abandoned and replaced with new words.

Vihara Kapaupa

Change of Xara, Vigia, and Kapaupa over time

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ ŋ
Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ k g ʔ
Fricative s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ x ɣ h
Affricate tʃ dʒ ʈʂ ɖʐ ks gz kʂ gʐ
Approximant w ɹ j w
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

Front Near-front Near-central Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high ɪ ʊ
High-mid e o
Mid ə
Low-mid æ ɐ
Low a

PhonotacticsEdit

Xara have the syllable structure (C2)V(C2). Every consonant is allowed in the Coda and Every consonant except [ks], [gz], [kʂ], and [gʐ] allowed in the Onset. Every vowel is allowed to be in the nucleus. The consonant [n] can be in the nucleus if the place of articulation of all the consonants in the coda is Alveolar or Post-alveolar. Only 8 Clusters are allowed, these are [tʃ], [dʒ], [ʈʂ], [ɖʐ], [ks], [gz], [kʂ], and [gʐ]. And always remember than [a], [ʊ], and [ɪ] are only used in diphthongs, [ə] and [ɐ] are only used in specific situations, and [u] can be only a monopthong.

Writing SystemEdit

The writing system of Xara is an alphabet. It has 30 letters (31 if you include the apostrophe as a letter) and 8 Affricates/Clusters.

Letter Qq Ww Ee Rr Tt Yy Uu Ii Oo Pp Aa Ss
Sound ɣ w ʊ e ɹ t ʈ u j i o p a s
Letter Dd Ff Gg Hh Jj Kk Ll Zz Xx Cc Vv Bb
Sound d ʂ g h j ɪ k l z x ɖ ʐ b
Letter Nn Mm ' Šš Žž Ņņ Ńń TŠtš DŽdž YFyf CVcv KSks
Sound n m ʔ ʃ ʒ ɳ ŋ ʈʂ ɖʐ ks
Letter GZgz KFkf GVgv
Sound gz

The apostrophe, the letter that has the sound of the ʔ, can be not included and still have the sound of the ʔ.

The writing system for the numbers and its numerical system is here: Xara/Numerical System

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes No No No No
Nouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives No No No Yes No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Pronouns Edit

There are 3 Genders (Feminine, Masculine, Unspecified [Unspecified is the Mixture of Feminine and Masculine, but in this table, it can also mean Neuter]), 3 Persons (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), 3 Cases (Subjective, Objective, Possesive), and 3 Numbers (Singular, Dual, Plural) possible in a pronoun, what the locals say the Four 3's. By the way, this is their secondary system for naming pronouns. The primary way is writing pronouns in their native form, like "Hone" for "They" instead of Jinono. People usually use both systems, just like Japanese both uses Hiragana and Katakana. So here are all of the whopping 81 pronouns Xara have:

1st Person

Feminine Masculine Unspecified
Subjective Objective Possesive Subjective Objective Possesive Subjective Objective Possesive
Singular Tši Ši Šil Tšo Šo Šol Tša Ša Šal
Dual Tšin Šin Šilno Tšon Šon Šolno Tšan Šan Šalno
Plural Tšima Šinma Šilma Tšoma Šonma Šolma Tšama Šanma Šalma

2nd Person

Feminine Masculine Unspecified
Subjective Objective Possesive Subjective Objective Possesive Subjective Objective Possesive
Singular Qa Qia Qam Qa Qio Qom Qa Qi Qim
Dual Kia Gia Kam Kia Kio Gom Kia Ki Gim
Plural Xia Xi Xam Xia Xo Xom Xia Xa Xim

3rd Person

Feminine Masculine Unspecified
Subjective Objective Possessive Subjective Objective Possessive Subjective Objective Possesive
Singular Jini Jani Jari Jinea Janea Jare'a Jino Jano Jare
Dual Jima Jama Jara Jimo Jamo Jaro Jimno Jamno Jaro'e
Plural Jimama Jamama Jarara Jimomo Jamomo Jaroro Jinono Janono Jarere

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

Linking Verbs Edit

There are only 2 linking verbs in Xara. These are "Pje" (is) and "Bje" (are)

