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Xynder

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Progress 98%
Xynder
Xynt
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Nominative-Accusative
Head direction
Final
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Undergoing Significant Revamp

Yet another descendant language from Natraden . The grammar has remained fairly intact along with the genders (MAS, FEM and NEU) and the phonology has been simplified. This language is the main language of the Netherbelgs.
Flag

RevampEdit

This is my attempt at making the language more speakable for me, as a person who wants to learn it >A<

Old Xynder

Nothing too major will occur. The current changes as of late are:

  • Removed:
  • Ŝ and TX.
    • Heavy difference between dialects
  • Added:
    • Capitalisation rules (now reverted)
  • Changed:
  • Ê is now written as É.
    • Ö's long and short pronunciation are lowered.
    • Word order.
    • Noun declension.
    • Articles and determiners
    • Pronouns
    • Adjectival rules
    • Verb conjugations
    • Negation
  • To-Do List:
    • Change the interrogative system in some way.

PhonologyEdit

The basic phonology of the language.

Consonants Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Alveolopalatal Postalveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p   b t   d c k   g (ʔ)
Fricative f   v ð̞̠ˠ s   z ɕ ʃ   ʒ ʂ ç   ʝ x   ɣ χ ʁ h
Approximant ɹ j
Trill r
Flap/Tap ɾ
Lateral Approximant l ɭ
Vowels Front Near-Front Central Near-Back Back
Close i   y ʉ u
Near-Close ɪ   ʏ ʊ
Close-Mid e   ø (ɵ) o
Mid ə
Open-Mid ɛ   œ ʌ   ɔ
Near-Open æ (ɐ)
Open (ɶ) ä ɑ   ɒ

Every row below is it's own distinct letter excluding digraphs and é.

Graph Condition Capital Dialect Netheren Dialect Troderen Dialect
A a Long Pronunciation ɑ: ɛ:
Short Pronunciation ä
Ae ae e: N/A
Ar ar (Troderen Dialect) N/A a:
Ee ee (Netheren Dialect) N/A e: N/A
Ää Long Pronunciation æ:
Short Pronunciation æ

Ææ (Troderen Dialect)

Long Pronunciation N/A e:
Short Pronunciation N/A ɛ
Bb b
Cc t͡s
Cz cz t͡ʃ N/A
Czr czr (rcz) t͡ʂ
Tj tj (Netheren Dialect) N/A t͡ʃ N/A
Dd d
(Dd) dd ð ð̞̠ˠ
ð̞̠ˠ N/A
Dj dj (Netheren and Troderen Dialect) N/A d͡ʒ
Ee Long Pronunciation  ɛ: e: ɪ:
Short Pronunciation ɛ æ
Word-Final  ə
Eg eg N/A e
Normal Pronunciation ej
Er er (Troderen Dialect) ɐ
Eu eu y: N/A
ʏ(:) N/A
ɨ
Éé Word-Final ɛ N/A
Ff f
Gg Normal Pronunciation g χ
Word-Final N/A w
Gj gj ʝ N/A
Hh h
Hj hj ç hj j
Hv hv Word-Initial
Hz hz x N/A
χ
Ii Long Pronunciation i:
Short Pronunciation ɪ
Word-Final Short Pronunciation i
Ij ij æɪ ɛi N/A
Ig ig (Troderen Dialect) N/A ai
Jj j
Kk k(ʰ)
Kj kj c kj N/A
Ll l l
Lj lj lj
Mm m
Nn n
Ńń Normal Pronunciation ŋ N/A
Before-Vowel Pronunciation ɑ̃(n)
(Ng) ng ŋ

Ni ni

ɲ N/A
Nj nj
Oo Long Pronunciation ɔ: o:
Short Pronunciation ɒ
Oe oe u: N/A
u
Oy oy u̯ɐ: N/A
Öö Long Pronunciation ø: N/A
Short Pronunciation œ
Øø

 (Troderen Dialect)

