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Xarrano

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Xarrano
Xarràno
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-accusative
Head direction
Initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Two
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General informationEdit

An Iberian language spoken by the inhabitants of Xarranna.

Please note that this page is part of a romlang challenge and it will continuously be subject to alteration until the deadline (July 20th 2015).

Update: since this is a "frozen" version submitted to voting in the romlang challenge, further changes are be presented on a new page. So, please refer to Sarràno for more information.

Xarrano01

Iberian Peninsula. Xarranna is shown in yellow.

Xarràno (pronounced /ʃæ'ræno/) is a romlang mainly inspired by Iberian Romance languages at their earliest times, also showing influence from Neapolitan. The goal is that it resemble a language of the Iberian family while having a vowel alternating plural system due to specific sound changes.

Its family tree can be traced as Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Western Romance, Ibero-Romance, Xarràno.

Its speakers live in Xarranna ("land of the Sierra"), a country that lies on a fictitious peninsula stretching from the southeastern part of Spain, as seen on the map.

.

External history Edit

There is a belief among the Xarràno people that their homeland would have been originated after an ancient volcano emerged from the sea and rose a piece of land with it. This volcano is called Ezgo, from a Celtic source meaning "elder", and has had brief periods of activity through the centuries.

The first Latin settlers came from a region around Campania in Italy, including citizens of the extinct city of Pompei, which founded the capital city of POMPĒIA NOVA (now Nuàva Pompegha) at the foot of the volcano. The whole region was called SERRĀNIA because of its characteristic sierras and tall coasts, being important as strategic places to build fortresses to keep control over the southwestern part of the Mediterrean Sea.

When the Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula, the Xarrànos sought help from their Italian trade partners. The difficult access to the region by land together with well guarded fortresses and a joint navy allowed them to resist the constant Moorish attacks. The local citizens organized themselves into the Kingdom of Serranna under the command of Plinno I and his descendants, but, by the time of the Reconquista, the eastern side of the Kingdom refused to get involved in the successive battles to repel the invaders out of Iberia and split off as the Kingdom of Xàrra Vaxa, while the western side changed its name to Kingdom of Xàrra Alta. Shortly after the Reconquista had been completed, the two Kingdoms reunited under the modern name of Xarranna. The new country slowly opened its gates to a common Iberian market and served as an important bridge between its neighbors on land and its allies from nearby islands and Italy.

.

Historical sound changes Edit

When compared to other Iberian languages, Xarràno shows some conservative features, such as distinction between voiceless and voiced fricatives, while having innovated in other areas like its six-vowel system, the coalescence of alveolar consonants with /j/ and palatalization of final /s/, eventually causing the loss of distinction between masculine and feminine in most plural forms.

.

General changes Edit

a) Loss or lenition of final consonants:

AMAT, LUPŌS, VĪTAM (polysyllables) > àma, love (< *lovoi), vida

AUT, MEL, QUEM, SĪC (monosyllables) > o, miàl, quiàn, xi

b) Loss of /h/:

/h/ ADHAESIONEM,HABĒRE,PREHENDERE > /-/ adeson (learned), aver, prender

c) Monophthongization of AE and OE:

/ai, oi/ CAELUM, GRAECUM, POENAM > /ɛ, e/ > /(j)æ, e/ çàlo, gràgo, pena

d) Minor changes:

/VnsV/ MENSEM, PREHENSUM > /VzV/ mes, preso

/CCC/ ASSŪMPTUM, FUNCTIONEM > /CC/ assunto, funçon

/lle#/ ILLĒ, MĪLLE, PELLEM > /l#/ el, mil, piàl

.

Changes related to Western Romance Edit

a) Monophthongization of AU (also in Italo-Western):

/au/ AURICULAM, AUT, *autoricare, PAUCUM, TAURUM > /o/ oregha, o, otorgàr, poco, toro

b) Assimilation processes (also in Italo-Western):

/bt, pt/ OBTENĒRE, SEPTEM > /t/ otener, xàte

/bs, ps/ ABSOLŪTUM, PSALMUM > /s/ assoluto, ssalmo

c) Lenition of intervocalic plosives:

/b, d, g/ BIBERE, NŪDUM, *vagativu > /v, -, -/ bever, nuo, vadio

/p, t, k/ capitia, RECIPERE, PRĀTUM, FOCUM > /v, d, g/ caveça, rrecever, prado, fuàgo

/pp, tt, kk/ STUPPAM, GUTTAM, PECCĀTUM > /p, t, k/ estopa, gota, pecado

(plosives surrounded by a semivowel were somewhat preserved, but suffered other changes)

d) Early process of syncope (between sonorants and plosives, and the sequence /sVt/):

/VCVCV/ COLAPHUM, OPERAM, COMITEM, POSITUM > /VCCV/ golpo, obra, conde, posto

/VCVCV/ *cosutura, NŌBILEM, LEPOREM, OCULUM, VIRIDEM > /VCCV/ costura, noble, lebre, ogho, verde

e) Palatalization processes:

/eV, iV/ FORTIAM, VĪNEAM > [jV] > /*V/ força, vinna

/#j, VjV/ IAM, IEIŪNUM, IŪSTUM, MĀIOREM > /#ʒ, V(j/ʒ)V/ > /#ʒ, V(ɟ/ʒ)V/ ja, gejuno, justo, maghor

/ki, ke/ ACCEPTUM, CIRCĀ, CĪVĪLEM > [cV] > /tsV/ > /θV/ acecho, cerca, civil

- /Vki, Vke/ > ACĒTUM, COCĪNAM, LŪCEM > [VcV] > /VtsV/ > [VdzV] > /VðV/ azedo, cozina, luz

/gi, ge/ GENERUM, *pagense, VIGINTI > /jV/ > /ʒV/ or /-V/ gendro, país, vinte

/ski, ske/ PISCEM, CRĒSCERE > [scV] > /ʃV/ pexe, crexer

/tj, kj/ ALTIĀRE, BRĀCHIUM, FACIEM, LINTEOLUM > [ts, c] > /ts/ > /θ/ alçàr, braço, face, lençuàlo

/dj, gj/ *gaudia, INVIDIAM, RADIUM > /ʒ/ or /j/ goja, enveja, rrayo > /ʒ/ or /ɟ/ goja, enveja, rragho

- /V(d/g)(i/e)#/ HŌDIE, LEGEM, MAGIS > /Vj#/ > oy, ley, may > /*/ güe, lé, mai

/stj, skj/ BESTIAM, FASCIAM, QUAESITIONEM, SCIENTIAM > /st, ʃ/ vesta, faxa, queston, xença

/ptj, ktj/ ACTIONEM, OPTIONEM, *ruptia > /Cts/ > (C)θ/ açon, oçon, rroça

/#sj, ssj/ *bassiu, MANSIONEM, PASSIONEM, RUSSEUM > /Vʃ/ vaxo, paxon, rroxo

/VsjV/ BĀSIUM, ECCLĒSIAM, *grisiu, PENSIONEM > /V(¨)ʒ/ bejo, egleja, grijo, pejon

/rj/ AREAM, CORIUM, DĒNĀRIUM, GLORIAM > /jr/ > /(¨)r/ era, qüero, denero, glera (< gloira)

/nj, lj/ FOLIAM, IŪNIUM, *maneana > /ɲ, ʎ/ folla, Junno, mannana > /ɲ, ɟ/ fogha, Junno, mannàna

f) Development of /kt/:

/kt/ FACTUM, FRUCTAM, NOCTEM, OCTŌ > /jt/ > /(¨)c/ fecho, prucha, noche, ocho

g) Prothesis of initial /sC/:

/#sC/ SCĀLAM, SPATIUM, SPHINGEM, STĀRE > /#esC/ escala, espaço, esfinge, tàr (< estàre)

.

Changes related to Iberian Romance Edit

a) Loss of final front vowels after single, dental/alveolar, voiced consonant (a little later than other Iberian languages):

/e#, i#/ FĒCĪ, MENSEM, PĀNEM, VĒRITĀTEM > fezi, mese, pane, verdade > /#, (¨)#/ fiz, mes, pàn, verdàz

b) Palatalization of geminated N and L:

/nn, gn, mn/ ANNUM, AUTUMNUM, DOMINAM, PUGNUM > [nn] > /ɲ/ anno, otonno, ruenna, punno

/ll/ CASTELLUM, COLLĀREM, ILLAM > /ʎ/ castello, collar, ella > /ɟ/ castegho, coghàr, egha

c) Development of /kʷ/ and /gʷ/ (also in Gallo-Romance):

/gʷ/ *guadaniare, *guerra, *guidare, LINGUAM, SANGUINEM > /g/ gannàr, gàrra, guiàr, lenga, ssangre

/kʷ/ LIQUOREM, QUANDŌ, QUINTUM, SQUĀMAM > /k, kw/ licor, quando, quinto, escàma

- /Vkʷ/ AEQUALITĀTEM, ANTĪQUUM, AQUAM, QUIRĪTĀRE > [Vgw] > /Vg(w)/ egualdàz, antigo, água, gridàr

- (some) /kʷi, kʷe/ LAQUEUS, QUĪNQUE, TORQUERE > [ki, ke] > [cV] > /tsV/ > /θV/ laço, cinque, torcer

d) fragmentaion of /ks/:

/ksC/ DEXTERUM, EXPRESSIONEM, EXTENSUM > /(¨)sC/ destro, espresson, esteso

- /kske, kski/ EXCELSUM, EXCEPTUM, EXCITĀRE > /kkV/ > [ccV] > /tsV/ > /θV/ ecelso, eceto, ecitàr (learned)

/VksV/ COXAM, FLUXUM, TOXICUM, VEXĀMEN > /VʃV/ coxa, ploxo, tóxico (learned), vexambre

/VksV/ AUXILIUM, MAXIMUM, PROXIMUM > /VsV/ ossegho, mássimo, próssimo

/VksV/ EXHAURĪRE, EXŌTICUM, EXSULTĀTIONEM > /VzV/ esaurir (l.), esótico (l.), esultaçon

(some) /VksV/ EXAGIUM, EXĀMEN, EXSŪCĀRE > [VjsV] > /VsV, (V)(n)ʃV/ essagho, xambre, exugàr

e) Evolution of consonant groups with /l, r/:

/Vbr, Vdr, Vgr/ CATHEDRAM, *libretto, NIGRUM > /Vbr, V(¨)r, V(¨)r/ cadera, libreto, nero

/Vpr, Vtr, Vkr/ SACRĀRE, MACRUM, OPERA, PETRAM > /Vbr, Vdr, Vgr/ ssagràr, magro, obra, piàdra

/Vppr, Vttr, Vkkr/ LETTERAM, QUATTUOR > /Vpr, Vtr, Vkr/ letra, quatro

/#fl, #pl, #kl/ CLĀMĀRE, FLŪMEN, PLŌRĀRE > /#c/ chamàr, chumbre, choràr

/#fl, #pl, #kl/ CLĒMENTIA, FLUXUM, PLATEAM, *subflare > /#pl, #kl/ clemença, ploxo, plaça, ssoplàr

/Vp(V)l, Vt(V)l, Vk(V)l/ ARTICULUM, POPULUM, ROTULUM > /Vbl, Vʎ/ > /Vbl, Vɟ/ artegho, puàblo, rrogho

/bl, dl, gl/ *blanco, COĀGULĀRE > /bl, ʎ/ > /bl, ɟ/ blanco, quaghàr

MASCULUM, MŪSCULUM, UNGULAM, VINCULUM > maxo, buxo, unna, vencho

f) Later processes of syncope:

/nVr, mVr/ GENERUM, *nomine, HONŌRĀRE > [mr, nr] > /mbr, ndr/ gendro, nombre, ondràr

/inV/ DOMINAM, SĒMINAM, SŌLITŪDINEM, TERMINUM > /*/ ruenna, ssembra, ssoltuz, termo

/V/ ARBOREM, MŪSCULUM, SIMILĀRE, UNGULAM > /-/ arble, buxo, ssemblàr, unna

/CVC/ ADVĒRIFICĀRE, CAPITĀLEM, CUBITUM, DŪBITAM > /*C/ averiguàr, caduàl, codo, ruda

/CVC/ DECIMUM, FATIGĀRE, HOSPITĀLEM, PORTATICUM > /*C/ ràzmo, fazgàr, ostàl, portazgo

/CVC/ *quassicare, RECITĀRE, TRĪTICUM, UNDECIM, VINDICĀRE > /*C/ cascàr, rrezàr, trizgo, onze, vengàr

g) Interactions between /l/ and /r/:

/l...l, r...r/ ARBOREM, *lusciniolu, MARMOREM, RŌBOR(EM) > /r...l/ arble, ruxinguàlo, marble, rroble

/l...l, r...r/ LOCĀLEM > /l...r/ logàr

/r...l/ MĪRACULUM, PARABOLAM, PERĪCULUM > /l...r/ milagro, palabra, peligro

/r/ BURSAM, PAPYRUM, TENEBRĀS > /l/ bolsa, papel, tenneble

h) Minor or incomplete changes:

GAUDIUM, RATIONEM, TRAHERE > [VtsV, VdzV] > /VdzV > /VðV gozo, rrazon, trazer

/l, n, r/ ANIMAM, LAMPADAM, LĀXĀRE, LIBELLUM, -MEN > alma, lampra, dexàr, nivegho, -mbre

/k/ *cocchleariu, NĒC ŪNUM, PECTEN > [ŋ] > /n, ng/ conchàro, nennuno, prente (< pentre)

/j, r/ CRĪBRA, PARIĒTEM > /-/ criva, parede

/ls, rs/ *ad traversu, INSULSUM, PERSŌNAM, VERSICUM > /s/ atraves, issosso, pessona, vesco

CAPSAM, CAPULUM, CRYPTAM, MĀTTIANA, PULSĀRE > caxa, cacho, grota, maçàna, puxàr

.

Specific changes in Xarràno Edit

a) Semivocalization of final /s/ with posterior changes:

(stressed) /s#/ MAGIS, DVŌS, NŌS, TRĒS > /j#/ may, roy, noy, trey > /*/ mai, rue, nue, tre

(unstressed) /as#, es#, os#/ > [aj#, ej#, oj#] > /e#, i#, u#/ > [e#, (¨)e#, (¨)o#] > (analogy) /(¨)e#/

b) Evolution of the vowel system:

Stage 1: Shift from vowel quantity to vowel quality (also in Italo-Western):

/iː, i, eː, e, a(ː), o, oː, u, uː/ > /i, e, e, ɛ, a, ɔ, o, o, u/, with long allophones on stressed open syllables

Stage 2: First open vowel shift and rise of new diphthongs:

(stressed open syllable) [ɛː, aː, ɔː] CAELUM, CANEM, BONUM > [eə, aə, oə] > /iə, əː, uə/ cialo, cane, buano

(other syllables) /ɛ, a, ɔ/ SEMPER, PARTEM, NOSTRAM > /e, a, o/ sempre, parte, nostra

CŌGITĀRE, FACTUM, GLORIAM, MAGIS, NŌS, LEGEM > /aj, ej, oj, uj/ cuidar, feito, gloira, may, noy, ley

CASĀS, MANŪS, PONTĒS > [aj#, ej#, oj#] > /e#, i#, u#/ case, manu, ponti

CAPITĀLEM, CĪVITĀTEM, CUBITUM, EQUAM, VIDUUM > /aw, ew, iw, ow/ caudale, ciudade, coudo, euga, veudo

Stage 3: New loss of vowel quantity and shift from decrescent to crescent diphthongs:

/iə, əː, uə/ cialo, cane, buano > /jɛ, ɛ, wɛ/ ciàlo, càne, buàno

/aj, ej, oj, uj/ cuidar, feito, gloira, may, noy, ley > /aj, e, we, wi/ or /VCʲ/ cughar, fecho, gluera, may, nue, lé

(final unstressed) /e, i, u/ case, manu, ponti > [e, (¨)e, (¨)o] > (analogy) /(¨)e/ càse, mene, punte

/e.(')V, i.(')V, o.(')V, u.(')V/ coallare, coerente, leone > /jV, wV/ quallàr, qüerente, lion

/aw, ew, iw, ow/ caudale, ciudade, coudo, euga, veudo > /aw/wa, jo/ju , ju, o/u/ caduàl, ciudàz, codo, yoga, viuda

Stage 4: Second open vowel shift and decrease of diphthongs:

/tj, jt, dj, jd/ candio (< CANDIDUM), cuidàr, tiàrra > /c, ɟ/ cangho, cughàr, chàrra

/sj, js, zj, jz/ eglesia, siàrra, siàte > /ʃ, ʒ/ egleja, xàrra, xàte

/nj, jn, lj, jl/ colonia, liàve, lion, niàbla > /ɲ, ɟ/ colonna, gheve, ghon, nnàbla

/θj, ðj, rj/ ciudàz, fecion/facion (learned), riàz, vigario (learned) > /θ, ð, r/ çudàz, feçon/façon, ràz, vigaro

(other) /Cj/ fiàrro, quiedo, principio (learned), rrabia (l.), vision (l.) > /C(j)/ fiàrro, quiedo, principo, rraba, vison

/Cw/ arduo, guàrra, individuo (learned) > /C(w)/ ardo, gàrra, individo

/Clj, Clw, Crj, Crw/ cliente (learned), gluera, griàgo, pruàva > /Cl, Cw/ clente, glera, gràgo, pràva

(stressed) /ɛ, a/ buàno, ciàlo, càn, dança, ha > /æ, ɑ/ buàno, çàlo, càn, dança, ha

(unstressed) /a/ casca, dançàr, maçàna > /A = æ ~ ɑ/ casca, dançàr, maçàna (*vowel harmony with stressed vowel)

c) Rhotacism of /d/ (at the time of general plosive lenition):

/d/ CAUDAM, DĒ, DECEM, DUPLUM, DVŌS > /ɾ/ cora, re, ràz (< riàz), roblo, rue

/d/ DĀRE, DEXTERUM, DĪRECTUM, DORMĪRE = /d/ dàr, destro, drecho, dormir (blocked by a near /ɾ/)

d) Merging of /j/ and /ʎ/ to become a voiced counterpart to /c/:

EGŌ, AD HERĪ, MEDIUM > /j/ yo, ayer, meyo > /ɟ/ gho, agher, megho

CUBICULUM, FAMILIAM > /ʎ/ covello, famella > /ɟ/ covegho, famegha

e) Fortition of initial /w/:

AUDĪRE, HODIĒ, HOMŌ, OVUM > /#oV, #oj, #we/ oir, oy, huàmo, huàvo > /gwV/ güir, güe, guàmo, guàvo

f) Merging of /b/ and /v/ as well as the remaining /p/ and /f/ when before the sonorants /ɾ, l/:

*blancu, *haver hemos, PAUPER > /bl, br, vl, vr/ blanco, avremo, pobre > /bl, br/ blanco, abremo, pobre

FLOREM, FRĪGIDUM, PLACERE, PRŌVIDENTIAM > /fl, fr, pl, pr/ > /pl, pr/ plor, prio, plazer, prudença

g) Loss of final unstressed /n/:

ILLŌS AMANT, IUVENEM, VIRGINEM > /n#/ ellu àman, joven, vergen > /#/ eghe àma, jove, verge

(some) NŌN, *ad sic, HABENT > /n#/ non, axin, han > /#/ no, axí, ha (the latter is by analogy)

h) Tendency of rejecting codas before written doubled consonants (including learned words):

/Cr, Cs/ ABROGĀRE, CONSIDERĀRE, EXAGIUM > /r, s/ arrogàr (*abrrogàr), cossideràr (*conssideràr), essagho

i) Minor changes:

DOMINAM, SOMNIUM, VERĒCUNDIAM > /oɲ/ ronna, ssonno, vargonna > /weɲ/ ruenna, ssuenno, vargüenna

*ad si, LĪLIUM, QUASĪ, SĪC, SŪCUM, VENĪRE, VESĪCAM > axí, ghigho, quàge, xi, xugo, vennir, vexiga

/nde#, ntV#/ *ad onde, CENTUM, GRANDEM, QUANTUM, SANCTUM > /n/ ron, cen, gran, quan, ssan

(stressed) /ɛr/ LACERTAM, *muliera > /ɛr, ar/ > /ær, ɑr/ lagarta, mughàra

(unstressed) [ɛr] ERVILIAM, VERRERE, *versoria > /Ar/ arvegha, varrer, vassura (subject to vowel harmony)

/b/ *barone, *bassiu, BUCCAM, EPISCOPUM > /v/ varon (sir, lord) / baron (baron) (borrowed), vaxo, voca, vispo

/s/ SĒ, SEDĒRE (and the "to be" derivated forms), SĪ, SINE > /z/ se, ser, si, sen

EXEMPLUM, FRONTEM, SERPENS > egemplo, prànte (< fruànte), xàrpe

QUATERNUM, PECTEN, PIGNORAM > cardeno, prente, prenda (< pendra)

PLUVIAM, RECEPTAM > chuva (< chouva < choiva), rrececha

.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Velar
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ (x)
Tap / Trill ɾ r
Lateral l (ʎ)
Approximant (j) (w)

- /n/ has many allophones that are homorganic with a following consonant.