Articles Edit

Xara has 5 Articles. Klez, Pjaz, Gero, Kera, and Twaro. Here is a table of what kind of Articles are they:

Definite Indefinite
Neuter/Unspecified Klez Pjaz
Masculine Gero Twaro
Feminine Kera

Conjunctions Edit

Conjunctions in Xara act like conjunctions in English, the conjunction is between the 2 words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Here are the traslations of the conjunctions in English to Xara:

English Xara
For Rek
And Jor
Nor Amjor
But Xen
Or Mjor
Yet Part
So Ol

Prepositions Edit

Prepositions in Xara act like prepositions in English. Here are the translations between the prepositions of English and Xara. (PS: I'm still a little but confused between conjunctions and prepositions. If something here is supposed to be in Conjunctions or the other way around, tell me!)

English Xara
In Ery
Inside Erten
Outside Arten
Beside Kalar
Behind Xenke
At front Akenke
Over Erlet
Above Orlet
Below Arlet
Of Ke
Between Akalar

SyntaxEdit

Sentences are written in VSO, just like in Vigia. So for example the sentence "This is Heavy" will be "Pje tokia maljamo", "The sand is yellow" to "Pje klez putšem nevana", and "They are here" to "Bje hone maka".

Inflections & Compound Words Edit

There are some inflections in Xara. The rootword is in bold. Correspondent words in English and Xara are either color coded or Underlined. (*"ren" is not a suffix. "Children" is an irregular plural noun. **The correspondent of this is the suffix that turns the noun into a verb. ***"a" is not an infix, Ran in an irregular verb.)

Xara English
Bada There
Pje bada There is
Pjada There's
Anoniatoke Snake (n.)
Anoniatokewan Snake (v.)**
Anoniatokeren Snakes (n.)
Anoniatokewaren Snakes (v.)**
Anoniatokemon Snake's
Anoniatokerenon Snakes'
Anoniatokeremon
Petšan Egg
Petšanen Eggs
Petšanon Egg's
Petšanenon Eggs'
Penana Child
Jarienana Her child
Penanaren Children*
Jarienanarežeile Her two children
Lakwanorta Blood
Lakwanortaze Bloody
Petšanenanoniatokemon Snake's eggs
Lily penanarežeileler Lily's two children
Zanron Run
Ujkzanron Running
Frezanron Ran***
Inzanron Will run
Helajta Piece/Thing
Berenzek Metal
Berenzelajt Piece of Metal
Kolzema Valuable
Kolzemerenzelajt Coin (Valuable Piece of Metal)
Labaler Paper
Kolzemabalelajt Bill (Valuable Piece of Paper)
Kolzemelajt Money (Valuable Piece of ...)
Kolzemelajtertlon Currency (Money + [particle])

Rules in Inflections:

  1. Pronouns can be only linked in inflections. It cannot be cut like "enanare" is supposed to be "penanare" in the "Her two children" example. This is because there are many pronouns in Xara and a slight change could change the pronoun entirely.
  2. If there is a possessive pronoun that "owns" a noun, then the pronoun will be put first before the noun. But if a possessive noun instead is the one who "owns" another noun, then the owned noun is the one put first. (Examples are "Her two children" and "Snake's eggs")
  3. Proper Nouns cannot be inflected. More rules about proper nouns are at the examples above.

LexiconEdit

Colors Edit

There are 3 Levels in color and they are categorized based on their apparent saturation, apparent brightness, or "neoness". The First columns are the English translations, the second is the Xara translations, the fourth is the origin or the literal meaning, and at the third column is the Hex Color. (Approximated)

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Black Zanevorta / Anevorta 000000 "Double dark" of White or Opposite of White Orange Nevjor

(Old: Nevanevjor)

FF8800 The Sun Color (Old: Yellow-Red) White Nevorta FFFFFF The Star Color
Violet Saboize 660099 Dark Purple Blue Sawarena / Anevan 0000FF Darker version of Light Blue or Opposite of Red Yellow Nevana

(Old: Nevjor)