Long Pronunciation N/A ø:
Short Pronunciation œ
Öa öa o: N/A
Öe öe ə:
ə
ʌ
Pp p(ʰ)
Qq χ N/A
Rr Normal Pronunciation ɾ ʁ
Lengthened pronunciation sometimes used in singing ɭ: N/A
Situational Pronunciation r
ɹ N/A
Pronunciation when imported from Germanic languages that use this rhotic sound ʁ
Ss s
Sz sz ʃ N/A
ɕ
Sj sj (Netheren and Troderen Dialect) N/A ʃ
Szr szr (rs/rsz) ʂ N/A
Sr sr (Netheren Dialect) N/A ʂ N/A
Tt t(ʰ)
Uu Long Pronunciation ʉ: u:
Short Pronunciation ʊ
Ui ui ɶy N/A
Vv Word-Final Pronunciation
Normal Pronunciation v
v N/A
Ww
Word-Final Pronunciation f
Xx z N/A
Xz xz ʒ
Yy Long Pronunciation ɪ: y:
Short Pronunciation ɪ
Zz z N/A
Zz zz d͡z N/A

RulesEdit

  • Vowels receive shortened pronunciation in unstressed syllables (or monosyllabic words), or if they precede a consonant cluster.
    • Vowels receive lengthened pronunciation though the vowel sound isn't lengthened if preceding another vowel sound.
  • I proceeding a consonant and preceding a vowel makes the sound /j/
    • ​this is the same for u and /u̯/
  • A word-final v preceded by a consonant is pronounced before the consonant.
    • halv (half) /häu̯l/
  • Non-harmonic consonant clusters imply there is /ɵ(:)/ between them
    • Nihogn: Japan /nihɔ:gɵn/
  • To avoid confusion, certain letters often change their pronunciation slightly:
    • X is pronounced more strongly than Z
      • ​Z is sometimes pronounced /z̥/
  • Voiced consonants in word-final position become voiceless.
  • Stress is placed on the penultimate syllable of a word or on the syllable containing the first consonant cluster (in the same syllable) in the word.
    • If there are no consonant clusters that aren't broken by syllable boundaries, then the stress goes to the syllable containing the first vowel sound without a shortening pronunciation or is lengthened already (e.g. ii (/i/) that ends some words).
      • If none of these conditions are met, the stress goes to the penultimate syllable.
      • If a long vowel precedes a consonant cluster broken by a syllable boundary then the vowel is pronounced according to the shortened pronunciation.
        • Mansev - mother /ˈmänsɛu̯/
    • This rule doesn't apply if the consonant cluster is in an ultimate syllable that ends with a schwa.
    • Secondary stress may be applied on the second root word in a compound word where primary stress would be applied.
    • Single syllable words that end in e and begin with more than one consonant sound have the e automatically pronounced with an accent.
      • Zne /ˈznɛː/ snow
      • Ce /ˈt͡sɛː/ who
  • Ń is pronounced as /ɑ̃/ when in the syllable nucleus and /ŋ/ elsewhere.
    • The letter is pronounced as the former in when in the nucleus if it is the only vowel in the nucleus. If the letter is preceded by another vowel all the while remaining in the nucleus, then the vowel becomes nasalised.
  • The difference between ń and ng is the same as German's ß and ss in that the latter contributes to the vowel shortening rule whereas the former does not.
  • szr and czr only ever appear at the beginning of root words.
    • Though is r precedes sz, cz or xz they are retroflexed.