- The phonemes /c, ɟ/ were conventioned in transcriptions because they are perceived as plosives by native speakers, They are realized as palatalized alveolars [tʲ, dʲ], with little frication but less frication in comparison to [tʃ, dʒ].

- A dental or alveolar fricative in coda position does not present voice distinction. That means, their voice parameter depends on the next sound (e. g. they assimilate). When before pause, they are devoiced.

- /r/ is fully contrastive with /ɾ/ even in word initial position. It is realized as a patalized [rʲ] that sounds like a combination of a trill and a voiced palatal fricative /ʝ/.

- /x/ is only used in some loanwords to convey the sound /h/ or any other back fricative. It is oftentimes not pronounced at all.

- /ʎ/ and /j/ have become rare in Xarràno as independent consonants, since they historically merged and became /ɟ/. They appear in proper names and some loanwords. Some people tend to pronounce them as [ɟ] word initially, even though it is considered inappropriate.

- Similarly, the foreign phoneme /w/ has gained acceptance through borrowing, but it is sometimes mispronounced as [gw] word initially.

.

VowelsEdit

Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open æ ɑ

- The open phoneme /æ/ started as an allophone and became a partially independent phoneme. The unstressed archiphoneme /A/ varies between /æ/ and /ɑ/ through vowel harmony with the stressed vowel. The resulting vowel is usually notated in general transcriptions, even though some dialects merge final A into an unstressed [ɐ].

- The mid vowels are realized as close-mid vowels, but sometimes they can be a bit more open when they are in closed stressed syllables.

- When the final unstressed vowels /A, e, o/ are followed by an initial unstressed vowel, they are dropped. This also happens with weak monosyllables: in that case, they must have their vowel replaced by an apostrophe (').

.

AlphabetEdit

Officially, all the 26 letters of modern Latin alphabet are taught, but K, W don't appear in Xarràno native vocabulary. The letter Y, now obsolete, was once used in older versions of the language. Also, there are vowels with an acute accent to mark unpredictable stress, the vowel À to represent the stressed front open vowel, and a consonantal variation Ç. The letters L, N, R and S can be doubled. The additional characters are collated together with their simpler counterparts, and the double consonants are treated as simple sequences.

The letters are treated as feminine nouns and their names are as follows:

A - a /ɑ/, and À - a prantera /ˌɑ pɾæn'teɾæ/ or just À - à /æ/

B - be /be/

C - ce /'θe/, and Ç - ce degha /θe 'deɟæ/ (degha mistaken as an adjective)

D - de /de/

E - e /e/

F - efe /'efe/

G - ge /ʒe/

H - acha /'ɑcɑ/

I - i /i/

J - joda /'ʒodɑ/

K - ka /kɑ/

L - ele /'ele/

M - eme /'eme/

N - ene /'ene/

O - o /o/

P - pe /pe/

Q - cu /ku/

R - àrre /'ære/

S - esse /'ese/

T - te /te/

U - u /u/

V - ve /ve/

W - ve robla /ve 'ɾoblɑ/

X - xe /ʃe/, former ics /iks/

Y - i gràga /i 'gɾægæ/

Z - ze /ðe/, former zeda /'ðedæ/

* The double consonants are called by their basic letter plus robla /'ɾoblɑ/ (double).

.

Phonotactics Edit

Most natively, Xarràno phonotactics is composed of relatively simple syllables, in which the only mandatory part is a nucleus formed by at least one vowel sound. The basic Xarràno syllable structure can be demonstrated as follows:

(C)(C)V(C): where the fist (C) can be any consonant; the second (C) can be L, R, I or U (as semivowels); and the last (C) can be L, N, R, S, U or Y (as semivowels), or Z.

Post-aleveolar consonants (/ɲ, c, ɟ, ʃ, ʒ, r, ʎ, j/) don't appear in coda position for historical reasons, and sometimes they can be preceded by consonants. There is also a native Xarràno restriction: if the second (C) is /l/ or /ɾ/, then the first (C) must be a plosive.

Beside that basic model, some more complex syllables may appear due to borrowing or preservation of original words in Latin, Greek or others.

Here go some examples:

V - a /ɑ/

CV - /le/

VC - en /en/

CCV - tre /tɾe/

CVC - ssàl /sæl/

V.CV - anno /'ɑ.ɲo/

CV.CV.CV - cavagho /kɑ'vɑ.ɟo/

CVC.CCVC - mostràr /mos'tɾær/

A distinctive feature in Xarràno, as in most other Romance languages, is syllable stress. It can be placed in the last, second or third to last syllable on a word and it usually don't affect its phonotactics, except for one active restriction on post-tonic syllables: they tend to be reduced to a simple CV structure. For instance, when learning English, a native Xarràno speaker tends to pronounce the English word shopping (/ˈʃɑːpɪŋ/) as xape, and dollar becomes dala.

Since most syllables are of the type CV, the overall utterance usually happens at a faster pace.

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Orthography Edit

Xarràno's orthography is considered to be shallow. However, some traditions have been preserved. On feature preserved from older texts is the doubling of the consonants N, R and S (and also L in proper names and borrowings), even in word initial position.

The letters B, D, E, F, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, T, U, V, W represent their basic phonemic values.

Other representations in writing are presented below:

/ɑ/ and /æ/: A and À when stressed; A when unstressed. Á is used when /ɑ/ is on an unpredictable stressed syllable.

/ɲ/: NN. (* Ñ can be seen in some texts from the past four centuries until recent times by Spanish influence)

/c/ and /ɟ/: CH and GH.

/k/: C before A, O, U; QU before E, I.

/g/: G before A, O, U; GU before E, I.

/kw/ and /gw/: QU and GU before A, O; QÜ and GÜ before E, I.

/θ/: Ç before A, O, U; C before E, I.

/ð/: Z (rare word initially).

/s/: SS.

/z/: S (rare word initially).

/ʃ/: X.

/ʒ/: G before E, I; J before A, O, U.

/ɾ/: R.

/r/: RR.

/x/ (or not pronounced at all): H, only in proper names and loanwords.

/ʎ/: LL, only in proper names and loanwords.

/j/: Y, only in proper names and loanwords; written as I in diphthongs.

/w/: W, only in proper names and loanwords.

Since dental and alveolar fricatives appear in coda position without voice distinction, convention says they must be written Z and S.

As for diacritics, the diaresis is used over U to keep it pronounceable before a front vowel. The acute accent marks a stressed syllable under the following conditions: a) open oxytone; b) paroxytone with a closed last syllable; c) proparoxytone; d) stressed open monosyllable if not using it may cause confusion. For /æ/, not only does the grave accent mark quality, but also any stressed circumstance.

An apostrophe is used when an unstressed vowel in a monosyllable is followed by another unstressed vowel. In that case, the first unstressed vowel is replaced. For instance, te in te amaró (I will love you) becomes t'amaró, but te in te àmo (I love you) is still pronounced and therefore remains. Similarly, the final a in ala is not dropped in orthography even if followed by an unstressed vowel such as in egleja (church) because the word is not a monosyllable.

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Historical grammatical changes Edit

Xarràno shows most traits from the Common and Western Romance period, with some Italian influence at first. Later on, it began to suffer influence from Spanish as well as Portuguese and Catalan. This section will be focused on changes in nominal and verbal morphology and will also present some general information on syntax and vocabulary.

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Nominal morphology Edit

In its first stage of development, Xarràno is believed to have had a somewhat simple but still preserved case system for nouns and adjectives. The vocative case had been lost earlier (merged with nominative); the ablative, genitive and dative fused and formed an oblique case. The nominative and accusative were still distinguished at least in common nouns referring to persons and other living beings which were more likely to act as agents (some modern instances are: guàmo (man), ladro (thief) and xàrpe (snake)). On the other hand, nouns referring to less animate concepts, such as objects and elements, tended to merge the two cases.

As prepositions assumed the role of giving information about case, the oblique case was absorbed by the accusative, not without leaving some traces, especially in former -men ending nouns. After a while, the nominative and accusative also merged, with preservation of nominative forms only in a few common, animate nouns.

The five Latin declensions were reduced to three (-a, -o, -(e)) since the fourth merged with the second, and the fifth merged with the third declension. Most neuter nouns were absorbed into the masculine gender while some were reinterpreted as feminine nouns, just as other Romance languages did. As for adjectives, the tendency was remodeling to -o/-a declension, although several common adjectives, such as gran (big) and çàrre (fast), resisted it. The comparative and superlative degrees eroded to the extent that only a handful of irregular words survived, such as meghor (better) and mássimo (most). The formation of adverbs from adjectives follows the common Western Romance construction "adjective (with -a or -e ending)"mente.

CASA ("house", feminine noun, first declension)
Latin First stages Final stage
CASA, CASAE (nom./voc.) *casa, *casas (nom./acc.) casa, case càsa, càse
CASAM, CASĀS (acc.)
CASAE, CASĪS (dat.) *case, *casis (obl.)
CASĀ, CASĪS (abl.)
CASAE, CASĀRUM (gen.)

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LUPUS ("wolf", masculine noun, second declension)
Latin First stages Final stage
LUPUS, LUPĪ (nom.) *lopos, *lopos (nom.) lovo, lovu lovo, love
LUPE, LUPĪ (voc.)
LUPUM, LUPŌS (acc.) *lopo, *lopos (acc.)
LUPŌ, LUPĪS (dat./abl.) *lopo, *lopis (obl.)
LUPĪ, LUPŌRUM (gen.)