FFFF00 The Midday/Noon Color (Old: The Sun Color)
Purple Boize 6600FF From the word for blueberries "Poise" Red Nevan / Asawarena CC0000 The Sunset Color or Opposite of Blue Lime Sinanmaljakmant 00FF00 Neon/Light Green
Navy Zawarena 000088 "Double dark" of Light Blue Green Anmaljakmant 008800 The Grass Color Magenta Siboize FF00FF Neon/Light Purple
Light Blue Warena 4D99FF The Sky Color Grey Sanevorta 888888 Darker version of White Neon Red Sinevan FF0000 Neon/Light Red
Dark Green Sanmaljakmant 004D00 "Dark Green" ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ or Darkened Green

As you may have noticed, most of the colors at level three starts with "Si". This is because in Xara "Si-" Literally means "neon" or "bright". But the real word for bright is "Sila" while the word for neon is "Zila". You might also noticed some ending in either "Sa" or "Za". It because both of them means "Dark" or "Darker". "Sa" is like a "single dark" while "Za" is like a "double dark".

Other Words Edit


No. English Xara
1ITša
2you (singular)Qa
3heJinea
4weHona
5you (plural)Xia
6theyHone
7thisTokia
8thatŠokia
9hereMaka
10thereBada
11whoJena
12whatJone
13whereJujo
14whenJekako
15howJoiam
16notAna
17allMal
18manyMala
19someAnamala
20fewAnomala
21otherUretirja
22onePuki
23twoŽeile
24threeProle
25fourPukirole
26fiveŽerole
27bigMalalja
28longMaljako
29wideMaljaka
30thickMaljawańa
31heavyMaljamo
32smallAnmalna
33shortAnmaljako
34narrowAnmaljawa
35thinAnmaljawańa
36womanAnqonia
37man (adult male)Qonia
38man (human being)Nona
39childPenana
40wifeManqonia
41husbandMaqonia
42motherPemanqonia
43fatherPemaqonia
44animalAnona
45fishTšanona
46birdLianona
47dogAnononake
48louseAmanoanonia
49snakeAnoniatoke (n.) / Anoniatokewan (v.)
50wormAnmaljanoniatoke
51treeDakma
52forestMalakma
53stickAnmaljakma
54fruitDakmaria
55seedPedakmaria
56leafLundakma
57rootAlanmaljakma
58barkDama
59flowerMariodakma
60grassAnmaljakma
61ropeOnotamonan
62skinOrta
63meatAnorta
64bloodLakwanorta
65boneAnonorta
66fatAnortan
67eggPetšan
68hornElpungjonamam
69tailAnmaljakmanoniayie
70featherLundakrapianonia
71hairAmanoa
72headKronanaia
73earKronanaianjoyio
74eyeKronanaiaswayia
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flowSjen
145freeze
146swell
147sunNev
148moonAnev
149starNevor
150waterLek
151rainLekla'ar
152riverLekse
153lakeLektša
154seaMalalektša
155saltPunalalektša
156stonePung
157sandPutšem
158dustTšem
159earthNevta (ie. World), Dakputšem (ie. Soil)
160cloudWarel
161fogWare-warel
162skyWare
163windSjeware
164snowTšelek
165icePunlek
166smokeWarevxa
167fireNevxa
168ashTševxa
169burnNevga
170roadLoyen
171mountainMocum
172redNevan / Asawerana
173greenAnmaljakmant
174yellowNevana
175whiteNevorta
176blackZanevorta / Anevorta
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example textEdit

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Translated:

Bje mal nonaren penawan kwest jor zefno ery hojmze jor konji. Bje jinono freonokwem un legjon jor mjarkepawin jor ten bepja tońja nonareni ery pjaz umulkart ke broyehija.

IPA: (no stress added since stress is different in every accent/dialect)

bʲe mæl nonæɹen penæwæn kʷest joɹ zeʂno eɹʈ hoɪmze joɹ konji. bʲe jinono ʂɹeʔonokʷem un legjon joɹ mʲæɹkepæwin joɹ ten bepja toŋjæ nonæɹeni eɹʈ pʲæz umulkæɹt ke bɹoʈehijæ.

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