Table of GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No Yes Yes No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Case MarkingEdit

Case marking is defined with sets of declensions:

Case Prefix Example (Xynt)
Nominative (NOM) -∅ Xynt
Dative (DAT) -ja Xyntja
Genetive (GEN) -(a)s Xynts
Vocative (VOC) -(a)v Xyntav

Word OrderEdit

The order has remained fairly the same:

Capital and Troderen DialectEdit

  1. (Reflexive Pronoun)
  2. Subject
  3. Indirect Pronoun/Object
  4. (Direct Object Pronoun)
  5. (Auxiliary) Verb
  6. Adverb
  7. Object/Adjective
  8. Other Information
  9. Separable Part of a Separable Verb
  10. Participle
  11. Verb/Participle (when auxiliary verb is used)

Netheren DialectEdit

  1. (Reflexive Pronoun)
  2. Subject
  3. Indirect Object
  4. Object/Adjective
  5. (Auxiliary) Verb
  6. Adverb
  7. Verb/Participle (when auxiliary verb is used)
  8. Participle
  9. Other Information
  10. Separable Part of a Separable Verb
  11. Participle

Verb ConjugationEdit

All verbs end in el and most are regular. There is one irregular verb and the continuous tense is combined with the simple. Dropping the pronoun is common in informal speech.

To BeEdit

This is the only irregular verb that exists. Edit

Person First Person Second Person Third Person
Number

Singular

Plural

jöt

Singular

to

Plural

vöt

Singular

han/het/ot

Plural

öt

Infinitive önel
Past Participle vaeret
Indicative & Subjunctive

Present

(Non-Past)

höl skaen skiss skist ar zesz
Past hvöl hven hviss hvist hvar hvesz
Future blir vaeret bliren vaeret bliris vaeret bliret vaeret blirar vaeret bliresz vaeret
Other
Imperative geröad

Other Irregular Verbs Edit

helbel - to have

gatel - to go

Regular Verbs (to write)Edit

Regular verbs will conjugated as follows:

Person 1st Person 2nd Person Third Person
Number

Singular

Plural

jöt

Singular

to

Plural

vöt

Singular

han/het/ot

Plural

öt

Infinitive skrivel
Past Participle skrivlet
Indicative & Subjunctive

Present

(Non-Past)

skriv skriven skrivis skrivet skrivar skrivesz
Past skriver skrivent skrivist skrivtet skrivta skrivest
Future blir skrivlet bliren skrivlet bliris skrivlet bliret skrivlet blirar skrivlet bliresz skrivlet
Other
Imperative skrive(röad)

NegationEdit

In the Capital Dialect, you use the particle ent.

Jé höl ent!

I am not!

Passive VerbsEdit

To make a verb passive you use the past participle with the auxiliary verb to become.

Fjöt svarblet.

I was killed. (I died.)

Conditional VerbsEdit

Conditional verbs are formed with the auxiliary verb blirel (to will) and the past participle. The difference between this the using the future tense (since the future tense oddly enough uses the past participle) is that the auxiliary verb is used in the past tense.

Blir ginglet.

I will go.

Blirer ginglet.

I would go.

Reflexive VerbsEdit

Infinitive reflexive verbs are written as strik...el but conjugate exactly the same as normal verbs (the strik- is removed and is replaced with the use of the reflexive pronouns; the verb is conjugated normally.) However, pronouns get dropped (if they weren't already; also not necessary to drop) and are replaced with reflexive pronouns. Otherwise the subject gets moved.

Za öpta.

He hit himself.

Za s'Ester öfta. <- note the subject

The restaurant opened (itself.)

S'Ester fjöt striksvarbelt. or Za s'Ester fjöt svarbelt. [+1]

The restaurant will open (itself.)

[+1] This is rarer than the preceding sentence as reflexive pronouns tend to refer to the main verb; the use isn't incorrect, however, and will be understood.

-röad Edit

The -eröad for the imperative is used in formal situations or when please is implied with it.

Tot skrive.

Write it.

Tot skriveröad.

Please write it.

'Polite' YouEdit

There is no polite 'you' form. Though simply stating the pronoun is considered polite as subject dropping occurs very often. One can alternatively use the pronouns tröad, tröada, tröadja, tröads and tröadav according do their respective cases.

Skiss.

You are (informal)

To skiss.

You are (formal)

Tröad skiss.

You are (polite)

Personal PronounsEdit

The pronouns decline to the same cases as with their respective dialects. 