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HOMŌ ("man", masculine noun, third declension)
Latin First stages Final stage
HOMŌ, HOMINĒS (nom./voc.) *homo, *homines (nom.) huamo, ombri (nom.) guàmo,

guàme

(men)

/ umbre

(human beings)

HOMINEM, HOMINĒS (acc.) *homine, *homines (acc.) *ombre, ombri (acc./obl.)
HOMINĪ, HOMINIBUS (dat.) *homine, *hominis (obl.)
HOMINE, HOMINIBUS (abl.)
HOMINIS, HOMINUM (gen.)

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NŌMEN ("name", neuter noun, third declension)
Latin First stages Final stage
NŌMEN, NŌMINA (nom./voc./acc.) *nome, *nomines (nom./acc.) nombre, nombri nombre, numbre
NŌMINĪ, NŌMINIBUS (dat.) *nomine, *nominis (obl.)
NŌMINE, NŌMINIBUS (abl.)
NŌMINIS, NŌMINUM (gen.)

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Formation of plural was firstly stabilized in -s. After that, there was a sound change that turned final -s into a palatal semivowel, written -y at first, and the resulting diphthongs underwent monothongization: -ai, -ei and -oi rapidly became -e, -i and -u. The high final vowels made preceding vowels raise their height by one level, while the final vowels were themselves merging with -e and -o. This caused singular nouns ending in -o (of masculine gender) to form their plural by metaphony in contrast to feminine nouns (most of them ending in -a) to form their plurals in -e without metaphony. It was by force of analogy that a new masculine plural was formed in the same way as the feminine plural, although the metaphonic vowels were mostly maintained in nouns of invariable gender of former ending -e and also some of singular -o (for instance, el ssol (the sun) and la màno (the hand) are pluralized as le ssule (the suns) and le mene (the hands) whereas el moço (the boy, the male child) and la moça (the girl, the female child) merge their plural into le moçe (the children)).

Xarràno's numerals are conservative when compared with other Romance languages, not only retaining sseze from Latin SĒDECIM and cinque from Latin QUĪNQUE as in Italian, but also preserving the ending -enta from Latin -ĀGINTĀ and quinnente from Latin QUĪNGINTŌS as in Spanish and Portuguese. Another conservative trait is the retention of three points of reference in space shown, for intance, in the demonstrative pronouns questo, quesso, quegho (from *ac istu, *ac ipsu, *ac illu) and the so-called local pronouns ca, i, ghi/ghen (from VL eccu hac, AD HĪC, AD ILLĪ / AD ILLINC). Latin QUI and QUEM were preserved under the invariable forms que and quiàn, but CUI is seen as the variable cujo, cuja, cuje, which came from the old, declinable CUIUS. On the other hand, a number of combinations were created in Romance and are still used in Xarràno. One of them is ECCE HOC, which became the neuter relative pronoun ço.

The personal pronouns underwent a simplification in their case system. All the cases apart from the nominative eventually collapsed into an objective case. Forms from Latin ILLE supplied the third person in gender, number and case, with the addition of the reflexive pronoun se. Old Xarràno had a special dative pronoun lle, which was crystalized as modern ghe before lo, la, le to avoid cacophony. Unstressed forms from ILLE also gave rise to the formation of definite articles, which then caused the implementation of indefinite articles from ŪNUS and partitive articles from DĒ ILLE.

Latin had weak and strong forms for the possessives. It was the strong forms that survived into modern Xarràno, although a few literary sources indicate that the weak forms were also used at the earliest stages of the language. Xarràno has developed possessive constructions in combination with mandatory articles, just as in Italian. However, singular possessives drop their endings when they go before the noun. Compare the two viable constructions la càsa mia vs. la mi càsa (my house).

Apart from grammatical words, the general Xarràno vocabulary has been formed mainly by inherited words from Vulgar Latin, but it also received influence from a number of other sources as well: firstly Celtic and Visigothic, then Arabic, Germanic, Greek, French, Latin and others through its relationship with other Romance languages, especially Spanish and Italian. More recently, it also has borrowed some words from French and English.

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Verbal morphology Edit

When the verbal morphology of Classical Latin is compared to that of most known Romance languages, one can say it changed greatly. Xarràno shared Common Romance developments and also some developments from its Iberian neighbors. That is not to say it did not have its own innovations. In this section, changes in verbal morphology will be presented as a list and then as comparison tables from classical to modern structures.

So, the changes in the verbal structure are (more or less ordered from Common to Xarràno):

- Loss of passive synthetic forms, being replaced by a reflexive construction;

- Transformation of deponent verbs into active verbs;

- Relegation of the present participle to an adjectival function;

- Loss of future indicative due to phonetic reasons, being replaced by a construction using the infinitive plus present indicative of HABĒRE, which in turn agglutinated and became the new synthetic future indicative;

- Creation of a conditional tense from the infinitive plus imperfect of HABĒRE in the same fashion as the one above;

- Merging of imperfect subjunctive and future subjunctive into modern future subjunctive using the main stem (except in a few irregular verbs, where the perfect stem is preserved);

- Displacement of pluperfect subjunctive into the role of past subjunctive, also being remodelled to the main stem, like the new future subjunctive;

- Use of the ending -ENT for third person plural in present indicative instead of -(I)UNT;

- Merger of new second and third conjugation in the imperfect indicative;

- Use of present subjunctive for the negative imperative, also supplying forms for the affirmative other than the second person;

- Merger of second and third conjugation, repelling some of their verbs to the fourth conjugation, in a way similar to Portuguese and Spanish;

- Interaction between -ESCERE and -ĪRE verbs, forming a group of hibrid conjugation verbs, with later redistribution to one or another category;

- Loss of the yod in first person singular in present indicative (hence, also in the whole present subjunctive), except in cases it could coalesce. This is somewhere between Portuguese and other Romance languages;

- Extension of first person singular -o ending from present indicative to imperfect and conditional but not to any tense of the subjunctive mood;

- Present participle forms in -and-, -end- and -ind- for each of the new three conjugations through merger of gerund and present participle, with gender/number agreement. Similarly, regularization of past participles forms in -àd-, -ud- and -id-, although many irregular past participles survive;

- Eventual loss of synthetic perfect, being completely replaced by analytical constructions using ESSE or HABĒRE plus the past participle, later extended to STĀRE;

- Merger of second, third singular and third plural personal endings due to loss of unstressed final consonants. Monosyllables were different at first, but they were lost by analogy. The same happened to final stressed forms in the future indicative. The exception is one verb, ser.

The tables below show the origins of Xarràno conjugations:

Latin Present Indicative > Xarràno Present Indicative
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
1ps -EŌ -IŌ -o -*o
2ps -ĀS -ĒS -IS -ĪS -a -e
3ps -AT -ET -IT -IT
1pp -ĀMUS -ĒMUS -IMUS -ĪMUS -àmo -emo -imo
2pp -ĀTIS -ĒTIS -ITIS -ĪTIS -àz -ez -iz
3pp -ANT -ENT -UNT -IUNT -a -e

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Latin Present Subjunctive > Xarràno Present Subjunctive
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
1ps -EM -EAM -AM -IAM -e -*a
2ps -ĒS -EĀS -ĀS -IĀS
3ps -ET -EAT -AT -IAT
1pp -ĒMUS -EĀMUS -ĀMUS -IĀMUS -emo -*àmo
2pp -ĒTIS -EĀTIS -ĀTIS -IĀTIS -ez -*àz
3pp -ENT -EANT -ANT -IANT -e -*a

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Latin Imperfect Indicative > Xarràno Past Indicative
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
1ps -ĀBAM -ĒBAM -IĒBAM -àvo -io
2ps -ĀBĀS -ĒBĀS -IĒBĀS -àva -ia
3ps -ĀBAT -ĒBAT -IĒBAT
1pp -ĀBĀMUS -ĒBĀMUS -IĒBĀMUS -àvamo -íamo
2pp -ĀBĀTIS -ĒBĀTIS -IĒBĀTIS -àvaz -íaz
3pp -ĀBANT -ĒBANT -IĒBANT -àva -ia

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Latin Pluperfect Subjunctive (perfect stem) > Xarràno Past Subjunctive (main stem)
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd c. 4th c. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
1ps -ĀVISSEM -VISSEM -ĪVISSEM -àsse -esse -isse
2ps -ĀVISSĒS -VISSĒS -ĪVISSĒS
3ps -ĀVISSET -VISSET -ĪVISSET
1pp -ĀVISSĒMUS -VISSĒMUS -ĪVISSĒMUS -àssemo -éssemo -íssemo
2pp -ĀVISSĒTIS -VISSĒTIS -ĪVISSĒTIS -àssez -éssez -íssez
3pp -ĀVISSENT -VISSENT -ĪVISSENT -àsse -esse -isse

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Infinitive plus Present Indicative of HABĒRE > Xarràno Future Indicative
1st person singular *-re habeo -ró
2nd person singular *-re habes -rá (former -ray)
3rd person singular *-re habet -rá
1st person plural *-re habemus -remo
2nd person plural *-re habetis -rez
3rd person plural *-re habent -rá (former -ran)

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Latin > Xarràno
Imperfect Subjunctive (main stem) Future Perfect Subjunctive (perfect stem) Future Subjunctive (main stem)
1ps -REM -VERŌ -r
2ps -RĒS -VERIS
3ps -RET -VERIT
1pp -RĒMUS -VERIMUS -rmo
2pp -RĒTIS -VERITIS -rde
3pp -RENT -VERINT -r

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Infinitive plus Imperfect Indicative of HABĒRE > Xarràno Conditional
1st person singular *-re habebam -rio
2nd person singular *-re habebas -ria
3rd person singular *-re habebat
1st person plural *-re habebamus -ríamo
2nd person plural *-re habebatis -ríaz
3rd person plural *-re habebant -ria

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Latin Present Imperative > Xarràno Imperative
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
2nd p.s. -E -a / -e -e / -*a
3rd p.s. - - - - -e -*a
1st p.p. - - - - -emo -*àmo
2nd p.p. -ĀTE -ĒTE -ITE -ĪTE -àz / -ez -ez / -*àz -iz / -*àz
3rd p.p. - - - - -e -*a

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Latin > Xarràno
1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj. 4th conj. 1st conj. 2nd conj. 3rd conj.
Present participle -AND- -END- -IEND- -and- -end- -ind-
Past participle -AT- -IT- -*- -ĪT- -àd- -ud- / -*- -id-
Infinitive -ĀRE -ĒRE -ERE -ĪRE -àr -er -ir

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Syntax Edit

As the inflectional cases collapsed, the SVO (subject-verb-object) word order became the main device to maintain the basic nominative-accusative distinction in the sentences when there is no other way to tell. In most other situations, however, different word orders are established in a number of commonly used constructions.