[+1] This refers to the subject:

Striks Entitii

A thing belonging to the subject.

Case 1st 2nd 3rd
S P S P S P

Nominative

jöt to vöt han/het/ot öt
Relative (Nominative and Accusative) hvit/hva/hvit
Accusative eun te jär häm/här/ot dem
Reflexive (Accusative) ja jör za öl
Dative mäk un jän jem/jar/jot* dem
Relative (Dative) hvij/hvai/hvov
Reflexive (Dative) strikjes strikjöts striktos strikvöts strikets/strikars/strikots striköts
Genetive jes jöts tos vöts hars/hets/ots öts
Relative (Genetive) hves/hvas/hvos
Reflexive (Genetive) striks [+1]
Vocative mav do hvii

Contractions Edit

Since most pronouns tend to be placed beside one another, colloquial contractions had evolved.

jét = jé + te

This means I ... you. Since it is a contraction the é (which only usually is placed in the word-final position) is preserved; like in compound words. For example: jét liv means I love you'.

*jem, jar & jot = i hem, i har, i ot

The i (meaning to) became non-syllabic upon contraction; providing the dative forms of the 3rd person singular pronouns.

tot = to + ot

vot = vöt + ot

This is most commonly used in the imperative. They mean (you ... it).

PluralisationEdit

There are several pluralisation suffixes:

Ending 1: -(o)r Edit

Nouns will usually be pluralised with -or or -r if the noun ends in a vowel.

Ligt (light) → Ligtor (lights)

Word-final vs become js prior to pluralisation.

Ending 2: -en Edit

This ending is used when the noun ends in a nasal consonant, l, r and dd.

Dräng (boy) → Drängen (boys)

This is also used when nouns end in ii, which then becomes ien.

Akademii (academy) → Akademien (academies)

Ending 3: -s Edit

Nouns will use this ending when they end in a diphthong.

Mae (man) → Maes (men)

Definiteness Edit

A definite, pluralised noun will obtain the original article as a suffix alongside its pluralisation suffix. Case declensions are added thereafter.

Frov - woman

Sa Frov - the woman

Frojor - women

Frojorsa - the women

Frojorsas - the women's

Articles and DeterminersEdit

Articles and determiners decline alike in that they both decline to gender and not to case.

Gender Masculine and Neuter Feminine Contraction (Before Vowel)
Indefinite Article it at t'
Definite Article set sa s'
Distal Determiner dit dis N/A
Proximal Determiner dit ... dzan dis ... dzan

ContractionsEdit

There are words such as ecet/eca which are contractions of et set/sa (in/on the). But when further contracted, one writes:

ec'Eerja

on the Earth

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives effectively decline to the common and neuter gender (the masculine and feminine declensions are the same.) Take the words s'Eer (the Earth), and skej (blue):

Common Declension Edit

Articles and determiners precede adjectives.

Sa skej Eer.

The blue Earth.

Neuter Declension Edit

The neuter declension consists of adding the suffix -t if the adjective didn't originally end in t.

Set lotst Muzik.

The good music/song.

Plural Declension Edit

Unlike the articles and determiners, adjectives possess a plural declension -e. This is used regardless of its gender.

Lotse Muzikorset.

The good songs.

Contraction Edit

The article contracts when the adjective begins with a vowel regardless of its gender:

S'erged Rojapl

The United Kingdom

Comparative AdjectivesEdit

This uses the adverb mo to make the adjective comparative. Translates to "more so" in English.

S'Eer ar mo skej.

The Earth is bluer.

When the adjective compliments the noun, then the adjective gains the suffix -(e)r(t/e).

Sa skejer Eer.

The bluer Earth.

It is incorrect to use this suffix when not complimenting a noun.

Set lotsert Muzik.

The better music.

Superlative AdjectivesEdit

Here one would use the adverb momo meaning "even more so" or "the most".

S'Eer ar momo skej.

The Earth is the bluest.