Examples of nominative-accusative distinction in basic sentences:

Latin: FELES MVREM EDIT (SOV, default) / FELES EDIT MVREM (SVO) / MVREM FELES EDIT (OSV) / ...

Xarràno: El gàto manja el rràto. (SVO, default) / Al rràto manja el gàto. (OVS, enabled by accusative a)

English: The cat eats the rat. (SVO, default)

Nominative pronouns are still dropped when context is sufficient, but since second singular and both third persons now present the same endings in most verbs, the pronouns tu, el, egha and eghe started to appear more regularly. Both nominative and objective pronouns acquired a fixed unstressed position before the verb or a group of verbs, known as preverbal. The former adverbs of place ca, i, ghi and ghen were attracted to the preverbal position and started to be known as local pronouns.

Latin: PANEM NOSTRVM COTIDIANVM DA NOBIS HODIE (DVIA order)

Xarràno: Ne da güe el nostro pàn jornàl. (IVAD order, not fixed)

English: Give us this day our daily bread. (VIAD order, A not fixed)

Also, the verb migrated from the final position to an "opposing" position, causing a redistribution of arguments and adverbs around the sentence, similar to a V2 word order. The main verb became the first one when there is a series of verbs.

Latin: NAVIS VENIET (SV) / NAVIS CRAS VENIET (SAV)

Xarràno:La nàve chegará. (SV, not fixed for intransitive verbs) / Remàn chegará la nàve. (AVS, not fixed but preferred)

English: The ship will come. (SV, fixed) / Tomorrow the ship will come. (ASV, but could be AVS through V2 order)

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GrammarEdit

This section will mainly approach morphological as well as syntactical aspects of the language.

Xarràno's word classes are: ssostantivo (noun), pronombre (pronoun), cipra (number), agetivo (adjective), averbàl (adverb), partegha (particle) (comprising articles, prepositions, conjunctions and exclamations) and verbo (verb).

Nouns, pronouns, numbers, adjectives and adverbs form a bigger class simply called nombre (name). They are believed to contribute to the mental process of creating and modifying stactic images. Particles are thought to relate those images to each other, while verbs give sense and movement to the whole sentence.

Morphologically, some grammatical distinctions can be observed in Xarràno:

- gendro (gender): masculine vs. feminine; applied to nouns, pronouns and adjectives.

- cantidàz (number): singular vs. plural; applied to all classes but particles.

- caso (case): nominative vs. objective; only seen in personal pronouns.

- pessona (person): first, second and third; mainly applied to pronouns and verbs.

- tempo (tense) and megho (mode): applied to verbs.

Grammatical case inflection was lost since Latin, although it did survive in the personal pronouns and also can now be identified by looking at prepositions. Verbal inflections for voice and aspect were also lost and are now achieved through periphrasis. The table below summarizes the possibility of inflection among noun classes:

Gender Number Case Person Tense Mood
Noun yes yes no no no no
Pronoun yes yes yes yes no no
Number yes yes no no no no
Adjective yes yes no no no no
Adverb no no no no no no
Particle no no no no no no
Verb no yes no yes yes yes

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NounsEdit

They can be used as the head of a subject, object or nominal complement. Morphologically, every noun is assigned a grammatical gender, masculine or feminine, that affects its own form and also the form of related adjectives and other modifying words. Beside gender, other parameters affecting their form are grammatical number, which can be defined as singular or plural, and degree, like diminutive, augmentative and superlative.

At the semantic level, nouns can be classified as:

concrete: barco (boat), maçàna (apple) vs. abstract: cangheza (beauty), rreduçon (reduction)

common: çapato (shoe), chuva (rain) vs. proper: Mateo (Matthew), Ostragha (Australia)

simple: chàno (ground), plor (flower) vs. compound: lavarropa (washing machine, from làva and rropa)

primitive: triste (sad), piàdra (stone) vs. derived: tristeza (sadness), piadràda (stone strike)

collective: cacho (bunch), cardume (school (of fish))

Gender and number interact differently depending on the word, especially in the modern language since masculine and feminine plural endings have merged into -e. Such plural has been assigned a new gender category called comun (common) when singular words still are distinguished by their endings, although several words have preserved gender distinction in plural forms by suffixation. Thus, it is costumary to ommit number information on singular nouns and conversely to ommit gender information on plural nouns.

Most Latin vowel endings were preserved and became representative of the two genders, but a new group of nouns had their final vowel dropped or maintained in -e and now inflect for number through metaphony on the last stressed vowel (ɑ > æ, æ > e, e > i, i = i; o > u, u = u). Some common words ending in -o also show metaphony in plural forms for historical reasons. The following examples will be presented with the corresponding definite article.

Masculine: el çàlo (m., the sky), le cele (p., the skies)

Feminine: la famegha (f., the family), le fameghe (p., the families)

Variable: el conde, la condessa (m., the count, f. the countess), le cunde, le condesse ((m)p., (f)p.)

Semivariable: el gàto, la gàta (m., f., the cat), le gàte (p. the cats)

Invariable: la pessona (f., the person), le pessone (p., the people)

Nouns can also receive special endings denoting size, endearment, deprecation, collection and others. Information about size can be added by using the augmentative or diminutive degree. The main endings are -on (always of masculine gender) for augmentative and -ino (of variable gender) for diminutive but there are many others, including root changes in some words and substitutions. Analytical ways of expressing size, such as adding the adjective gran (big) after or before the noun, are also used.

gàto ((male) cat), gàta (female cat), gàte (cats), gatino (little (male) cat), gatina (little (female) cat), gaton (big cat), gatucho (dear little cat), gateria (a lot of cats).

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Pronouns Edit

This class contains a restricted number of words that can occupy the position of an argument in a sentence and whose meaning generally depends on another referent. They fullfill a variety of functions, from replacing an aforementioned noun to giving quantitative information. The personal pronouns are the only subgroup that has maintained case distinction.

- Pessonele (personal pronouns):

Number Person Nominative Objective
Singular First gho me
Second tu te
Third el (m.), egha (f.) lo (m.), la (f.)
Plural First nue ne
Second vue ve
Third eghe le

The objective pronouns reflect a variety of meanings that must be understood by context. For the reflexive meaning, there is a special form se for third person (both singular and plural). Also, a relic dative form ghe appears in combination with objective third person pronouns in order to avoid cacophony. For instance, compare Ghe lo ho dado. vs. *Lo lo ho dado. (I gave it to him/her/them.)

- Loquele (local pronouns):

ca (here, "where I am"), i (there, "where you are"), ghi (there, "where it is", proximal), ghen (there, "where it is", distal)

This classification is specific to Xarràno. The above pronouns are usually classified as adverbs of place or adverbial pronouns in other Romance languages, but here they acquired the same syntactic and prosodic properties as the personal pronouns, differing only in their reference to places. They can even be related to the persons of speech: ca (1st), i (2nd) and ghi/ghen (3rd).

- Demostrative (demonstrative pronouns):

questo, questa, queste (this, these); quegho, quegha, queghe (that, those, the one(s)); tàl, tel (such); lo, la, le (the one(s)); and others.

- Enquiritive (interrogative pronouns):

que (what), quiàn (who), quàl, qüele (which (one(s))), ron (where), quando (when), como (how).

- Indefinide (indefinite pronouns):

alguno, alguna, algune (some(one)); algo (something); nenguno, nenguna, nengune (no(one)); nugha (nothing); todo, toda, tode (all, every(one)); molto, molta, molte (much, many); poco, poca, poque ((a) few); altro, altra, altre (other); cascuno, cascuna, cascune (each(one)); certo, certa, certe ((a) certain); vàre (various); tanto, tanta, tante (so much, so many, "an unspecified number"); calquiàr, calquiere (any); ambe (both); and others.

- Relative (relative pronouns):

que (that, which), quiàn (who), ron (where); el quàl, la quàl, le quel (who/which), cujo, cuja, cuje (whose); quanto, quanta, quante (who/which); ço (that); and others.

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Numbers Edit

This class contains words indicating quantity and numerical order. In order to avoid confusion with the term nombre, used for names, Xarràno speakers replaced the old term nombro with cipra, a term borrowed from Arabic and cognate with English cipher. There are basically four types of number: cardinal, ordinal, moltiplicativo (multiplicative) and praçonaro (fractional).

The tables below show Xarràno's cardinal, ordinal and multiplicative numbers ranging from 1 to one bilion. Fractional numbers will be dealt below the tables.

Cardinal Ordinal Multiplic. Cardinal Ordinal Multiplic.
0 zero - - 10 ràz ràzmo décuplo
1 uno primo (simple) 11 onze unàzmo -
2 rue ssegondo roblo 12 roze ruàzmo -
3 tre terço triplo 13 treze tràzmo -
4 quatro quarto quádrulo 14 catorze ràzmo quarto -
5 cinque quinto quíntuplo 15 quinze ràzmo quinto -
6 ssei ssesto sséstuplo 16 sseze ràzmo ssesto -
7 xàte xétimo xétuplo 17 razixete ràzmo xétimo -
8 ocho ochàvo óchuplo 18 razocho ràzmo ochàvo -
9 nuàve nono nónuplo 19 razinuàve ràzmo nono -
Cardinal Ordinal Multiplic. Cardinal Ordinal Multiplic.
10 ràz ràzmo décuplo 100 cen centesmo céntuplo
20 vinte vigesmo - 200 dozente dozentesmo -
30 trinta trigesmo - 300 trezente trezentesmo -
40 carenta caresmo - 400 catorcente catorcentesmo -
50 cinquenta quincag.. - 500 quinnente quinnentesmo -
60 ssessenta ssessag... - 600 sseicente sseicentesmo -
70 xatenta xatage... - 700 xatecente xatecentesmo -
80 ochenta ochage... - 800 ochocente ochocentesmo -
90 noventa nonage... - 900 nuavecente nuavecentesmo -
Cardinal Ordinal Multiplicative
1,000 mil milesmo míluplo
2,345 due mil, trezente e carenta cinque (duemilesme / ssegondo milesmo), trezentesmo caresmo quinto -
1,000,000 (uno) mighon mighonesmo -
1,000,000,000 (uno) bighon bighonesmo -

Fractional numbers are either the same as the ordinal numbers (from 3 to 13, then from 100 to one bilion) or the cardinal numbers followed by àve. Since they represent the bottom number in a fraction, they are preceded by an ordinal number and then inflect for number (for instance, 3/4 is tre quarte, and 5/16 is cinque sseze àve or simply cinque cima sseze). The fractional number for 2 has the special form megho (half).