Complimenting a noun, the adjective gains the suffix -(e)n(t/e).

Sa skejen Eer.

The bluest Earth.

Set lotsent Muzik.

The best music.

It is incorrect to use this suffix when not complimenting a noun.

PossessionEdit

Possession is often shown with declension. To show something possesses another, you put the possessor with the declension after the noun, unless the possessor is a pronouns, where the pronoun would take the place of an article.

Jes Eer. Eer Seuls.

My Earth. The Sun's Earth.

Alternatively, one can say of.

Eer w Mak. Eer w Seulja.

My Earth. The Sun's Earth.

(Earth of Me-DAT)

Or you can string the nouns, however this does not apply to pronouns. So here is daylight written in its three forms.

Dagligt / Ligt w Dagja / Ligt Dags

Daylight

SupinesEdit

Every clause must be separated with punctuation (excluding the apostrophe); the most common being a comma. The parts of a supine are separated likewise. (This rule also means that conjunctions always follow a comma).

(Jé) uter sit Brum, et at Ert i level.

I used the brush to draw a picture.

[(I) use-IND.PST.1s the.NEU brush, in a.FEM picture to draw.INF]

The infinitive is used in the second portion of a supine preceded by the word 'to' (i), with the clause being preceded by et (in).

InterrogationEdit

In an interrogative sentence, the verb is moved to the beginning, proceeding the interrogative adverb that may already be there. Subject pronouns then become suffixes to the conjugated verb. Otherwise, the subject is attached to the verb via hyphenation; articles and determiners becoming suffixed. Descriptors aren't attached in any way unless an article or determiner is already attached.

Höljé?

Am I?

Arhan ot?

Is it him?

Köntahet ot önel?

Could it be her?

Ar-Ligt lots?

Is light good?

Arsa-Seul goel?

Is the sun yellow?

Eczarsa-goel Seul Ligt?

Does the sun create light?

Fjötar goel Ligt eczlet?

Is yellow light made?

Numerical SystemEdit

Xynder counts in base 10 though has components of base 20 in the number system.

Cardinal NumbersEdit

There are only every irregularities in the first twelve numbers. Numbers 13-20 are partially irregular. Numbers 20-99 are formed using the number for the respective multiple of ten, preceded by the singular number and the word let (and)

Numeral Xynder Abbreviation
0 null
1 on
2 dus
3 hvet
4 kvat
5 pente
6 czicte
7 svepte
8 aske
9 nar
10 tran
11 joel
12 tvil
13 hvetran
14 hvatran
15 pentran
16 czictran
17 sveptran
18 asktran
19 nantran
20

tvyne

21 onlettvyne
30 onhalvtvyn
40 dustvyn
50 dushalvtvyn
60 hvettvyn
70 hvethalvtvyn
80 kvattvyn
90 hvathalvtvyn
100 undra
101 undraleton
110 undralettran
121 undraletonlettvyne
200 dusundra
300 hvetundra
400 hvatundra
500 pentundra
600 czictundra
700 septundra
800 askundra
900 narundra
1,000 tys 1t.
2,000 dustys 2t.
3,000 hvettys 3t.
10,000 trantys 10t.
20,000 tvyntys 20t.
30,000 onhalvtvyntys 30t.
100,000 undratys 100t.
1 million milnas 1mia.
10 million tranmilmas 10mia.
100 million undramilnas 100mid..
1 billion milliad 1mij.
1 trillion bilnas 1bia.
1 quadrillion billiad 1bid.

Ordinal NumbersEdit

Ordinal numbers are formed by taking the cardinal number and adding the suffix -(e)r

10: tran

10th: traner

Numbers involving the genetive case lose their declension and become a prefix to the initial number:

31: onletonhavltvyne

31st: onletonhavltvyner

As a result of making extremely long words, they are often pronounced separately:

121: undraletonlettvyne

121st: undraletonlettvyner - pronounced undralet-onlettvyner

TranslationsEdit

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