As noted above, the conjunction e is used between hundreds and dozens but not between dozens and units.

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Adjectives Edit

In this class are words that add information about a referent, usually a noun. Most adjectives have the same morphological properties tha can be found on nouns, although their inflection depends on the head in either attributive or predicative position. This is called concordança (concord).

Inflection for comparative and superlative degrees fell into disuse as adverbs such as and assàz came to be combined with adjectives to convey the same meanings. Yet, adjectives can still inflect for the superlative degree (usually by adding -issim-), while a few words have retained the comparative degree as well.

El quàgo é buàno. (The (male) cook is good.)

La quàga é buàna. (The female cook is good.)

Le quàgue son buàne. (The cooks are good.)

Questo quàgo é meghor. (This cook is better.)

Questo quàgo é ótimo. (This cook is great.)

El toro era forte. (The bull was strong.)

El toro era mai forte quel torero. (The bull was stronger than the bullfighter.)

El toro era fortissimo / assàz forte. (The bull was very strong.)

The possessive (possessives) form a subgroup of the adjective class and show information about who possesses the modified referent (they can inflect by person, gender and number) as well as gender and number of the possessed referent. In attributive position, an article must be used before the possessive: this allows singular person possessives to not inflect for gender and number when they are prepositioned.

El mi gàto tàva manjando. / El gàto mio tàva manjando. (My cat was eating.)

Quegha taça é tua? (Is that cup yours?)

El Mateo é un amigo nostro. (Matthew is a friend of ours.)

Somo chegade cola vostra màdre. (We have arrived with your [pl.] mother.)

Revo ajudàr le ssu amigue! / Revo ajudàr l'amigue ssue! (I must help his/her/their friends!)

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Adverbs Edit

This class is composed by invariable words (oftentimes resembling masculine adjectives) that mofify a verb, an adjective, another adverb or a whole sentence as they add information about circumstance, doubt, intensity, mood, negation, place, time, and others. Most adjectives can become adverbs through the -mente suffix. Conversely, some adverbs can inflect to show information about degree (superlative, diminutive, etc) just as adjectives do.

Affirmation, negation, doubt: xi (yes), no (no), quissá (perhaps), talvez (maybe).

Mood: axí (this way, like this), biàn, meghor (well, better), màl (bad), -mente (-ly).

Time: agher (yesterday), güe (today), remàn (tomorrow); ante (before), ja (now, already), ora (now), pue (after); cedo (early), tarde (late).

Other: assàz (very, enough), quàge (almost), mai (more, anymore).

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Particles Edit

Words in this class don't have an independent or even dependent (anaphoric) semantic value but are important elements as they define relations among the arguments of a sentence, giving information about definiteness, grammatical case or linking different sentences in many ways. Isolated words like the entrejeçun (exclamations) are grouped in this class as well.

Articles: el (m.), la (f.), le (p.) (the, "definite"); un (m.), una (f.), une (p.) (a(n), some, "indefinite"); rel (m.), rela (f.), rele (p.) (some, "partitive").

Conjunctions: como (like, as), e (and), mai, pero (but), mo (so that, in order to), nen (nor, "and not"), o (or), que (that), si (if); and others.

Exclamations: ài, au (ouch), chau (bye), ei (hey), ola (hi).

Prepositions: a (at, to), vaxo (under), cima/ssobre (on, over), con (with), en (in, at), entre (between, among), per (for), re (of, from), sen (without); and others.

- The short prepositions a, con, en, per and re fuse with the definite articles. Additionally, the relative pronoun que also features the same kind of fusion. This is shown in the table below:

Masculine Feminine Plural
a al ala ale
con col cola cole
en nel nela nele
per pel pela pele
que quel quela quele
re rel rela rele

Articles and prepositions usually lose their final unstressed vowel when followed by a word beginning with an unstressed vowel. This actually happens with any boundaries with unstressed vowels, where only the last survives, but it is only shown in orthography when the dropped vowel is in a monosyllable, in which case the vowel must be replaced by an apostrophe. However, several short, common words, such as the pronoun el (he) and the noun água (water), cause a preceding article or preposition to lose its final vowel as well. For instance, el (he) plus the preposition en becomes nel (or n'El if it is referring to God); re is contracted before água in the sentence Ho carença r'água (I need water).

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VerbsEdit

In this class are words indicating action, state or phenomenon. They inflect differently from words in the nombre big class in order to supply information about tense and mood as well as agreeing with the subject in person and number. Verbs are the only mandatory part of a sentence, although in a few situations they can be ommited if one can retrieve them from a previous sentence.

When concerning verbs, Xarràno follows a similar path like other West-Iberian languages such as Portuguese and Spanish. The number of conjugations was reduced from four to three since its development from Latin, in that original or new verbs that were found on the third conjugation at the time of Common Romance migrated either to the second or fourth conjugation or even formed a restricted group of irregular verbs. As for the tenses, new future and conditional tenses were formed with the combination of the infinitive plus conjugated HABĒRE, the pluperfect subjunctive came to represent the imperfect subjunctive, and eventually the whole perfect was replaced by periphrastic constructions with ESSERE, STĀRE or HABĒRE. Many forms stressed on the root show metaphony, although it is not considered to be a real irregular conjugation.

First conjugation (-ar). Ex.: amàr (to love)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
àmo àme amàvo amàsse amaró amàr amario
àma àme amàva amàsse amará amàr amaria
àma àme amàva amàsse amará amàr amaria
amàmo amemo amàvamo amàssemo amaremo amàrmo amaríamo
amàz amez amàvaz amàssez amarez amàrde amaríaz
àma àme amàva amàsse amará amàr amaria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
amando amàdo amàr (2ps.) àma
(2pp.) amàz

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Second conjugation (-er). Ex.: vender (to sell)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
vendo venda vendio vendesse venderó vender venderio
vende venda vendia vendesse venderá vender venderia
vende venda vendia vendesse venderá vender venderia
vendemo vendàmo vendíamo vendéssemo venderemo vendermo venderíamo
vendez vendàz vendíaz vendéssez venderez venderde venderíaz
vende venda vendia vendesse venderá vender venderia
Present participle Pat participle Infinitive Imperative
vendendo vendudo vender (2ps.) vende
(2pp.) vendez

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Third conjugation (-ir). Ex.: dormir (to sleep)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
dormo dorma dormio dormisse dormiró dormir dormirio
dorme dorma dormia dormisse dormirá dormir dormiria
dorme dorma dormia dormisse dormirá dormir dormiria
dormimo dormàmo dormíamo dormíssemo dormiremo dormirmo dormiríamo
dormiz dormàz dormíaz dormíssez dormirez dormirde dormiríaz
dorme dorma dormia dormisse dormirá dormir dormiria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
dormindo dormido dormir (2ps.) dorme
(2pp.) dormiz

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The next tables show the conjugation of important, common but highly irregular verbs:

Irregular conjugation. Ex.: ser (to be)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
sue seja ero fuàsse seró fuàr serio
ei seja era fuàsse será fuàr seria
é seja era fuàsse será fuàr seria
somo sejàmo éramo fuàssemo seremo formo seríamo
soz sejàz éraz fuàssez serez forde seríaz
son seja era fuàsse será fuàr seria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
sendo xudo ser (2ps.) sé
(2pp.) sez

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Irregular conjugation. Ex.: tàr (to be)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
to teja tàvo toviàsse taró toviàr tario
ta teja tàva toviàsse tará toviàr taria
ta teja tàva toviàsse tará toviàr taria
tàmo tejàmo tàvamo toviàssemo taremo tovermo taríamo
tàz tejàz tàvaz toviàssez tarez toverde taríaz
ta teja tàva toviàsse tará toviàr taria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
tando tàdo tàr (2ps.) ta
(2pp.) tàz

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Irregular conjugation. Ex.: aver (to have)
Present Past Future Conditional
Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub. Ind. Sub.
ho aja avio oviàsse abró oviàr abrio
ha aja avia oviàsse abrá oviàr abria
ha aja avia oviàsse abrá oviàr abria
avemo ajàmo avíamo oviàssemo abremo overmo abríamo
avez ajàz avíaz oviàssez abrez overde abríaz
ha aja avia oviàsse abrá oviàr abria
Present participle Past participle Infinitive Imperative
avendo avudo aver (2ps.) he
(2pp.) avez

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Some Romance languages have developed a distinction between permanent and momentary actions and conditions. In Italian, there is a construction with estare plus the gerund indicating the continuous or progessive aspect (see, for instance, canto vs. sto cantando). In Spanish and Portuguese, not only can one find the same construction (cf. PT canto vs. estou cantando), but also one can choose between the linking verbs ser or estar to show whether a state is perceived as more permanent or not (see, for instance, SP ella es vieja vs. ella está vieja). Xarràno has gone further as it also benefits from the above constructions but, since it did not lose the transitive/intransitive distinction on the periphrastic perfect, it has found a way to express permanence through the use of ser or tar when intransitive. This is seen below.

The perfect aspect had once a sole survivor among the synthetic forms much like Spanish pretérito perfecto simple. However, Xarràno's personal forms gained an amount of irregularity due to phonological changes such as coalescence of coronals and /j/ and were eventually replaced by a periphrastic construction formed by conjugated ser, tàr or aver plus the past participle. Forms with ser or tàr (also showing the distinction between permanent and momentary) are used for instransitive and reflexive verbs and the participle agrees with the subject, while forms with aver are used for transitive verbs and the participle agrees with the object.

Ho perdude le cheve. (I lost my keys.)

To ida al rrestorante. (I went to the restaurant.)

Me sue casàdo en 1985. (I got married in 1985.)

Some verbs can be combined with non-finite verb forms to represent other aspects and specific nuances: exir (to be able, to manage), poder ("can", to be permitted to), rremaner (to stay, to keep (doing something)), voler (to want), and others.

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SyntaxEdit

This section will approach word order and formation of sentences starting from simple sentences.

Xarràno is a partly pro-drop language. It means that pronouns referring to the subject can be dropped from the sentence, although this happens mostly in combination to unambiguous verb forms, like the ones referring to first person (singular and plural) and second person plural in the indicative mood. This property leads to the simplest complete sentences made of a sole conjugated verb.

Manjo. (I eat., (S)V order, indicating an action)

Marchàz! ([You (pl.)] march!, V(S) order, indicating a command)

Chuàve. (It rains., V order, indicating a natural phenomenon, without subject)

When the verb forms can represent more than one person, the pronoun is not dropped and appears before the verb. In some contexts, even ambiguous forms appear with dropped pronouns.

Manja. (He/she/it/you[sing.]/they eat., or even: Eat. (as a command), ambiguous, up to context)

Eghe canta. (They sing., SV order, unambiguous)

Beve? (Do you drink? Usually used in quick questions)

The subject can also be represented by a noun or a word in "noun" position, which can be surrounded by other words that add information to it. Conjunctions can be used to join two or more subjects together in a single sentence. Although the main order is Subject-Verb, some intransitive verbs, like those conveying movement or existence, repel the subject to the the right when it is fully expressed (contrary to weak pronouns, which stay to the left).

El guàmo manja. (The man eats., SV order, *Nouns are usually accompanied by at least a modifier)

Estughar fazga. (To study tires (one) out., SV order, *The infinitive of a verb can be used as a noun)

Chegará tre cargue re çucre. (Three loads of sugar will arrive., VS order, *Prepositions are used to embed more nouns)

Rremanna tode le candidàte sseleçonàde. (All the selected candidates stay., VS order, *command)

The modifiers can appear before or after the noun. Words adding grammatical or quantitative information as well as some short, common adjectives usually go before the noun, whereas words adding qualitative and other subjective information usually go after the verb. Adjectives, articles, possessives and some pronouns agree in gender and number with the subject. The main order in a single noun phrase is: article - unstressed possessive - number - some pronouns - some adjectives - noun - most adjectives - stressed possessive.

El nostro único figho maxo dançàva. (Our only male child danced/used to dance., SV order)

La nostra única figha fembra dançàva. (Our only female child danced/used to dance., SV order)

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A type of sentence is formed by a subject, a linking verb and predicative information about the subject, and the predicative words also agree with the subject in gender and number. This creates a harmony of information in which one can access, for instance, gender information even if the subject is the first person singular. The perfect aspect is represented by a construction using this type of sentence where participial forms of verbs inflect accordingly.

Questo fuàgo ta flàco. (This fire is weak.)

La camija é rroxa. (The shirt is red.)

Le màstre ssembla buàne. (The teachers seem good.)

Sue apartàda. (I'm divorced., says a woman.)

Le plure ta crexude. (The flowers have grown.)

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There are verbs requiring more arguments that the subject. They are called transitive verbs and require a direct or indirect object, or even both types of object and more. The object can be represented by an objective pronoun or by an entire noun phrase, just as subjects can. Direct objects don't require a preposition to mark case but they must oppose the subject in the sentence so that one knows the hierarchy (i.e, the whole sentence displays a fixed SVO order). On the other hand, indirect objects are preceded by a preposition as a case marker. In that case, they can go before the verb but the subject is repeled to the opposite side if there isn't a direct object in the same sentence. Even direct objects can be turned into grammatical indirect objects by adding a before them so they can swap positions with the subject. Objective and local pronouns can be either unstressed, in preverbal position, or stressed, after the verb by adding the preposition a. Constructions representing the perfect aspect of transitive verbs and the reflexive require that the participle agree with the object, even though the participle is fixed after the auxiliary verb.

Te / àmo. (I love you., direct object / verb (containing the subject))

Àmo a te. (I love you., verb (with subj.) / direct object aided by a)

Ho / un gran orto. (I have a big garden., verb (with subj.) / direct object)

El osso / me / ta oghando. (The bear is looking at me., subject / indirect object (a (prep.) "packed") / verb)

Quegho arble / da / molto prucho. (That tree bears much fruit., subject / verb / direct object)

Ho taghàda / la fogha. (I have cut the leaf., verb (with subj.) and participle agreeing with the object / direct object)

El Jovàn / dará / al pàdre / la caxa. (John will give his father the box., subject / verb / indirect object / direct object)

El Jovàn / lo / dará / la caxa. (John will give him the box., subject / indirect object / verb / direct object)

El Jovàn / la / dará / al pàdre. (John will give it to his father., subject / direct object / verb / indirect object)

El Jovàn / ghe / la / dará. (John will give it to him., subject / indirect object (dative form) / direct object / verb)

Ghe / la / dará el Jovàn. (John will give it to him., indirect object (dative form) / direct object / verb / subject, *alternative)

Nenguno / convessa / con egha. (Nobody talks to her., subject / verb / indirect object)

La mi mughàra / va / ala egleja. (My wife goes to the church., subject / verb / indirect object)

Ghen / va. ((She) goes there., indirect object / verb (with subj.))

I / viàn / un gran ssucesso rela televison. (A great TV success is coming., indirect object / verb / subject)

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The sentence can be complemented by adverbs indicating place, time, manner and others, which have a relatively free position in the sentence, sometimes also causing an intransitive verb to oppose its argument. Other complements are: nominal complement, relative clause, clause embeded by a conjunction.

Le gaghe cantará remàn. (The roosters will sing tomorrow., time adverb at the end)

Remàn cantará le gaghe. (Tomorrow will the roosters sing., time adverb at the beginning)

El màstro ha brujàda la ssu carta al diretor. (The teacher has burnt your letter to the director., nominal complement)

La mocina que ho vista agher é la ssu figha? (Is the little girl I saw yesterday your daughter?, relative clause)

T'enquiro si no é meghor que el rremanna. (I ask you if it isn't better that he stay., use of conjunctions)

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Xarràno conveys some common expressions by using special constructions:

Reflexive: it is formed by adding an objective pronoun (using se instead of lo, la, le for third person) referring back to the subject before the verb. Semantically, not only can this construction be used to convey a real reflexive action, but also the passive voice, mutual relationships and even more active meanings. Instransitive verbs take the ser / tàr auxiliary verb.

Me to lavàdo. (I washed myself., reflexive meaning)

El cardeno se da pel governo estatàl. (The book is supplied by the state government., passive voice)

El cavagho s'açàrra libramente. (The horse runs freely., active meaning)

N'avemo bejàde. (We have kissed each other., mutual meaning)

Existential: it is formed by existential verbs (sser / tàr, esistir, correr), which repel the full subject to the right. Some of these verbs must be accompanied by a local pronoun, which can appear in unstressed, preverbal position or can be positioned after the verb by adding the preposition a (it becomes stressed, just as personal pronouns do).

Esiste el prio? (Does the cold exist?, no mandatory place. Sometimes the subject precedes this verb)

Ta cossa una tragegha. (There was a tragedy / A tragedy happened., no mandatory place)

Nugha quàrre màl en questa vigha. (Nothing bad happens in this village., preceding pronominal subject)

Ghen ta trinta pessone. (There is thirty people (there)., mandatory place)

Possessive: although there are specific possessive words, Xarràno speakers prefer dropping them or using a construction with a dative pronoun.

El moço ha enquirido el ssu pàdre cima el cosso. (The boy asked his father about what happened., explicit possessive)

El moço ha enquirido el pàdre cima el cosso. (lit. "The boy has asked the father over the happened [event]", dropped)

La ruenna volia tocàr le labe mie. (The woman wanted to touch my lips., explicit possessive)

La ruenna me volia tocàr le labe. (lit. "The woman me[dat.] wanted to touch the lips., dative construction)

La luz t'acharexa el trigho. (May the light clear your path., literally "(That) the light you[dat.] clear the path.")

Below are other instances of special constructions for common expressions:

Avemo carença re mai tempo. (We need more time., literally "We have need of time.")

Me plàz el xugo de limon. (I like lemon juice., literally "Me[dat.] pleases the juice of lemon.")

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VocabularyEdit

Xarràno's vocabulary is mainly composed of words naturally evolved from Vulgar and Classical Latin. Many words are preserved from the Common Romance period, unlike Spanish and Portuguese, for instance, due to a relative isolation at the time of the Moorish invasions. At a later time, though, Xarràno received some influence from their Iberian neighbors concerning orthography, technical terms and words coming from Arabic.

There are a number of words that evolved naturally but don't have natural cognates in other Romance languages or have diverged their meaning and use. These regional items, added by innovations not found elsewhere, form a distinctive part of the Xarràno vocabulary.

Brenna: this noun doesn't come from Latin, but instead from a hispano-celtic word *brigna, from briga (fortress). At first, it meant "rocky terrain", shifting to "any place difficult to reach", and finally "hideout". Its derived verb embrennàr was then generalized to mean "to hide" and is cognate with Portuguese embrenhar (to hide in the woods).

Cangho: this adjective means "pretty, beautiful" and comes from Latin CANDIDUM. Its derivations are: cangheza (beauty) and encanghexer (to embellish).

Çàrre: this adjective means "fast" and comes from Latin CELEREM. From it came the verbs açarràr (to accelerate, to make run) and s'açarràr (to run), as well as açarraçon (speed) and çarràda (race).

Correr: this verb acquired an existential meaning, equivalent to English "to happen, there to be" and Spanish "haber". It can be found with a similar use in the Portuguese expression correr bem/mal (to go well/bad).

Fuzina: this noun means "bee" and came from a regional form *fucina, from Latin FŪCUM (drone) which gave the modern noun fugo, cognate with Italian fuco.

Rroz: this adjective shifted its meaning from "rough, not refined" to "ugly". It came from Latin RUDEM and produced derivations such as erroxer (to become ugly) and rrueza (ugliness).

Trigho: this noun means "path, way" and comes from Latin TRĪBULUM. Although cognates are found in other Romance languages (cf. Portuguese trilho (railway)), its derived verb trighàr (to walk) managed to replace earlier forms such as andàr and caminàr.

One can say Xarràno's vocabulary is somewhat conservative when compared to the other Romance languages. Many words from the Common period, cognate with Catalan and/or Italian words, are still in use, while some words align more with the "Western side" and some with the "Iberian side". Below is a vocabulary comparison with Catalan, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish, and the word origin, separated by thematic tables:

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Amorço (breakfast)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
çucre (f.) "sugar", from Arabic açúcar azúcar sucre zucchero
leche (f.) "milk", from LĀCTEM leite leche llet latte
miàl (m.) "honey", from MEL mel miel mel miele
pàn (m.) "bread", from PĀNEM pão pan pa pane
quejo (m.) "cheese", from CĀSEUM queijo queso formatge formaggio

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Beste (animals)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
bue (m.) "ox", from BOVEM boi buey bou bue
càn (m.) "dog", from CANEM cachorro perro gos cane
cavagho (m.) "horse", from CABALLUM cavalo caballo cavall cavallo
gàto (v.) "cat", from CATTUM gato gato gat gatto
ocegho (m.) "bird", from Late aucellu pássaro pájaro ocell uccello
pexe (m.) "fish", from PISCEM peixe pez peix pesce

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Colure (colors)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
azul (i.) "blue", from Persian azul azul blau blu
blanco (v.) "white", from Germanic branco blanco blanc bianco
grijo (v.) "grey", from Germanic cinza gris gris grigio
jalde (c.) "yellow", from Germanic amarelo amarillo groc giallo
nero (v.) "black", from NIGRUM preto negro negre nero
porpla (c.) "purple", from PURPURAM roxo púrpura porpra porpora
ranja (f.) "orange", from Sanscrit laranja naranja taronja arancia
rroxo (v.) "red", from RUSSEUM vermelho rojo vermell rosso
verde (c.) "green", from VIRIDEM verde verde verd verde

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Corpo (body)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
caveça (f.) "head", from VL capitia cabeça cabeza cap testa
màno (f.) "hand", from MĀNUM mão mano mano
nàso (m.) "nose", from NĀSUM nariz nariz nas naso
ogho (m.) "eye", from OCULUM olho ojo ull occhio
piàz (m.) "foot", from PEDEM pie peu piede
voca (f.) "mouth", from BUCCAM boca boca boca bocca

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Famegha (family)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
figho (m.) "son", from FĪLIUM (m.) filho hijo fill figlio
figha (f.) "daughter", from FĪLIAM (m.) filha hija filla figlia
màdre (f.) "mother", from MĀTREM (m.) mãe madre mare madre
pàdre (m.) "father", from PATREM (m.) pai padre pare padre
pràz (m.) "brother", from FRĀTER (m.) irmão hermano germà fratello
ssuàra (f.) "sister", from SOROR (f.) irmã hermana germana sorella

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Natura (nature)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
água (f.) "water", from AQUAM água agua aigua acqua
àr (m.) "air", from AEREM ar aire aire aria
arble (m.) "tree", from ARBOREM árvore árbol arbre albero
çàlo (m.) "sky, heaven", from CAELUM céu cielo cel cielo
chàrra (f.) "earth, ground", from TERRAM terra tierra terra terra
chumbre (m.) "river", from *flumine rio río riu fiume
estegha (f.) "star", from STELLAM estrela estrella estrella stella
fuàgo (m.) "fire", from FOCUM fogo fuego foc fuoco
luna (f.) "moon", from LŪNAM lua luna lluna luna
màr (m.) "sea", from MARE mar mar mar mare
piàdra (f.) "stone, rock", from PETRAM pedra piedra pera pietra
ssol (m.) "sun", from SŌLEM sol sol sol sole

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Ogete (objects)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
cardeno (m.) "book", from QUATERNUM (m.) livro libro llibre libro
cesta (f.) "basket", from CISTA (f.) cesta cesta cistella cestino
tabla (f.) "table", from TABULAM (f.) mesa mesa taula tavolo
ssegha (f.) "chair", from SELLAM (f.) cadeira silla cadira sedia
taça (f.) "cup", from Arabic tassah copo taza tassa tazza

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Pruche (fruits)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
celeja (f.) "cherry", from *ceresia cereja cereza cerera ciliegia
durazno (m.) "peach", from DŪRĀCINUM pêssego melocotón prèssec pesco
maçàna (f.) "apple", from MĀTTIĀNAM maçã manzana poma mela
melon (m.) "melon", from MELONEM melão melón meló melone
pragha (f.) "strawberry", from *fragula morango fresa maduixa fragola

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Ssemàna (week)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
romengo (m.) "Sunday", from DOMENICUM domingo domingo diumenge domenica
lun (m.) "Monday", from LŪNAE segunda-feira lunes dilluns lunedi
màrte (m.) "Tuesday", from MARTIS terça-feira martes dimarts martedì
mercle (m.) "Wednesday", from MERCURIĪ quarta-feira mièrcoles dimecres mercoledì
juàve (m.) "Thurday", from IOVIS quinta-feira jueves dijous giovedi
vindre (m.) "Friday", from VENERIS sexta-feira viernes divendres venerdì
xabàz (m.) "Sabbath", from Hebrew sábado sábado dissabte sabato

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Ssentimente (feelings)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
amor (m.) "love", from AMOREM amor amor amor amore
goja (f.) "joy", from GAUDIA gozo gozo goig gioia
paxon (f.) "passion", from PASSIONEM paixão pasión passió passione
ssoltuz (f.) "loneliness", from SŌLITŪDINEM solidão soledad solitud solitudine
zelo (m.) "jealousy, zeal", from Greek ciúme celos gelosia gelosia

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Verdure (vegetables)
Xarràno (meaning and origin) Portuguese Spanish Catalan Italian
agho (m.) "garlic", from ĀLIUM alho ajo all aglio
çanora (f.) "carrot", from Arabic cenoura zanahoria pastanaga carota
fejolo (m.) "beans", from Greek feijão frijol fesol fagiolo
lechuga (f.) "lettuce", from LACTŪCAM alface lechuga enciam lattuga
tomato (m.) "tomato", from Nahuatl tomate tomate tomáquet pomodoro

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Xarràno inherited most of its vocabulary from Vulgar Latin. However, it received many words from other sources as well either directly (inherited, learned or borrowed) or indirectly through contact with other Romance languages.

Arabic: azeche (oil), café (coffee), cipra (number), xaqueca (migraine).

Celtic: bruxa (witch), colmena (hive), mina (mine), quàto (hill), texon (badger).

English: clube (club), forclor (folklore), naghon (or nàilon, "nylon"), xampú (shampoo).

French: bigheto (ticket), comité (comittee), dançàr (to dance), message (message).

Germanic: blanco (white), fornexer (to provide), guia (guide), melço (spleen), norde (north), rrobar (to steal).

Greek: biologia (biology), problema (problem), vangegho (gospel), xilófono (xylophone).

Italian: aquarela (watercolor), medagha (medal, badge), nnoque (gnocchi), partitura (music score).

Latin: anexo (annex, pronounced /a'neʃo/), façon (faction, vs. inherited feçon, "appearance"), vigaro (vicar).

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Example textEdit

Below are some examples of texts and excerpts from common sources used by conlangers.

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Declaraçon Universal rele Dreche Umane (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

"Tode pessone nàxe libre e egüele en rennidàz e dreche. Pue sende rotàde re rrazon e coxença, eghe se reve trechàr con espírito re germandàz."

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Pàdre nostro (Lord's Prayer)

Pàdre nostro que é nel çàlo:

se ssantifique el tu nombre,

ne venna el tu rrenno,

se faça la tu voluntàz

nela chàrra e tambiàn nel çàlo.

Ne da güe el nostro pàn jornàl,

e ne perdona le nostre ghode,

axí como perdonàmo le nostre ghodure,

e no ne dexa cair en tentaçon,

mai ne libra rel màlo.

(Pue son tue el rrenno, el poder e la glera per ssempre. Amen.)

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El Vento Norde e el Ssol (The North Wind and the Sun)

El Vento Norde e el Ssol tàva contendende quàl era mai forte, quando ghen vinna un viagero envolto en un manto caldo. Eghe ha fexàde que quiàn exisse fàr primo el viagero togher el manto reva ser cossideràdo mai forte quel altro.

Repué el Vento Norde ha ssoplàdo el mai forte que el podia, pero quan mai el ssoplàva, mai vezino el viagero roblàva el manto entorno; e, enfin el Vento Norde ha rrenunçàdo al entento.

Repué ta brighàdo calorosamente el Ssol, e re ssoto el viagero ha tolto el manto. E axí el Vento Norde se ta obligàdo a confessàr quel Ssol era el mai forte rele rue.

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La torre re Babel (The Babel Tower)

Entonce era una ssola lenga nel mondo e un ssolo gecho re fablàr.

Pue ssalinde rel Oriente le umbre, eghe ha achàda una chanura en Xinàr e ghen se son assentàde. Eghe se ha dicho: "façàmo ladreghe e le cozàmo biàn." Eghe ha usàdo ladregho en vez re piàdra e asfalto en vez re mescla. Repué eghe se ha dicho: "n'eguàmo una çudàz con una torre que chegue al çàlo. Axí faremo famoso el nostro nombre e no ne regecharemo pela chàrra entera."

Mai el Ssennor ta vaxàdo mo el vesse la çudàz e la torre quele umbre tàva eguande. E el Ssennor ha dicho: "Si como un puàblo que fabla la mesma lenga eghe ta començàde a fàr quesso, entonce nugha que eghe ententa le será impossible. Vennàmo, vaxàmo e confundàmo la ssu lenga mo eghe ja no comprenda elexe."

Axí el Ssennor le ha regechàde pela chàrra entera e eghe son dexàde r'eguàr la çudàz. Per ço se é chamàda Babel: pue el Ssennor ghen ha confundida la lenga rel mondo entero. Re quel logàr le ha regechàde pela chàrra entera.

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